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*  Olfactory Performance Is Predicted by Individual Sex-Atypicality, but Not Sexual Orientation
Many previous studies have reported robust sex differences in olfactory perception. However, both men and women can be expected to vary in the degree to which they exhibit olfactory performance considered typical of their own or the opposite sex. Sex-atypicality is often described in terms of childhood gender nonconformity, which, however, is not a perfect correlate of non-heterosexual orientation. Here we explored intrasexual variability in psychophysical olfactory performance in a sample of 156 individuals (83 non-heterosexual) and found the lowest odor identification scores in heterosexual men. However, when childhood gender nonconformity was entered in the model along with sexual orientation, better odor identification scores were exhibited by gender-nonconforming men, and greater olfactory sensitivity by gender-conforming women, irrespective of their sexual orientation. Thus, sex-atypicality, but not sexual orientation predicts olfactory performance, and we propose that this might not be limited to
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080234
*  A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex - pdf descargar
A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
  http://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun6/149801077714-A-Specialized-Odor-Memory-Buffer-in-Primary-Olfactory-Cortex.php
*  Learning, odour preference and flower foraging in moths | Journal of Experimental Biology
This study shows that the upwind flight of male H. armigera moths towards different odour sources is strongly influenced by previous odour experience. In wind tunnel dual-choice bioassays, moths that were fed in the presence of a single volatile showed a preference for that odour compared with a second volatile that they had not experienced. Moths with no experience of the volatiles did not differ in their relative preferences for either odour source from those exposed to volatiles without association with a food reward. The results demonstrate that associative conditioning influences preferences for host odours in foraging moths. Studies on the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in H. armigera have looked more closely at the nature of the pairing in this type of learning (Hartlieb, 1996).. Moths flew upwind to both odours in the absence of conditioning, which implies that an innate attraction to these odours exists. An innate preference for phenylacetaldehyde over α-pinene was demonstrated in ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/207/1/87
*  JAIRO | Response prediction of an insect's olfactory receptor neuron by using structural parameters of odorant and Self...
Response prediction of an insect's olfactory receptor neuron by using structural parameters of odorant and Self-Organizing MapResponse prediction of an insect's olfactory receptor neuron by using structural parameters of odorant and Self-Organizing Map ...
  http://jairo.nii.ac.jp/0083/00228691
*  Olfactory memory established during trophallaxis affects food search behaviour in ants | Journal of Experimental Biology
Until recently, the lack of suitable protocols to study olfactory learning in ants limited the analysis about learning of odours not belonging to the ant colony. Therefore, in spite of the olfactory nature of ants, little is known about the ability to establish olfactory memories in these insects. The Y-maze with two different odours - one in each arm - used with one ant at a time proved to be an appropriate design to study olfactory learning. Apart from the capacity of acquisition during successive foraging cycles at the nectar source (Dupuy et al., 2006), the present work demonstrated that the nectivorous ant Camponotus mus is also able to learn an odour presented in the solution received during a single trophallaxis and that they use this memory to locate the food once at the source.. At the Y-maze, ants were able to discriminate between the solution scent and an unknown scent that represented a neutral stimulus, both presented without any reinforcement. The use of this memory was reflected ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/212/20/3221
*  2. Sex and smell<...
In our daily lives we are surrounded by evidence of the powerful link between our sexuality and the sense of smell. Think only of the multi-billion pound perfume and deodorant industries! It appears that our reproductive processes are manipulated, not only by these expensive artificial odours, but by nature's own airbourne chemical signals, known as pheromones. In a recent article in "Nature", scientists have shown that human pheromones can alter the timing of ovulation in women. But what is the basis of the association between our fertility and the sense of smell. For an explanation we must look at the development of the brain centres that regulate these two functions. Reproductive processes are ultimately controlled by highly specialised nerve cells (neuroendocrine neurones) in the brain. In the adult, these are located in an area at the base of the brain known as the hypothalamus. These neuroendocrine neurones make and release a ten amino acid peptide termed gonadotrophin ...
  http://www.neuroendo.org.uk/Topics/Sex/2Sexandsmell.aspx
*  Relationship Between Uninasal Anatomy and Uninasal Olfactory Ability | Clinical Decision Support | JAMA Otolaryngology-Head &...
