Loading...


*  Method for removing soot from exhaust gases (Patent) | DOepatents
When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium andmore » magnesium oxide particles, which ... A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases ... A continuous catalytic fused salt extraction process is described for removing sulfur oxides from gaseous streams. The gaseous ... Method for removing sulfur oxide from waste gases and recovering elemental sulfur ...
  https://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1417341
*  US8926913B2 - Particulate filter with low soot loaded coating - Google Patents
Particulate matter is trapped in the walls of the filter and the catalytic material removes gases, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx ... A ceramic particulate filter having a porous catalytic material deposited on walls within the filter. ... Particles 155 such as, for example, soot particles found in diesel exhaust, therefore remain in inlet channels 110 or trapped ... Water falling, for example, can be used to deposit catalytic layer in slurry form if ceramic substrate 200 is in an upside-down ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US8926913B2/en
*  Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 46, 1989)
The particles present in diesel engine exhaust are composed mainly of elemental carbon, adsorbed organic material and traces of ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides as well as low molecular weight hydrocarbons and their derivatives are also formed. ... Three studies in which rats and Syrian hamsters were exposed to diesel engine exhaust from which soot particles had been ... Gasoline engines without catalytic converters and diesel engines of similar power output produce similar quantities of ...
  http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol46/46-01.html
*  Catalytic converter - Wikipedia
... nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) emissions and others focusing on particulate (soot) emissions. This regulatory diversity is ... Diesel exhaust contains relatively high levels of particulate matter (soot), consisting largely of elemental carbon. Catalytic ... and water (H2O). In 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by "three-way" converters that also reduce oxides ... The coat must retain its surface area and prevent sintering of the catalytic metal particles even at high temperatures (1000 °C ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter
*  Patent US5491120 - Oxidation catalyst with bulk ceria, a second bulk metal oxide, and platinum - Google Patents
Optionally, one of platinum or palladium metal may be dispersed on the catalytic material provided that the platinum, when used ... g and consisting essentially of a combination of bulk ceria and a bulk second metal oxide which may be one or more of titania, ... second metal oxide and optional activated alumina may be mixed together or provided as discrete layers. ... Oxidation catalyst compositions include a catalytic material having a BET surface area of at least about 10 m2 / ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5491120?dq=6004266
*  Diesel exhaust - Wikipedia
... into the exhaust of a diesel engine to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) into gaseous nitrogen and water. SNCR systems have been ... and nitrogen ... The health risks lie in the small, invisible or poorly visible particles ... carbon (EC) core of diesel soot ... While total nitrogen oxides from petrol cars have decreased by around 96% through adoption of exhaust catalytic converters as ... Elemental carbon attributable to traffic was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 and persistent wheezing at age 3 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_exhaust
*  US5152976A - Process for producing high purity hydrogen - Google Patents
Impurities present in the raw gas mixture typically include nitrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, and water. ... C01B2203/1011-Packed bed of catalytic structures, e.g. particles, packing elements ... Furthermore, due to the low H2 content and the high N2 and carbon oxides content of refinery offgas, it is difficult to recover ... Elemental sulphur can be produced in any known manner; oxidation processes, such as the Claus system, are generally preferred. ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US5152976A/en
*  Combustion - Wikipedia
... necessarily producing nitrogen oxide emissions. Both the United States and European Union enforce limits to vehicle nitrogen ... nitrogen}{18.87{\ce {N2}}}}{\ce {->{\underset {carbon\ dioxide}{3CO2}}+{\underset {water}{4H2O}}}}+{\underset {nitrogen}{18.87 ... Further improvements are achievable by catalytic after-burning devices (such as catalytic converters) or by the simple partial ... The three elemental balance equations are: Carbon: a + b = 3 {\displaystyle a+b=3} Hydrogen: 2 c + 2 d = 8 {\displaystyle 2c+2d ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion
*  Alternative Transport Fuels - Courtesy of AIP
Under combustion, methanol produces neither soot particles nor sulphur oxides. It also yields less nitrogen oxides than any ... Exhaust emissions from petrol-driven cars include, in addition to CO2 and water vapour, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and CO. ... In older cars without catalytic converters, non-methane hydrocarbon, CO and nitrogen oxides in exhausts from CNG-fuelled cars ... as well as sulphur and nitrogen. Its elemental composition is fairly constant:. *Carbon -- 83 to 87% ...
