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*  The continuity illusion does not depend on attentonal state: fMRI evidence from illusory vowels.
We investigate whether the neural correlates of the continuity illusion, as measured using fMRI, are modulated by attention. As we have shown previously, when two formants of a synthetic vowel are presented in an alternating pattern, the vowel can be identified if the gaps in each formant are filled with bursts of plausible masking noise, causing the illusory percept of a continuous vowel ("Illusion" condition). When the formant-to-noise ratio is increased so that noise no longer plausibly masks the formants, the formants are heard as interrupted ("Illusion Break" condition) and vowels are not identifiable. A region of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) is sensitive both to intact synthetic vowels (two formants present simultaneously) and to Illusion stimuli, compared to Illusion Break stimuli. Here, we compared these conditions in the presence and absence of attention. We examined fMRI signal for different sound types under three attentional conditions: full attention to the vowels; attention ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:531676
*  Illusion - Wikipedia
Illusion ou Illusions pode referir-se a: Ilusão - em inglês, illusion Ou ainda: Illusion Soft - uma empresa japonesa Illusion (álbum de Faith Hill) Illusion (álbum de Renaissance) Illusions (álbum de Crematory) Illusions (álbum de Sadus) - álbum de thrash metal da banda Sadus de 1988. Illusion (canção ...
  https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illusion
*  The Duncker illusion affects the perception of targets moving in depth | JOV | ARVO Journals
The trajectory of a target moving across a wide-field, coherent motion stimulus is incorrectly perceived as including a directional component opposite to that of the background flow field (Duncker, 1929). This induced motion illusion has been shown to perturb both saccades and hand movements to remembered targets (Zivotofsk et al., 1996; Soechting et al., 2001), and to affect the perceived initial position of a target (Sheth and Shimojo, 2000). Since, to our knowledge, all previous studies had investigated the Duncker illusion for stimuli during frontoparallel motion, we investigated the effect of this illusion on targets moving in depth.. Experiments were conducted to quantify the illusion strength, and to determine the effect of flow field speed. Using stereo shutter glasses five subjects viewed dichoptic images on a monitor. A vertically moving flow field was presented in the plane of the screen while targets moved in depth over a range of ±2 of disparity, with a vertical component that ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2129982
*  Frontiers | Information processing correlates of a size-contrast illusion | Psychology
Perception is often influenced by context. A well-known class of perceptual context effects is perceptual contrast illusions, in which proximate stimulus regions interact to alter the perception of various stimulus attributes, such as perceived brightness, color and size. Although the phenomenal reality of contrast effects is well documented, in many cases the connection between these illusions and how information is processed by perceptual systems is not well understood. Here, we use noise as a tool to explore the information processing correlates of one such contrast effect: the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. In this illusion, the perceived size of a central dot is significantly altered by the sizes of a set of surrounding dots, such that the presence of larger surrounding dots tends to reduce the perceived size of the central dot (and vise-versa). In our experiments, we first replicated previous results that have demonstrated the subjective reality of the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00142/full
*  hypnosis. illusion
Barack - Grand Magician. World War Real - Part I. And from Misinformation onto Illusion…. Think on this - Illusion. Ultimately, much of what we understand to be "information," may, in fact, be misinformation. Information creates our own personal illusions about reality. These illusions may be personal or social. And, naturally, personal understanding affects an individual's social understanding. Much like the North versus South conflict previously discussed, the conflict itself acts as a misinformation indicator. The most heated conflicts in human interaction have political and/or religious roots.. First, let's explore events of mass illusion. The year was 1979, and Joe Newman presented free energy to the world with his latest "energy machine" design. Scientists scoffed while he quickly gained popularity and reached stardom. Despite all of the sophisticated reason scientists threw at it, people cheered Newman on. People simply wanted to believe - and, well, they did. Joe ...
  https://enterthecatalyst.wordpress.com/tag/hypnosis-illusion/
*  Quantifying and modeling the strength of motion illusions perceived in static patterns | JOV | ARVO Journals
In an attempt to assess the importance of gaze stability, in previous work (Zanker, Doyle, & Walker, 2003) we compared measurements of participants' eye movements made while looking at stimuli inspired by Bridget Riley's 'Fall' with the occurrence of illusory motion percepts. This type of stimulus differs from 'Enigma' in that it is composed purely from periodic line patterns, without any superimposed regions of homogeneous color, and consequently the generated motion illusion is restricted to the 'jazzing and shimmering' sensation similar to that seen for the radial line patterns. By contrast, the streaming inside the regions of different color experienced in 'Enigma' is absent-and in this sense Riley stimuli are simpler and therefore provide a useful tool to constrain the investigation of motion illusions in static patterns to a single phenomenon. This difference is particularly relevant because there are indications that the streaming sensation is preserved when the retinal image is ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2121031
*  Re: 3.0.1 beta E : particle Illusion
Re: |b|3.0.1 beta E|/b| - The particle Illusion Community of the World (COW) is designed as a place where particle Illusion users can exchange ideas and comments. Join in the discussions at Creative COW where particle Illusion users exchange ideas in their online home. - particle Illusion Forum
  https://forums.creativecow.net/archivepost/23/466357
*  Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion? - Centro Neuroscienze Cognitive
Agrillo C., Gori S., Beran M.J. (2015). Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion? Animal Cognition. Abstract. During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences in visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception, and to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study, we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects initially were trained to discriminate static versus dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that ...