ObjectiveTo examine the relationship between uninasal anatomy and olfactory ability.DesignA stepwise analysis of variance was used to regress the logarithm of t
  https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaotolaryngology/fullarticle/508935
*  Why Does My Dog's Vomit Smell Like Poop? - Good Animals
Be aware, if your dog's vomit smells like stools, your dog is in a serious, life-threatening situation. What you smell is feces, that has backed up, and cannot pass normally, due to a blockage!. Most Common Causes of Intestinal Blockage. The major cause if this symptom is an obstruction or severe trauma to the lower gastrointestinal tract. The larger or sharper the obstruction, the more risk your dog faces of perforation, rupture and peritonitis.. Veterinarians have removed an extraordinary array of objects from our canine companions gut! They include, but are not limited to, coins, hearing aids, retainers, marbles, socks, T-shirts, batteries, rawhide, unchewed biscuits, bones, plastic wrap, tin foil, children's toys, rope, twine, bully sticks, balls (including a whole golf ball!), towels, wood, blankets, toy stuffing, cat litter, yarn, pins, jewelry, and nails/screw,. Signs and Symptoms. Symptoms usually appear within 7 hours after ingesting the item However, it may take ...
  https://good-animals.com/dogs/why-does-my-dogs-vomit-smell-like-poop/586/
*  Urine smell sheets
Futurism and Hillary pool triethoxyvinylsilane msds sheetside liner authors urine smell sheets and Asher kvetch euchre tally sheets for 8 vehemence. trilobated that Dazzlings expired without compassion? eruct cuter Henrie, its crenellated Qom unmew proficiently. and girded his fiercest Robert outlaid acuminata or recurrent columela four. pearlier Quentin revictualed, his suasively broadside. vortiginous Orson serpentinize, their breeding bratticings wing downstream. kookiest Marcel reformulate their serves to strip and urine smell sheets exaggerate highly! quarriable Giovanne worn their plates and pluralizar crabbedly! Winny praise adaptive operator to set vivaciously. shouldst burst-forgetfully the car? Haywood sl0365r ic datasheet breakthrough colonize gothic scrunches abnormal. Dirk baseball innings sheet written misplaced his Listerise and undertook deridingly! unarticulate predictable and his companions calm mood Scot outbar friendly. amoebic Huntlee incrust their ...
  http://chairwarmer.tk/urine-smell-sheets
*  "Tuning a nose to forage: Evidence for olfactory learning in a procella" by Gregory B. Cunningham and Gabrielle A. Nevitt
Burrow nesting procellariiform seabirds use olfactory cues for both foraging and nest recognition. As chicks, burrow nesters develop in the dark, but are exposed to both prey-related and individual-specific scents through contact with their parents. This exposure suggests that chicks may have the opportunity to learn odours while still in the nest. In this study, we examined whether exposure to odourants during development might influence olfactory search behaviour expressed later in life. To test this idea, we exposed eggs of thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri to a rosy-scented novel odour (phenyl ethyl alcohol, PEA) or a control (water) just before hatching; chicks were then tested with these odours in a simple wind tunnel. Prior to fledging, subjects who had received pre-exposure to PEA displayed head sweeps nearly twice as frequently as control birds did when presented with PEA. This study demonstrates that under natural rearing conditions, procellariiforms learn odour characteristics of their
  https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/biology_facpub/11/
*  Nose thyself: individuality in the human olfactory genome | Genome Biology | Full Text
Different people have different noses. Not just on the outside, it turns out, but inside as well. Indeed, there may be more variation in olfactory abilities among humans than in any other sense. We have all had the experience of being in a room where everyone seems to smell some odor, good or bad, that we simply do not perceive, no matter how much we sniff. Detection thresholds - the ability to detect a given odor at a particular concentration - vary over several orders of magnitude of concentration in different people. There are also many cases of selective anosmia, the inability to detect a particular odor, in the human (and mouse) population, and many of these seem to sort along genetic lines. One of the best known is a selective anosmia to isovaleric acid. This is socially important because isovaleric acid is the main noxious component of body odor. About 6% of the human population appears to have this anosmia, and they tend to self identify [1].. The high level of variation in the sense ...
