*  Burning smell in September likely due to vapours called volatile organic compounds: Masagos - Channel NewsAsia
Tracing the source of fugitive smell is not a straight-forward process but requires time and effort," Mr Masagos said. VOCs are typically released from burning fuel, such as gasoline, wood, coal, or natural gas. They are also emitted from oil and gas fields and diesel exhaust, and from solvents, paints and glues. Many VOCs are commonly used in paint thinners, lacquer thinners, moth repellents, air fresheners, hobby supplies, wood preservatives, aerosol sprays, degreasers, automotive products and dry cleaning fluids.. Ms Sun asked if there is any research done on the effects of persistent low-level exposure to such compounds, as the residents in her ward in Punggol live near Pasir Gudang. Mr Masagos said that no such research is available. AGENCIES PREPARED FOR CHEMICAL GAS ATTACKS: MASAGOS ...
*  Lynne Oland, Ph.D. | Neurosci
Given the many organizational and molecular similarities between the moth and the vertebrate olfactory systems, we expect that insights gained in studying the moth system will be broadly applicable in understanding the role of neuron-glia interactions in the developing vertebrate olfactory system.. Interaction between olfactory axons and peripheral glia during development. In Manduca, the organization of the olfactory nerve closely resembles that in the mammalian olfactory nerve. Glial cells form a network of processes that ensheathe bundles of 60-100 small-diameter axons, as a group. To date, an undergraduate student in the lab, Mounir Koussa (now a graduate student at Harvard Neurobiology), detailed the development of the glial network during the period of olfactory axon ingrowth. The peripheral glial cells arise in the antennal olfactory epithelium and migrate into the nerve just after the outgrowing sensory axons. The glial cells migrate in chains and some divide during the migratory period. ...
*  PLOS ONE: The Anopheles gambiae Odorant Binding Protein 1 (AgamOBP1) Mediates Indole Recognition in the Antennae of Female...
Haematophagous insects are frequently carriers of parasitic diseases, including malaria. The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is thus responsible for thousands of deaths daily. Although the role of olfaction in A. gambiae host detection has been demonstrated, little is known about the combinations of ligands and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) that can produce specific odor-related responses in vivo. We identified a ligand, indole, for an A. gambiae odorant binding protein, AgamOBP1, modeled the interaction in silico and confirmed the interaction using biochemical assays. RNAi-mediated gene silencing coupled with electrophysiological analyses confirmed that AgamOBP1 binds indole in A. gambiae and that the antennal receptor cells do not respond to indole in the absence of AgamOBP1. This case represents the first documented instance of a specific A. gambiae OBP-ligand pairing combination, demonstrates the significance of OBPs in odor recognition, and can
*  Responsiveness of olfactory neurons to distinct aliphatic aldehydes | Journal of Experimental Biology
The responsiveness of isolated olfactory sensory neurons to stimulation with aliphatic aldehydes of varying chain length (5-10 hydrogenated carbon atoms) was investigated by means of Ca(2+)imaging. More than half the cells examined were responsive to aliphatic aldehydes. Individual cells did not react or reacted to one or multiple aldehydes; in the latter case, cells only reacted to aldehydes of consecutive carbon chain lengths. The largest proportion of cells responded to octanal. It was also demonstrated that a structural difference as small as one hydrogenated carbon atom was detectable by the olfactory neurons. Neurons were increasingly able to discriminate between two aldehydes as the difference in chain length between the two increased. Discrimination between aldehydes with longer carbon chains was reduced. Although the odorants examined belong to a distinct chemical class and differ only slightly in structure, individual olfactory sensory neurons showed quite different receptive ...
*  Early synapse formation in developing interneurons of the adult olfactory bulb - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. They receive both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs from olfactory bulb intrinsic neurons and centrifugal afferents. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic of newborn GC synaptogenesis in adult mouse olfactory bulb. First, we established that GABAergic synapses onto mature GC dendrites contain the GABA(A) receptor alpha2 subunit along with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin. Next, we characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically the development of GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs onto newborn GCs labeled with eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) using lentiviral vectors. Already when reaching the GC layer (GCL), at 3 d post-vector injection (dpi), newborn GCs exhibited tiny voltage-dependent sodium currents and received functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, recognized ...
