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*  Mutation - Wikipedia
Mutations whose effect is to juxtapose previously separate pieces of DNA, potentially bringing together separate genes to form ... For example, a specific 32 base pair deletion in human CCR5 (CCR5-Δ32) confers HIV resistance to homozygotes and delays AIDS ... Changes in chromosome number may involve even larger mutations, where segments of the DNA within chromosomes break and then ... inbred populations. These include: *Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_mutation
*  Archaic human admixture with modern humans - Wikipedia
2017) suggest that the Neanderthal genes observed in certain modern populations in Africa may have been brought from Eurasia ... This is likewise for several genes involved in medical-relevant phenotypes, such as those affecting systemic lupus ... 2011). "An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia". Science. 334 (6052): 94-98. doi:10.1126/ ... with the exchange of one pair of individuals between the two populations in about every 77 generations. This low rate of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_human_admixture_with_modern_humans
*  Ape Chromosome Count to Human Transition (Page 1) - Genes, Genetics and DNA - Ask a Biologist Q&A
First, as I explained above, it isn't the fact that we have one less pair of chromosomes than apes that makes us human. We just ... When those now separate populations adapted to their now distinct environments, they were subjected to different pressures that ... a chromosome rearrangement involving centric fusion of two acro-(telo)centric chromosomes to form a single metacentric, is one ... When a chromosomal fusion occurs in one individual human, they would look no different than any other human. All the same genes ...
  http://www.askabiologist.org.uk/answers/viewtopic.php?pid=9705
*  Glenn-Peter Sætre - CEES - Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis
DNA phylogenetic trees demonstrates evolutionary stable matrilineal inheritance of this nuclear-cytonuclear pair of chromosomes ... Six significant outlier genes in the temporal and spatial comparison (i.e. showing the greatest displacement) have all been ... A separate colonization has happened from mainland Asia to Japan. Our data also indicate that independent immigration events ... Our results emphasize the necessity of incorporating linked selection as a null model to identify genome regions involved in ...
  https://www.mn.uio.no/cees/english/people/core/glennp/index.html
*  Homologous c | definition of homologous c by Medical dictionary
The term monosomy refers to the absence of one of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Monosomy involving an autosome usually ... Human chromosome groups. A-Chromosomes 1-3.. B-Chromosomes 4, 5.. C-Chromosomes 6-12; X chromosome.. D-Chromosomes 13-15.. E- ... the chromosomes of a matching pair in the diploid complement that contain alleles of specific genes. ... Other factors may include the predisposition of chromosomes to nondisjunction (failure to separate during meiosis), exposure to ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/homologous+c
*  Genetic Testing facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Genetic Testing
What is genetic testing, what does it involve, and how is it done? We all have 22 pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair from ... The completion of the Human Genome Project, which has mapped all the genes in the human body, will increase the number of ... It is typically performed between sixteen and eighteen weeks into the pregnancy and involves collecting a small amount of ... To separate the double-stranded DNA, heat or chemicals are used to break the chemical bonds of the DNA and obtain a single ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/genetic-testing
*  Hemoglobinopathies facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Hemoglobinopathies
Since individuals possess a total of four genes for the alpha polypeptide (two genes on each of their two chromosomes 16), ... Recall that the two beta chain alleles occur on different chromosomes. These homologous chromosomes separate during gamete ... Like HbA, fetal hemoglobin contains a pair of alpha chains. But in place of the beta chains, it contains a pair of gamma chains ... In certain populations with a high prevalence of one of the mutations, carrier testing is common. If both members of a couple ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/hemoglobinopathies
*  Biology 2b - Enzymes and genetics - Revision Cards in GCSE Biology
There are 22 matched pairs of chromosomes in every human body cell. The 23rd pair is labelled ** or XY ... 2 populations of same species -, physical barrier separates the populations -, populations adapt to new environments -, ... Meiosis involves two divisions *As with mitosis, before the cell divides it duplicates its DNA ... "Hereditary units" are now known as genes. Genetic disorders:. *Cystic fibrosis - recessive allele - needs 2 recessive alleles ...