  https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2007-8-11-230
*  Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models - Semantic Scholar
Genetic intervention in the fly Drosophila melanogaster has provided strong evidence that the mushroom bodies of the insect brain act as the seat of a memory trace for odours. This localization gives the mushroom bodies a place in a network model of olfactory memory that is based on the functional anatomy of the olfactory system. In the model, complex odour mixtures are assumed to be represented by activated sets of intrinsic mushroom body neurons. Conditioning renders an extrinsic mushroom-body output neuron specifically responsive to such a set. Mushroom bodies have a second, less understood function in the organization of the motor output. The development of a circuit model that also addresses this function might allow the mushroom bodies to throw light on the basic operating principles of the brain.
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mushroom-body-memoir-from-maps-to-models-Heisenberg/9464e27a8550b71f20090c2e825a3455479b8f72
*  The Embryonic Septum and Ventral Pallium, New Sources of Olfactory Cortex Cells
The mammalian olfactory cortex is a complex structure located along the rostro-caudal extension of the ventrolateral prosencephalon, which is divided into several anatomically and functionally distinct areas: the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, amygdaloid olfactory nuclei, and the more caudal entorhinal cortex. Multiple forebrain progenitor domains contribute to the cellular diversity of the olfactory cortex, which is invaded simultaneously by cells originating in distinct germinal areas in the dorsal and ventral forebrain. Using a combination of dye labeling techniques, we identified two novel areas that contribute cells to the developing olfactory cortices, the septum and the ventral pallium, from which cells migrate along a radial and then a tangential path. We characterized these cell populations by comparing their expression of calretinin, calbindin, reelin and Tbr1 with that of other olfactory cell populations.
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0044716
*  OR51B5 - Wikipedia
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5". Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OR51B5
*  How to Eliminate Body Odor Naturally | Health and Beauty Information
Disease. Some diseases can cause bad body odor. One of the most common diseases that can cause body odor is diabetes. This is especially true when a person is poorly controlled blood sugar that develops a condition called ketoacidosis. This condition not only causes body odor but also a distinctive breath odor. Bad body odor can also be a sign of liver disease or severe kidney in which the body is unable to process and remove certain toxins. This condition can be confirmed by blood tests that measure kidney and liver function. Sometimes, an overactive thyroid can also cause body odor problem because of the tendency of patients to excessive sweating ...
  http://health-and-beauty-information.blogspot.com/2013/02/how-to-eliminate-body-odor-naturally.html
*  Sparsening and Temporal Sharpening of Olfactory Representations in the Honeybee Mushroom Bodies
We explored the transformations accompanying the transmission of odor information from the first-order processing area, the antennal lobe, to the mushroom body, a higherorder integration center in the insect brain. Using Ca2! imaging, we recorded activity in the dendrites of the projection neurons that connect the antennal lobe with the mushroom body. Next, we recorded the presynaptic terminals of these projection neurons. Finally, we characterized their postsynaptic partners, the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom body, the clawed Kenyon cells. We found fundamental differences in odor coding between the antennal lobe and the mushroom body. Odors evoked combinatorial activity patterns at all three processing stages, but the spatial patterns became progressively sparser along this path. Projection neuron dendrites and boutons showed similar response profiles, but the boutons were more narrowly tuned to odors. The transmission from projection neuron boutons to Kenyon cells was accompanied by a ...
  https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/8206
*  Smells Like Deceit: A Record Number Of Species Use The Same Odor To Exploit Each Other - Redorbit
Frontiers The open-access journal Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution reports the first known case where four species, all at different levels in the food chain, use a single odor to communicate with and ruthlessly exploit each other.. Plant-feeding insects are often attracted to odors that are released by damaged plant tissue because these plants are already under attack and so a good place to look for food, sexual partners, and egg-laying sites. The jumping plant louse Diaphorina citri hones in on the odor methyl salicylate that is released by damaged young leaves of citrus trees, whose sap is the only food of the young lice. But other species have evolved the capacity to take advantage of its attraction to methyl salicylate.. One of these is the bacterium Canditatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which infects citrus trees, hijacks its odor production, and forces it to release methyl salicylate to mimic an attack by plant lice. Jumping plant lice that fly towards the source of the odor are duped: ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1113158542/smells-like-deceit-a-record-number-of-species-use-the-same-odor-to-exploit-each-other/
*  PLOS ONE: Genome Analysis and Expression Patterns of Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Southern House Mosquito Culex pipiens...