  http://cnc.unipd.it/do-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-perceive-illusory-motion/
*  The influence of stimulus duration on visual illusions and simple reaction time | JOV | ARVO Journals
Participants usually respond faster to larger objects as compared to smaller objects. In order to perceive an object's size, the brain needs to integrate contextual information such as object distance, an effect elucidated by various visual illusions. Accordingly, the perceived size of identical objects can differentially be altered via depth cues that create differentially perceived object distances. Recently, it has been demonstrated that simple reaction times are modulated by the perceived rather than by the retinal size of an object. This indicates that responses are generated subsequent to distance and retinal size integration. However, the timing aspects of these integration processes are largely unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of stimulus duration on size - distance integration by means of a simple reaction time paradigm. In two experiments we verified the effect that reaction times are susceptible to a variant of the well known Ponzo illusion. In the ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2141726
*  The Illusion Called Medical Journalism: The Deep Secret - TheBreakAway
November 17, 2016. -Some of the greatest illusions are sitting out in the open. They are bypassed for two reasons. People refuse to believe they are illusions, despite the abundant evidence; and the professionals dedicated to upholding the illusions continue their work as if nothing at all has been exposed.. Medical journalists in the mainstream rely completely on studies published in prestigious journals.. This the rock. This is the science.. This is also the source of doctors' authoritarian and arrogant advice to patients.. "Studies show…". Well, that wraps it up. Nothing else to prove. The studies in the journals are the final word.. Medical reporters base their entire careers on these published reports.. But what if higher authorities contradicted all these studies? What if they scrutinized more studies than any reporter or doctor possibly could…and came to a shocking and opposite conclusion?. This very thing has happened. And the conclusions have been ...
  https://thebreakaway.wordpress.com/2016/11/18/the-illusion-called-medical-journalism-the-deep-secret/
*  Ternus illusion - Wikipedia
The Ternus illusion, also commonly referred to as the Ternus Effect is an illusion related to human visual perception involving apparent motion. In a simplified explanation of one form of the illusion, two discs, (referred to here as L for left and C for centre) are shown side by side as the first frame in a sequence of three frames. Next a blank frame is presented for a very short, variable duration. In the final frame, two similar discs (C for centre and R for right) are then shown in a shifted position. Depending on various factors including the time intervals between frames as well as spacing and layout, observers perceive either element motion, in which L appears to move to R while C remains stationary or they report experiencing group motion, in which L and C appear to move together to C and R. Both element motion and group motion can be observed in animated examples to the right in Figures 1 and 2. In 1926 and then again in 1938, the Gestalt psychologist Joseph Ternus observed and defined ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ternus_illusion
*  Sensors | Free Full-Text | Brain Process for Perception of the "Out of the Body" Tactile Illusion for Virtual Object Interaction
Out of the body" tactile illusion refers to the phenomenon in which one can perceive tactility as if emanating from a location external to the body without any stimulator present there. Taking advantage of such a tactile illusion is one way to provide and realize richer interaction feedback without employing and placing actuators directly at all stimulation target points. However, to further explore its potential, it is important to better understand the underlying physiological and neural mechanism. As such, we measured the brain wave patterns during such tactile illusion and mapped out the corresponding brain activation areas. Participants were given stimulations at different levels with the intention to create veridical (i.e., non-illusory) and phantom sensations at different locations along an external hand-held virtual ruler. The experimental data and analysis indicate that both veridical and illusory sensations involve, among others, the parietal lobe, one of the most important components ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/15/4/7913
*  Clustering illusion - Wikipedia
The clustering illusion is the tendency to erroneously consider the inevitable "streaks" or "clusters" arising in small samples from random distributions to be non-random. The illusion is caused by a human tendency to underpredict the amount of variability likely to appear in a small sample of random or semi-random data. Thomas Gilovich, an early author on the subject, argued that the effect occurs for different types of random dispersions, including two-dimensional data such as clusters in the locations of impact of World War II V-1 flying bombs on maps of London; or seeing patterns in stock market price fluctuations over time. Although Londoners developed specific theories about the pattern of impacts within London, a statistical analysis by R. D. Clarke originally published in 1946 showed that the impacts of V-2 rockets on London were a close fit to a random distribution. The clustering illusion is central to the "hot hand fallacy", the first study of which was reported by Gilovich, Robert ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clustering_illusion
*  The Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Illusion
Author(s): Dollery, Brian E & Worthington, Andrew C. 1996 Abstract: This paper examines the empirical analysis of the five main hypotheses subsumed under the generic term fiscal illusion. After placing these hypotheses within a common theoretical framework, the paper attempts to evaluate empirical research into the revenue-complexity hypothesis, the revenue-elasticity hypothesis, the flypaper effect, renter illusion, and debt illusion. Copyright 1996 by Blackwell Publishers Ltd
  https://ideas.repec.org/r/bla/jecsur/v10y1996i3p261-97.html
*  Brick Wall Body Paint Illusion
Take a look at this amazing Brick Wall Body Paint Illusion illusion. Browse and enjoy our huge collection of optical illusions and mind-bending images and videos.
