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*  A Short History of the Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis of Schizophrenia - News - Schizophrenia Forums
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia has become a paradigm broadly accepted in today's research in schizophrenia and its spectrum.
  http://forum.schizophrenia.com/t/a-short-history-of-the-neurodevelopmental-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia/88403
*  Schizophrenia Research Forum | Schizophrenia International Research Society
The Schizophrenia Research Forum, (SRF) is recognized in the community of researchers in psychiatric disease as a reliable and respected resource for rapid news, discussion and information. Their Mission is to help researchers in their quest for causes, improved treatments, and better understanding of schizophrenia. The Schizophrenia Research Forum has recently launched a monthly podcast. Click here to listen and subscribe.. Visit the Schizophrenia Research Forum website: www.schizophreniaforum.org. ...
  https://schizophreniaresearchsociety.org/publications/schizophrenia-research-forum/
*  Schizophrenia Revealed: From Neurons to Social Interactions - Michael Foster Green - Google Books
In the past ten years, major developments in scientific research have drastically changed the way schizophrenia is viewed. Neuroscience, in particular, has enabled researchers to frame different questions when investigating this illness and we are now coming to a deeper understanding of it.In this much-needed book, Michael Green, an expert in the neurocognition of schizophrenia, presents an integrated overview of schizophrenia covering a wide range of topics in lively, understandable prose. He outlines a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, discusses neurocognitive indicators of genetic vulnerability, the introduction of a new generation of medications, recent findings from brain imaging, cognitive remediation, and the determinants of functional outcome. He presents a modern view of schizophrenia based on neuroscience that goes far beyond the symptoms of the illness.Schizophrenia Revealed gives the ...
  https://books.google.com/books?id=TwHAv5GVONgC&lr=&hl=en
*  Postmortem Studies in Schizophrenia : Schizophrenia Bulletin - oi
The past decade has seen renewed interest in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. The advent of new postmortem techniques and functional imaging, along with a greater understanding of the neuropsychology of schizophrenia, have provided many new clues to the nature of the underlying brain dysfunction in this disorder. There has also been a greater understanding of the presence of severe cognitive dysfunction among many elderly persons with schizophrenia. In this article, a series of investigations are described that seek to answer basic questions about the neuropathology of schizophrenia, in particular as it pertains to cognitive impairment. The first study describes neuropathological findings in 100 consecutively autopsied persons with schizophrenia, the majority of whom had had detailed antemortem assessments. Results from this first study prompted the conclusion that schizophrenia is not characterized by ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033330
*  "Schizophrenia Gene Networks and Pathways and Their Applications for No" by Jingchun Sun, Peilin Jia et al.
Background Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable, complex mental disorder. We have seen limited success in finding causal genes for schizophrenia from numerous conventional studies. Protein interaction network and pathway-based analysis may provide us an alternative and effective approach to investigating the molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected a list of schizophrenia candidate genes (SZGenes) using a multi-dimensional evidence-based approach. The global network properties of proteins encoded by these SZGenes were explored in the context of the human protein interactome while local network properties were investigated by comparing SZ-specific and cancer-specific networks that were extracted from the human interactome. Relative to cancer genes, we observed that SZGenes tend to have an intermediate degree and an intermediate efficiency on a perturbation spreading throughout the human interactome. This ...
  https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/psych_pubs/37/
*  Mechanisms of schizophrenia - Wikipedia
The underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia, a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of the processes of thinking and of emotional responsiveness, are complex. A number of theories attempt to explain the link between altered brain function and schizophrenia, including the dopamine hypothesis and the glutamate hypothesis. These theories are separate from the causes of schizophrenia, which deal with the factors that lead to schizophrenia. The current theories attempt to explain how changes in brain functioning can contribute to symptoms of the disease. The exact pathophysiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. The most commonly supported theories are the dopamine hypothesis and the glutamate hypothesis. More recent theories center around specific dysfunction of interneurons, abnormalities in the immune system, abnormalities in myelination, and oxidative stress. The first formulations of the dopamine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanisms_of_schizophrenia
*  More Smoking Among Families of People with Schizophrenia
Direct family members of people with schizophrenia are more likely to smoke cigarettes compared to individuals with no family history of the disorder, according to a new study.. The researchers also discovered that the smoking family members of schizophrenia patients exhibit stronger signs of nicotine dependence than other smokers.. "Our results provide support for the hypothesis that familial factors increase the prevalence of smoking in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic subjects, who have a 'high genetic risk' of schizophrenia," said Franck Schürhoff and his research team.. "If it can be confirmed that genetic factors make people at risk of schizophrenia more likely to smoke, this would have major implications for our understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia," they added.. The study included 98 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 110 mentally healthy controls with no family ...
  https://psychcentral.com/news/2012/09/02/more-smoking-among-families-of-people-with-schizophrenia/44063.html
*  Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes | Molecular Brain |...