  https://getrevising.co.uk/revision-cards/biology_2b_enzymes_and_genetics
*  A major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 controls colitis severity in IL-10-deficient mice | PNAS
Mouse models of colitis offer an avenue for identifying IBD genes or pathways that may lead to identification of the human ... A Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis to Map Genes Involved in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response: Identification of ... Mice were caged in double-pen polycarbonate cages (330-cm2 floor area) and separated by sex at a maximum capacity of five mice ... Both tests must be significant to indicate an additive QTL pair. These secondary tests were carried out at a nominal 0.005 ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/98/24/13820
*  2 The Evidence for Biological Evolution | Science, Evolution, and Creationism | The National Academies Press
... can control different sets of genes in different parts of the body. Hox genes are also involved in the develop- ment of many ... The common ancestor of gorilla A the gorilla, chimpanzee, and human is most likely to have had the nucleotide human ... Rather, they are separate galaxies, each containing many billions of stars. By studying the light emitted by these stars, ... tiple species, researchers have used the result- member of the pair Cells in the salivary glands ing changes in banding ...
  https://www.nap.edu/read/11876/chapter/3
*  Mating in fungi - Wikipedia
Nitrogen starvation appears to be necessary for expression of genes involved in sexual development. The protoperithecium ... A pair of septa forms around the merged tips, enclosing nuclei from both isolates. A second pair of septa forms two adjacent ... The diploid nucleus has 14 chromosomes formed from the two fused haploid nuclei that had 7 chromosomes each. Formation of the ... Additionally, in the human pathogen C. neoformans known to outcross under laboratory conditions, both mating types are not ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mating_in_fungi
*  Polysomy - Wikipedia
Polysomy is usually caused by non-disjunction (the failure of a pair of homologous chromosomes to separate) during meiosis, but ... Human Chromosomes. New York: Springer, 2001. Schmid, M., and Indrajit Nanda. Chromosomes Today, Volume 14. Dordrecht: Kluwer ... Polysomy of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, and 25 are also frequently involved in canine tumors. Chromosome 1 may contain a gene ... Heterochromatin contains a small number of genes and densely staining nodules in or along chromosomes. The mole cricket ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysomy
*  Genetics - Wikipedia
... of chromosomes allows for genes on different chromosomes to assort independently or be separated from their homologous pair ... Ridley, M. (2003). Nature via Nurture: Genes, Experience and What Makes Us Human. Fourth Estate. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84115-745-0. ... A common method for determining how genes and environment ("nature and nurture") contribute to a phenotype involves studying ... often caused by geographical separations that prevent populations from exchanging genes with each other.[84] ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics
*  The value of avian genomics to the conservation of wildlife | BMC Genomics | Full Text
... which have resulted from two separate yet linked evolutionary trajectories. Such results can transform our understanding of ... Our karyotypic analyses of the sparrow in combination with other studies indicate that the rearrangements in both chromosomes ... 2m and 3a are complex and likely involve multiple inversions, interchromosomal linkage, and pleiotropy. At least a portion of ... These sequences are orthologous to human chromosome 7 and six chicken chromosomes. Based on the sequences, a condor-human ...
  https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-10-S2-S10
*  Somatic chromosome | definition of somatic chromosome by Medical dictionary
... has approximately 1100 genes. Y chromosome. The male-determining member of a pair of human chromosomes (XY) present in the ... The term monosomy refers to the absence of one of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Monosomy involving an autosome usually ... Other factors may include the predisposition of chromosomes to nondisjunction (failure to separate during meiosis), exposure to ... producing two and sometimes three populations of cells with different chromosome numbers in the same individual. Mosaicism ...