  http://www.world-petroleum.org/technology/202-alternative-transport-fuels-courtesy-of-aip
*  Carbon nanotube - Wikipedia
NIST SRM 2483 is a soot of single-wall carbon nanotubes used as a reference material for elemental analysis, and was ... Filamentous carbon Graphene oxide paper List of software for nanostructures modeling Molecular modelling Nanoflower Nitrogen- ... A substrate (quartz, silicon, stainless steel, etc.) is coated with a catalytic metal (Fe, Co, Ni) layer. Typically that layer ... Early scientific studies have indicated that some of these nanoscale particles may pose a greater health risk than the larger ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanotube
*  Black carbon - Wikipedia
He notes, however, "that the elimination of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides would also eliminate some cooling particles, ... Novakov, T.; Chang, S.G.; Harker, A.B. (1974). "Sulfates as pollution particulates:Catalytic formationon carbon(soot) particles ... The term black carbon is used as a synonym for both the elemental and graphitic component of soot. It can be measured using ... which threatens fresh water supplies and food security in China and India. A general darkening trend in the mid-Himalaya ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_carbon
*  Tungsten - Wikipedia
These catalysts convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) using ammonia (NH3). The tungsten oxide helps ... Tungsten oxide (WO3) is incorporated into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts found in coal-fired power plants. ... Because it retains its strength at high temperatures and has a high melting point, elemental tungsten is used in many high- ... material to hold the WC particles in place. This type of industrial use accounts for about 60% of current tungsten consumption ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungsten
*  Glossary of Terms
Nitrous Oxide. A chemical compound made up of nitrogen and oxygen, N2O. It is a liquid that turns into a gas when injected into ... When water and silt particles co-exist in a fluid containing long-chain molecules, the tendency for valves to undergo ... Catalytic Converter. An integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons ... It is a transformation process in which the metal passes from its elemental form to a combined (or compound) form. ...
  http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Glossary
*  Carbon - Wikipedia
... and will rob oxygen from metal oxides to leave the elemental metal. This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel ... Dissolved in water, it forms carbonic acid (H 2CO 3), but as most compounds with multiple single-bonded oxygens on a single ... With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulfur also it forms antibiotics, amino acids, and rubber products. ... It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoal, lampblack (soot) and activated carbon. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles4. The ... hot water extractable and hot water residual components, respectively). Challenges lie in maintaining proper temperature, ... The catalytic efficiency or specificity of an enzyme is best characterized by the ratio of the kinetic constants, kcat/KM. In ... This method can be utilized to measure landscape-based flux of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, and to estimate ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/25951328/annual-carbon-emissions-from-deforestation-amazon-basin-between-2000
*  AIR POLLUTION FAQS - Frequently asked questions about air pollution
The same particles which are linked to serious health effects [sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon, soot (elemental carbon), and ... A: Combustion of fuels can cause the release of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate ... Engines with catalytic converters (e.g., passenger cars) emit much less HC, CO, NOx, and toxics than similar engines without ... The specific effects and their severity depends on several factors, including soil and surface water chemistry, the amount of ...
  http://www.ehso.com/ehshome/airpollutionfaqs.php
*  US4883647A - Use of manganese nodules or deep-sea ores containing manganese for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust...
... of catalysts for the reduction of NO x components in exhaust gases or for the oxidation of NO x components and SO 2 particles ... Simultaneous catalytic removal of NOχ and diesel soot particulates over ternary AB2O4 spinel-type oxides. ... whereupon the nitrogen oxide reacts with the ammonia, forming nitrogen and water at temperatures of generally 350° C. to 550° C ... Process for recovering elemental sulfur by selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide US5846507A (en) 1998-12-08. Fe1-x O-based ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US4883647?oq=7%2C550%2C386
*  Graphene production techniques - Wikipedia
One-Step Fabrication and Nitrogen Doping of Holey Graphene Oxide for Catalytic Applications". Small. 11: 3358-3368. doi:10.1002 ... The heat decomposed the oil into elemental carbon that deposited on nickel foil as single/few-layer graphene. Graphene oxide ... Graphite particles can be corroded in molten salts to form a variety of carbon nanostructures including graphene. Hydrogen ... The graphene sheets are adsorbed to the high energy interface between the heptane and the water, where they are kept from ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene_production_techniques
*  Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks |...