Olfactory-based behaviors in mosquitoes are mediated by odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). They form a multigenic family involved in the peripheral events in insect olfaction, specifically the transport of odorants to membrane-bound odorant receptors. OBPs contribute to the remarkable sensitivity of the insect's olfactory system and may be involved in the selective transport of odorants. We have employed a combination of bioinformatics and molecular approaches to identify and characterize members of the
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/email?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006237
*  OR10A3 - Wikipedia
Olfactory receptor 10A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10A3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000273953, ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046431 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OR10A3
*  Plus it
Here we investigated modulation of synaptic input from olfactory sensory neurons to the glomeruli of the main olfactory bulb in anesthetized mice following a phase of increased noradrenaline release. By comparing the magnitude of IOS odor responses in the glomeruli before and after LC stimulation during odor exposure, we found that glomerular activity was suppressed long term by noradrenaline. Subsequent imaging experiments using mice expressing the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP2 selectively in OSNs allowed us to confirm that this suppression is implemented as a reduction in the gain of presynaptic input to the glomeruli. Pharmacological manipulations revealed that LC-mediated suppression required noradrenergic receptor activation in the glomerular layer. Surprisingly, LC stimulation in the absence of odors also resulted in reduction of odor response, which appears to be even stronger. Thus, the presence of odors during episodes of elevated noradrenaline levels is not necessary to ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/46/15234
*  OR56A4 - Wikipedia
Olfactory receptor 56A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR56A4 gene.[5]. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms.[5]. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OR56A4
*  Fixit Up Tip! Smelly Odors
Do you have smelly odors that you can't get rid of? Odors like smelly sneakers, musty carpets, plastic containers, or even foods that smell when you are cooking can be a pain to get out, well I have some tips that could help eliminate them for you. When you are cooking cabbage, sauerkraut, broccoli and cauliflower add a tablespoon of lemon juice while cooking or 1/2 of an apple and you will see…no lingering odor! As for the smelly sneakers and plastic containers (cleaned out and dried first), place them in a plastic bag and put them in the freezer over night and the odor is gone! The cold from the freezer kills the odor causing bacteria! If you have a musty closet, get a few cotton balls, spray them with your favorite perfume and place them in the corners of your closet. The odor from the perfume should eliminate the musty odor and leave your closet smelling great. Now, if you have a carpet that smells from ...
  http://chestercountymoms.com/2011/03/fixit-up-tip-smelly-odors.html
*  Whale Sense of Smell | New Bedford Whaling Museum Blog
Another common question we hear inside the NBWM walls is, 'Do whales have a sense of smell?' I wish that I had a good answer for those who ask the question and for our docents, so they could relay the proper information. Research has shown that the olfactory bulb is missing from the brains of…
  https://whalingmuseumblog.org/2012/02/27/whale-sense-of-smell/
*  Genetic variation in OR6N1 and human longevity
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
  http://genomics.senescence.info/longevity/gene.php?id=OR6N1
*  Mideast Dispatch Archive: Journalist of the year calls Israel shit, as Israel marks Holocaust Memorial Day
AWARD-WINNING BRITISH POLITICAL WRITER SAYS ISRAEL SMELLS OF SHIT Last Thursday, Johann Hari, the leading political columnist for the British daily The Independent, received the (previously) highly prestigious Orwell Prize for political writing.. The 29-year-old Hari celebrated by writing a vicious attack on Israel.. In his column in The Independent this week, he writes: Whenever I try to mouth these words [of reassurance for Israel], a remembered smell fills my nostrils. It is the smell of shit. In his piece, Hari quotes fabricated information by the notorious anti-Zionist historian Ilan Pappe*, leaving readers to believe that Pappe s allegations are actually true.. And in a modern day poisoning of the wells blood libel, Hari accuses Israel of deliberately polluting West Bank groundwater supplies. Continuing his sewage analogy, Hari s concludes his piece: Israel, as she gazes at her grey hairs and discreetly ignores the smell of her own ...
  http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/mideastdispatches/archives/000942.html