  http://www.moillusions.com/brick-wall-body-paint-illusion/
*  Religious Symbols as An Illusion
Take a look at this amazing Religious Symbols as An Illusion illusion. Browse and enjoy our huge collection of optical illusions and mind-bending images and videos.
  http://www.moillusions.com/religious-symbols-as-an-illusion/
*  Transparent X-Ray Devices... Illusion?
Take a look at this amazing Transparent X-Ray Devices... Illusion? illusion. Browse and enjoy our huge collection of optical illusions and mind-bending images and videos.
  http://www.moillusions.com/transparent-x-ray-devices-illusion/
*  Talk:Visual illusions: An Empirical Explanation - Scholarpedia
The present article derives a fundamental concept of how to approach visual processing strategies in highly developed neuronal systems. It becomes clear that the term "visual illusion" is in itself misleading as it implies that the task imposed on visual sensation is to "re"-present the external world. In this view of course, any deviation from physical references must be interpreted as erroneous computing. Instead, the task the visual system has to solve is to generate and interpret internally meaningful patterns of neuronal activity that enable successful interaction in natural environments. Visual functioning is then guided by selective organization of external input that biological systems are actually confronted with. In this framework, adaptation, stability that preserves flexibility, and prediction, are the essential capacities that have to be acquired throughout ongoing individual learning and evolutionary processes. Besides accumulating empirical information given in environmental ...
  http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Talk:Visual_illusions:_An_Empirical_Explanation
*  Embodiment, lived experience and anorexia: the contribution of phenomenology to a critical therapeutic approach
In this piece we will consider the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty as it relates to critical psychology & also discuss the possibility of its use as a theoretical framework for empirical studies. We will focus specifically on Merleau-Ponty's concepts of perception & embodiment & ask what these may add to perspectives within critical psychology. In terms of these concepts, Merleau-Ponty offers a radically different view of perception from that which is common in mainstream psychology, along with a radically different view of human embodiment. Given this, we believe that many of his ideas are important for critical psychology & could give it an alternative direction. Phenomenological perspectives are also of use in critical, empirical studies, & here we use the concepts of perception & embodiment to reassess the literature on anorexia nervosa. It is our contention that these concepts allow us to rethink the embodied nature of anorexia, particularly in terms of the way that the body is conceptualised ...