*  Plus it
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the amygdala's influence on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the olfactory system's primary sensory neurons, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice. Although the amygdala does not directly project to the olfactory bulb, joint pharmacological inactivation of the central, basolateral, and lateral nuclei of the amygdala nonetheless strongly suppressed odor-evoked activity in GABAergic inhibitory interneuron populations in the OB. This suppression was prevented by inactivation of LC or pretreatment of the olfactory bulb with broad-spectrum noradrenergic receptor antagonist. Visualization of ...
*  Androstadienol - Wikipedia
Androstadienol, or androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol, is an endogenous steroid, pheromone, and chemical intermediate to several other pheromones that is found in the sweat of both men and women. Androstadienol and androstadienone are odorless compounds secreted by the apocrine glands, and via conversion into the more powerfully-odorous androstenone and androstenol (catalyzed by aerobic corynebacteria, particularly Corynebacterium xerosis, in men, and Micrococcaceae spp. in women), are considered to be mainly responsible for the "musky" component of axillary (underarm) odor. Androstadienol is synthesized from pregnenolone by the 16-ene-synthetase activity of CYP17A1, and is converted into androstadienone by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Male sweat contains approximately five times as much androstenone as does female sweat, which can be explained by sex differences in androstadienol and androstadienone production. Androstadienone, which is produced from androstadienol, has been found to affect brain ...
*  Pheromone mediated modulation of pre-flight warm-up behavior in male moths | Journal of Experimental Biology
Successful reproduction involves the identification and location of a mating partner. In many species, olfactory stimuli comprise the crucial sensory input shaping this behavior. A well-established model for the role of chemicals in long-distance sexual communication is the release of pheromones by females and the pheromone-mediated upwind flight of many male moth species (Mafra-Neto and Cardé, 1995; Vetter and Baker, 1983; Vetter and Baker, 1984; Vickers, 2002; Vickers et al., 1991; Willis and Arbas, 1991; Willis et al., 1991). Male moths have enhanced sensitivity to sex pheromone [e.g. seen in the great feathery antennae of males (Kaissling, 2009)] and are adapted to track and fly within complex odor plumes (Vickers et al., 2001; Wyatt, 2003). Males bear the major costs associated with mate finding, such as energy expenditure and risk (Greenfield, 1981; Thornhill and Alcock, 1983), and are therefore considered to be in a scramble competition in which the strongest flyers as well as the most ...
*  Communication between two neurogenic zones in the adult mouse nervous system
There is ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain which supplies interneurons to the olfactory bulb. There is also continuous neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE) supplying new olfactory sensory neurons whose axons terminate in the olfactory bulb. These axons synapse with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive periglomerular neurons within the olfactory bulb, which are the product of subventricular zone neurogenesis. We hypothesize that focal denervation of the olfactory sensory neurons and thereby lesioning of the presynaptic input to the Type 1 neurons would result in their degeneration, and a subsequent upregulation of subventricular zone neurogenesis. Adult mice (n=26) were treated with methimazole causing the ablation of the OE, and the tissues examined at multiple time-points after treatment. The survival of the olfactory sensory neurons within the OE was assessed together with their terminals within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. The loss of tyrosine ...
*  The Neuropil of the Periglomerular Region of the Olfactory Bulb | Journal of Cell Science
The periglomerular region of the olfactory bulb, apart from containing the somata and stem dendrites of the cells contributing to the glomeruli, is the sole region of distribution of the periglomerular cell thin dendrites and the short-axon cell dendrites. It is also the major site of termination of all axons to the glomerular layer except the olfactory axons - i.e. tufted cell collaterals, periglomerular cell and short-axon cell axons and centrifugal fibres. Its characteristic neuropil has been studied with the electron microscope to define the cells of origin of the types of neuronal process and their synaptic relationships. Three types of axon terminals have been found: those with spherical, large flattened and small flattened vesicles, which are deduced to derive from tufted cell collaterals or centrifugal fibres, periglomerular cell and short axon-cell axons respectively; those with spherical vesicles are consistently associated with asymmetrical membrane thickenings and those with either ...