ultra fine particles. BC: black carbon. NO2 : nitrogen dioxide. NOx: oxides of nitrogen ... BC (or "soot carbon") is an impure form of elemental carbon that has a graphite-like structure. It is the major light-absorbing ... Self-report was used to control for numerous confounders, including tobacco smoke, SES, gas stoves, mildew, water damage, ... and the fraction of vehicles that have catalytic converters. These factors will influence the kinds and amounts of pollutants ...
  https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-069X-6-23
*  US5883138A - Rapid injection catalytic partial oxidation process and apparatus for producing synthesis gas (law 562) -...
... at a plurality of mixing nozzles which are open to the catalytic partial oxidation reaction zone of a reactor and are uniformly ... into a reaction zone comprising a catalytic partial oxidation zone so that the gaseous premix reacts in the presence of the ... Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons US6471937B1 (en) * 1998-09-04. 2002-10-29. ... including the refractory oxides, such as silica, alumina, titania, zirconia and mixtures thereof. Mixed refractory oxides, ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US5883138A/en
*  Resetting Oil Analysis Parameters for Changing Diesel Engines
Also, while soot load may be high and well-dispersed, in one case contaminants like water and glycol can disrupt dispersancy, ... The CAA regulations have focused on two emission components: nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). NOx levels ... PM emissions by contrast are made up of tiny suspended particles, such as soot, hydrocarbons and sulfates, all of which are by- ... Heat, pressure and catalytic materials accelerate the oxidation process. By-products of oxidation form lacquer deposits, ...
  http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/561/oil-analysis-diesel-engine
*  Patente US6033456 - Integration of partial oxidation process and direct reduction reaction process - Google Patentes
A typical catalytic water-gas shift conversion zone is described in coassigned U.S. Pat. No. 4,052,176, which is incorporated ... contacted with feed material in the direct reduction reactor to effect reduction of the iron oxide therein to produce elemental ... The syngas stream 8 is water-scrubbed in soot scrubber 16, which removes substantially all entrained particulates, alkali ... Other temperature moderators include water, CO2 -rich gas, nitrogen, and recycled synthesis gas. ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US6033456
*  US3574530A - Method of removing sulfur dioxide from waste gases - Google Patents
AND THE REMAINING PORTION BEING CONVERTED TO ELEMENTAL EARTH OR SULFUR DIOXIDE. THE SOLIDS COMPRISING ALKALINE EARTH METAL ... BY TREATMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE-CONTAINING GASES OR SULFATE-CONTAINING WATERS WITH ALKALINE EARTH METAL CARBONATE OR OXIDE. ... ANY WATER INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES ORIGINALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE METAL SULFIDE REMAINING SUSPENDED IN THE AQUEOUS MEDIUM. THE ... residual air or nitrogen, etc., and having solid particles of ash, soot, dirt and the like, suspended therein. The solid ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US3574530A/en
*  Publications | Page 2 | Health Effects Institute
... ambient particles (Ottawa dust), ambient particles that had been washed in water to remove soluble components, diesel soot, or ... Nitrogen Oxides. Nitrogen dioxide is a ubiquitous air pollutant resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Indoor levels of ... They also studied the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter on emissions from a heavy-duty 1991 diesel engine using a low ... elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate, was evaluated in two locations with different PM composition. Baltimore, ...
  https://www.healtheffects.org/recent-publications?items_per_page=100&page=1
*  Oops They Did It Again! Carbon Nanotubes Hoax Scientists in Viability Assays - PDF
Elemental composition was determined following air exposure. Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen compositions were ... This appears to be essentially transferred to the nanotube soot, as is the overall metal content. The soot is somewhat richer ... Particles were prepared as for use in the experiment and spotted on 75-mesh Formvar-coated copper grids and observed with a ... MTT assay, water-soluble and can be photometrically quantified at 450 nm. When applying SWCNTs to human cells in culture, no ...
  http://docplayer.net/392163-Oops-they-did-it-again-carbon-nanotubes-hoax-scientists-in-viability-assays.html