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/somatic+chromosome
*  Björnstad Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)
Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, and an additional 23rd pair of sex chromosomes which include one X ... Some researchers believe that Björnstad syndrome may be the result of several different genes or combinations of several genes ... Affected Populations. Björnstad syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that was first described in 1965. In theory, it affects ... Hypogonadism may be associated with a recessive form of Bjornstad syndrome that may or may not be a distinct, separate disorder ...
  https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/bjornstad-syndrome/
*  ch 2 Flashcards by Tim Fitz | Brainscape
two forms of same gene, located at same place on both chromosomes in a pair, one from each parent, homo and heterozygous ... measures extent to which individual diff in complex traits in specific populations is due to genetics ... field trying to define contributions of nature and nurture in human traits and abilities ... little culture, teens do more household work, involved in social organizations, work with adults ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/ch-2-1931778/packs/3576374
*  Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats - evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae,...
... with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding ... We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic ... corresponds to conserved MCA chromosomes. In addition, homology to human chromosomes is indicated to the left of each GSO pair ... The chromosomes involved in these shared rearrangements in ACU and LCO are present as individual chromosomes or single syntenic ...
  https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-276
*  Copy-number variation - Wikipedia
... is one of the most well studied genes which has wide range of variable numbers of copies throughout different human populations ... Homologous pairing of chromosomes involved using DNA strands that are highly similar to each other (~97%) and these strands ... During meiotic recombination, homologous chromosomes pair up and form two ended double-stranded breaks leading to Holliday ... lead to environmental advantages allowing those genes to be inherited and eventually clear gene families are separated out. An ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copy-number_variation
*  Transfer RNA genes experience exceptionally elevated mutation rates | PNAS
1, human tRNA loci that are separated into active (E) versus inactive (F) groups show the characteristic differences seen in A- ... 2 E and F). Active tRNAs in human populations also have significantly more low-frequency SNPs per site than inactive tRNAs ... to 20-fold as many tRNA genes encoded in their nuclear chromosomes, which are required for cytosolic protein translation (2, 4 ... To resolve the resulting base-pair mismatch, the opposing guanine is converted to adenine and uracil to thymine, resulting in ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/8996
*  Did sex drive mammal evolution? How one species can become two
The reigning theory is that physically separated populations of one species drift apart gradually. ... In fact, platypus sex chromosomes are related to bird sex chromosomes.. The human XY pair is represented by an ordinary ... The reigning theory is that physically separated populations of one species drift apart gradually. ... Sex chromosomes-why the Y genes matter. May 27, 2015 Several genes have been lost from the Y chromosome in humans and other ...
  https://phys.org/news/2016-07-sex-mammal-evolution-species.html
*  Schistosoma mansoni - Wikipedia
Chromosomes range in size from 18 to 73 MB and can be distinguished by size, shape, and C banding. In 2000, the first BAC ... When they recognise human skin, they penetrate it within a very short time. This occurs in three stages, an initial attachment ... It involves methylene blue-stained cellophane soaked in glycerine or glass slides. A bit costlier technique called formalin- ... "Killer parasites' genes decoded". BBC News. July 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-16. Anna V. Protasio; Isheng J. Tsai; Anne Babbage ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schistosoma_mansoni
*  Patent WO2009132089A2 - A method to identify asian soybean rust resistance quantitative trait loci ... - Google Patents
For example, if locus A has genes "A" or "a" and locus B has genes "B" or "b" and a cross between parent I with AABB and parent ... Backcross populations can be useful for mapping dominant markers if all loci in the recurrent parent are homozygous and the ... However, this procedure is often prohibitive because of the cost and time involved in progeny testing. Progeny testing of F2 ... The resistance allele corresponds to the 35 base pair nucleic acid sequence that includes the polymorphism associated with ASR ...
  http://www.google.com.au/patents/WO2009132089A2?cl=en
*  Sequencing and analysis of an Irish human genome | Genome Biology | Full Text
... a DNA sample from a population of interest due to its relative geographical isolation and genetic impact on further populations ... we extend the above studies through the generation of 11-fold coverage of the first Irish human genome sequence. Using sequence ... we identify gene duplication events as constituting significant targets of recent positive selection in the human lineage. Our ... for future re-sequencing studies and validates the imputation of Irish haplotypes using data from the current Human Genome ...
  https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2010-11-9-r91