*  Characterization of CGRP protein expression in "satellite-like" cells and dendritic arbours of the mouse olfactory bulb
The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. Important interactions between OB neurons occur in the external plexiform layer (EPL), where dendrites of tufted and Van Gehuchten cells form synapses with dendrites of deeper lying mitral, tufted, and granule cells. OB neurons display a variety of neurotransmitters. Here, the focus is on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptide transmitter that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the OB, CGRP-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were mostly observed in the mitral cell layer (MCL) of normal mice, and their number increased following colchicine treatment. Sparsely distributed CGRP-ir cell bodies were also found in the EPL and granular cell layer. Double-immunofluorescence experiments revealed a lack of co-localization between CGRP-like immunoreactivity (LI) and corticotropin-releasing factor- or galanin-LI, ...
*  pheromones really affect human behavior - Why People Wear A Particular Cologne Or Perfume
A perfume endorsed by a famous celebrity also creates a significant influence on a would be buyer especially if he or she is a huge fan. But you have to think twice if the perfumes being marketed by these popular stars are worth the money that you will be paying for. If the perfume is of a distinct scent and you don't find others that are of similar smell then it may be worth every penny. On the other hand, if it just turns out to be too ordinary then you may not be getting your money's worth. You have to consider on whether you are purchasing the perfume for its scent or for the name associated with it. Bear in mind that endorsements are not cheap and most likely the cost they spend on marketing and advertising campaigns goes into every bottle of perfume they sell ...
*  Publications - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids 4 days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection. Restoration of olfactory-guided behavior depends on the efficient reinsertion of OSNs to the olfactory bulb. Presynaptic terminals of incipient synaptic contacts generate calcium transients in response to odors, triggering long lasting depolarization of olfactory glomeruli. The functionality of reconnected terminals relies on well-defined readily releasable and cytoplasmic vesicle pools. The continuous growth of non-compartmentalized axonal ...
*  A Look at Pheromone Cologne
Human pheromones don't really have a strong scent. The myth that by applying deodorant, you are covering up your natural pheromones doesn't hold much water. Most people would definitely prefer the smell of deodorant over strong body odor. Technically, pheromones are odorless; they are more or less "detected" by an organ in your nose called the vomeronasal organ. This organ, though more developed in other mammals, sends signals to the brain when pheromones are detected that may say things like, "Whoa, healthy genes at 8 o'clock, let's get his number." At least that's what buyers of these products hope ...
*  The Phytophactor: Cyanide in food plants, naturally!
Your taste buds are a nice simple chemical testing kit. You can measure pH, how acid (sour) to how basic (bitter) something tastes; you can detect salts, soluble carbohydrates (sugars), and to some extent, metallic tastes too. In particular humans have a strong aversion to very bitter tastes, and this is an excellent instinct for avoiding two very common classes of toxic compounds, alkaloids and glycosides. One of the more famous glycosides (a molecule plus a glucose sugar) produces cyanide by combining with water and dissociating after the sugar is removed, and many plants use this compound as a chemical defense mechanism against herbivores. If you have ever read any murder mysteries, a good detective always notices the odor of "bitter almonds", and then declares, "cyanide." Actually it always smells more like rank almonds to me, but it's so hard to describe smells. We eat "sweet" almonds, seed of a close relative of the apricot, peach, and plum, and they are not actually ...
*  Oral Hygiene Tips: How To Fix Receding Gums Naturally - Healthy Living Notebook
Having bad breath can put paid to something romantic, such as an evening with your loved one. It is reasons like this are why you should have it treated immediately. Bad breath (also known as halitosis) can be prevented.. This is done by exercising proper oral hygiene. A routine like this will include cleaning and brush your teeth 3 times a day. Also, flossing twice daily will also help.. It may difficult to having bad breathed as you don't want to offend anyone with your odor. But it can be prevented and cured. You can even make your own self-test to check if you have bad breath. Here are a few tips:. 1.) One of the easiest methods to see if you have bad breath is by licking one of your wrists. Let it dry out for about five seconds. Once your wrist dries, smell it. How what is the verdict? This will give you some indication of how your breath smells when it leaves your mouth.. 2.) If you think that you have bad breath, you will need to up your oral hygiene routine. There is ...