  http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/6437
*  COMBINED MODALITY TREATEMENT SYSTEMS, METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR BODY CONTOURING APPLICATIONS - Patent application
0090] The method 300 can also include delivering radiofrequency (RF) energy to the target region at a frequency sufficient selectively to heat fibrous septae in a subcutaneous layer of the target region (block 304). In some embodiments, the RF energy may be monopolar while in other embodiments it may be bipolar. In some embodiments, the RF energy may be capacitively coupled while in other embodiments it may be conductively coupled. In one embodiment, the RF energy can be delivered at a frequency of about 0.3 MHz to about 6 MHz. In other embodiments, the RF energy can be delivered at a frequency of between about 0.3 MHz to about 100 MHz or higher while in still other embodiments such RF energy can be delivered at a frequency of between about 0.3 MHz to about 40 MHz. In some embodiments, selective heating of the fibrous septae can include heating the fibrous septae to a final temperature less than a fibrous septae denaturation temperature (e.g., about 60° C.). For example, selective heating of ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120022518
*  SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ANESTHETIZING EAR TISSUE - Patent application
0061] The electrode tip 228 is shown as a cylindrical shaped metal mass, however in alternative embodiments the electrode tip 228 can have different configurations to increase surface area and promote iontophoresis. For example, a plurality of silver wires configured similarly to a brush can be used. In another embodiment, a plurality of concentric hypotubes with staggered diameters can be used. In another embodiment, a sliver mesh mass configured similarly to steel wool can be used. In another embodiment, a molded polymer matrix plug with a relatively large surface area (e.g., sponge like) and a gold or silver plating or deposition can be used. In another embodiment, a metal-coated woven fabric can be used, with or without an outer insulator depending on size. In another embodiment, a cylindrical body with an internal and distally exposed honeycomb can be used. In another embodiment, a silver foil coil can be used. In another embodiment, a recessed plug sized (i.e., smaller diameter) such that ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130197426
*  COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR THE INHIBITION OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION - Patent application
0049] The pharmaceutical composition may be administered daily or administered on an as needed basis. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is administered to the subject prior to bedtime. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is administered immediately before bedtime. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is administered within about two hours before bedtime, preferably within about one hour before bedtime. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered about two hours before bedtime. In a further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered at least two hours before bedtime. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered about one hour before bedtime. In a further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered at least one hour before bedtime. In a still further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered less than one hour before bedtime. In still another ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120010294
*  A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja: A Comparative Study in Divine Embodiment - Oxford Scholarship
This book is a comparative study exploring the writings of an Indian Christian theologian named Ayadurai Jesudason Appasamy (1891-1975) and his comparative theological interaction with the twelfth-century Śrivaiṣṇava reformer, Rāmānuja. The doctrinal focus is Appasamy's four-fold Johannine application of the 'Body of God' analogy-the 'Universe', 'Incarnation', 'Eucharist', and 'Church' being his four divine embodiments. Critics in Appasamy's day described his theological project as 'bold heresies', a 'synthesis of Christianity and Vedānta' that has 'shifted the axis' from Christianity to 'Hindu religion'. By reading Appasamy in the context of his devotional tradition, however, this study demonstrates that his application of the embodiment analogy is rooted, rather, in the sacramental theology of early twentieth-century Anglicanism. His embodiment theology, in fact, closely reflects the theological developments that took place in Anglican scholarship between the time of Charles Gore and William
  http://oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198791416.001.0001/acprof-9780198791416?rskey=ScEqfu&result=1
*  A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja: A Comparative Study in Divine Embodiment - Oxford Scholarship
This book is a comparative study exploring the writings of an Indian Christian theologian named Ayadurai Jesudason Appasamy (1891-1975) and his comparative theological interaction with the twelfth-century Śrivaiṣṇava reformer, Rāmānuja. The doctrinal focus is Appasamy's four-fold Johannine application of the 'Body of God' analogy-the 'Universe', 'Incarnation', 'Eucharist', and 'Church' being his four divine embodiments. Critics in Appasamy's day described his theological project as 'bold heresies', a 'synthesis of Christianity and Vedānta' that has 'shifted the axis' from Christianity to 'Hindu religion'. By reading Appasamy in the context of his devotional tradition, however, this study demonstrates that his application of the embodiment analogy is rooted, rather, in the sacramental theology of early twentieth-century Anglicanism. His embodiment theology, in fact, closely reflects the theological developments that took place in Anglican scholarship between the time of Charles Gore and William
  http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198791416.001.0001/acprof-9780198791416?rskey=Dj9wt7&result=4
*  A. J. Appasamy and his Reading of Rāmānuja: A Comparative Study in Divine Embodiment - Oxford Scholarship
This book is a comparative study exploring the writings of an Indian Christian theologian named Ayadurai Jesudason Appasamy (1891-1975) and his comparative theological interaction with the twelfth-century Śrivaiṣṇava reformer, Rāmānuja. The doctrinal focus is Appasamy's four-fold Johannine application of the 'Body of God' analogy-the 'Universe', 'Incarnation', 'Eucharist', and 'Church' being his four divine embodiments. Critics in Appasamy's day described his theological project as 'bold heresies', a 'synthesis of Christianity and Vedānta' that has 'shifted the axis' from Christianity to 'Hindu religion'. By reading Appasamy in the context of his devotional tradition, however, this study demonstrates that his application of the embodiment analogy is rooted, rather, in the sacramental theology of early twentieth-century Anglicanism. His embodiment theology, in fact, closely reflects the theological developments that took place in Anglican scholarship between the time of Charles Gore and William
  http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198791416.001.0001/acprof-9780198791416?rskey=XomaQV&result=8