*  Pheromone Dealers | How Perfumes are Made
Aromatherapysmelling oils and fragrances to cure physical and emotional problemsis being revived to help balance hormone and body energy. Animal materials are often used as fixatives that enable perfume to be able to evaporate slowly and emit odors longer. Additional fixatives consist of coal tar, mosses, resins, or synthetic chemicals. Alcohol and sometimes water are used to dilute ingredients in perfumes. The theory behind aromatherapy states that using essential natural oils helps bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. Smelling sweet smells also affects a person's mood and can be used as a form of psychotherapy. Human beings, like other mammals, release pheromones to attract the opposite sex. New scents are being developed to be able to duplicate the effect of pheromones and stimulate sexual arousal receptors in the brain ...
*  Child Abduction: A Theory of Criminal Behavior - Forensic Psych
treatment is usually based in the social learning theory. Another type of treatment mentioned by Brooks-Gordon et al. (2006) that is often used is behavioral intervention, also known as behavior modification or behavior therapy. These interventions include "aversion therapy (exposure to deviant material followed by aversive stimulus), covert sensitisation (imagining deviant sexual experience until arousal and then imagining powerful negative experience), [and] olfactory conditioning (an unpleasant odour is paired with a high-risk sexual situation)" (Brooks-Gordon et al., 2006). One last type of therapy that may be used is psychodynamic therapy which involves insight-oriented or supportive approaches in an individual session. These offender treatments are only one part of the interventions involved in nonfamily abductions. There are also pre-abduction interventions for children that teach children abduction-prevention skills (Johnson, Miltenberger, Knudson, Egemo-Helm, Kelso, Jostad, &Langley, ...
*  Climate change threatens sweet smell of morning coffee | Reuters
Rising temperatures due to climate change could mean wild arabica coffee is extinct in 70 years, posing a risk to the genetic sustainability of one of the world's basic commodities, scientists said.
*  10 topics
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*  Chemical blogspace - Books & Papers details
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs. orco mutations should significantly impact olfaction. We demonstrate striking functions of Orco in odorant perception, reproductive physiology, and social behavior plasticity. Surprisingly, unlike in other insects, loss of OR functionality also dramatically impairs development of the antennal lobe to which ORNs project. Therefore, the development of genetics in Harpegnathos establishes ...
*  Multi-Task Preference Learning with an Application to Hearing-Aid Personalization
Autori: Adriana Birlutiu, Perry Groot and Tom Heskes. Editorial: Elsevier, Neurocomputing, 73, p.1177-1185, 2010.. Rezumat:. We present an EM-algorithm for the problem of learning preferences with semiparametric models derived from Gaussian processes in the context of multi-task learning. We validate our approach on an audiological data set and show that predictive results for sound quality perception of hearing-impaired subjects, in the context of pairwise comparison experiments, can be improved using a hierarchical model.. Cuvinte cheie: preference learning, multi-task learning, hierarchical modeling, Gaussian processes. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925231210000251. ...
*  Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials - Flame retardants
It is the first book ever written on this important subject. Odor of product may decide whether a product is purchased by customer or not. Odor can also be important reason for customer complaints and product return. Many leading companies have recognized this as an opportunity and they actively study and modify odors of their products.
*  Perfume Emporium - Cheap Perfume, Cologne, Skincare, Makeup, Haircare, and Fragrances!
Perfume Emporium sells designer perfume, cologne, fragrances, and skin care at a discount of up to 70% off perfume high street prices. Discount Perfumes at Perfume Emporium.
*  Perfume Emporium - Cheap Perfume, Cologne, Skincare, Makeup, Haircare, and Fragrances!
Perfume Emporium sells designer perfume, cologne, fragrances, and skin care at a discount of up to 70% off perfume high street prices. Discount Perfumes at Perfume Emporium.