Certain behavioral abnormalities in KO mice of the relevant genes are similar to those observed in patients with psychiatric disorders[25, 26]. mGluR3 KO mice showed hyperactivity and impaired working memory, which have been proposed as schizophrenia endophenotypes[27]. However, mGluR3 KO mice did not manifest other schizophrenia phenotypes such as PPI impairment and attenuated social behavior. Glutamatergic dysfunction due to the loss of mGluR3 is not sufficient to cause behavioral abnormalities related to the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, which may require additional genetic factors and/or environmental factors to establish schizophrenia phenotypes because of the multifactorial background of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In fact, according to polygenic analysis of the results of genome-wide association studies, there may be thousands of common alleles with very small individual effects being involved in the risk ...
  https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-6606-7-31
*  "Genomic copy number variation in schizophrenia" by Danielle Song Rudd
Schizophrenia (OMIM 181500) is an incurable and severe psychiatric disorder comprised of three symptom domains (positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairments) with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 1%. There is a substantial amount of evidence demonstrating that schizophrenia has a strong a genetic component. Broad-sense heritability estimates range from 64-80% and first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients have 10-fold increased risk of developing the disorder compared to the general population. It is thought that both single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to the heritability of schizophrenia. This thesis focuses on the role of CNVs in the etiology of schizophrenia. We performed a genome-wide CNV analysis of 166 schizophrenia patients and 52 psychiatrically healthy controls. In our overall CNV analysis we did not find any significant ...
  http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/4739/
*  Schizophrenia and substance abuse | LTGovernors.com | Information Portal
The most common form of substance abuse in people with schizophrenia is an addiction to nicotine. People with schizophrenia are addicted to nicotine at three times the rate of the general population (75-90 percent vs. 25-30 percent).. Research has revealed that the relationship between smoking and schizophrenia is complex. People with schizophrenia seem to be driven to smoke, and researchers are exploring whether there is a biological basis for this need. In addition to its known health hazards, several studies have found that smoking interferes with the action of antipsychotic drugs. People with schizophrenia who smoke may need higher doses of their medication.. Quitting smoking may be especially difficult for people with schizophrenia since nicotine withdrawal may cause their psychotic symptoms to temporarily get worse. Smoking cessation strategies that include nicotine replacement methods may be better ...
  http://health.ltgovernors.com/mental-health/schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse.html
*  Immune System Activated In Schizophrenia - Redorbit
Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have discovered that patients with recent-onset schizophrenia have higher levels of inflammatory substances in their brains. Their findings offer hope of being able to treat schizophrenia with drugs that affect the immune system.. The causes of schizophrenia are largely unknown, and this hinders the development of effective treatments. One theory is that infections caught early on in life might increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but to date any direct evidence of this has not been forthcoming.. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have now been able to analyze inflammatory substances in the spinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia, instead of, as in previous studies, in the blood. The results show that patients with recent-onset schizophrenia have raised levels of a signal substance called interleukin-1beta, which can be ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1788120/immune_system_activated_in_schizophrenia/
*  Asian Congress of Schizophrenia Research 2017 - Poster presentation
1) World Psychiatric Association (WPA) section on Psychiatric Rehabilitation. 2) Asian Federation of Psychiatric Associations (AFPA) 3) Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists (PRCP). 4) Asian Network of Bipolar Disorder (ANBD). 5) Taiwanese Society of Schizophrenia Research (TSSR). 6) Korean Society for Schizophrenia Research (KSSR). 7) Japanese Society of Schizophrenia Research (JSSR). 8) Center for Alcohol Studies, Thailand. 9) Psychiatric Association of Thailand (PAT). ...
  http://www.acsr2017.com/home/index.php/23-acsr-page/71-poster-presentation
*  Online Family Support and Education for Schizophrenia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Although psychoeducational programs for schizophrenia can reduce patient relapse rates and reduce family distress, participation rates are often low. This study evaluated an online model to provide the families of schizophrenia patients with knowledge of illness management to reduce family burden and increase perceived social support.. Relatives of patients with schizophrenia who received 12 months of customary care with access to the educational website for the first year were compared to matched group of relatives of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia who were receiving customary care and who consented to participate in a family education program. In the education condition, relatives were provided with private, secure access to the website, which features family-to-family chat capabilities, video lectures on the management of schizophrenia, written materials on important issues in schizophrenia ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00046085?term=Internet+%5BALL-FIELDS%5D+AND+NIMH+%5BSPONSOR-COLLABORATORS%5D&rank=7
*  Diet may be part of schizophrenia therapy - Redorbit
A Canadian researcher suggests that some with schizophrenia may be helped by looking at individual biochemistry, nutrient deficiency, diet and allergies. Dr. Abram Hoffer, a psychiatrist in Toronto, said some studies have shown that the predisposition to schizophrenia is inherited, and although there is little one can do about genetic factors that might lead to the onset of schizophrenia, nutritional modifications might help to enhance quality of life and slow down the progression of the disease.. Many people with schizophrenia have low blood sugar -- hypoglycemia -- and allergies, Hoffer said. The most common food allergies found in individuals with schizophrenia are sugars, dairy products and wheat, Hoffer said. Hoffer said he believes orthomolecular treatment is effective in 80 percent or more of schizophrenia patients and is the best treatment developed so far. Orthomolecular practitioners use nutrition ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1651375/diet_may_be_part_of_schizophrenia_therapy/
*  Refining the prediction of risk for schizophrenia: Combining putative genetic and neurodevelopmental measures to predict...
Social anhedonia may be a promising indicator of an underlying genetic liability for schizophrenia. However, among socially anhedonic individuals, only a minority shows schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In attempting to understand who may develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, researchers have hypothesized that schizophrenia may require both genetic risk and the presence of early environmental stressors (e.g., obstetric complications). "Developmental instability," which pertains to such early environmental stressors, refers to an organism's inability to buffer the effects of environmental insults on development, and has been associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. Although one might expect developmental instability to also be elevated in individuals at psychometrically-determined risk for schizophrenia, this hypothesis has not been well-tested. This study examined two related questions using a ...
  http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/1662
*  Add-on Sodium Nitroprusside to Treatment as Usual in Schizophrenia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
In spite of the numerous studies on schizophrenia, its etiology and physiopathology remain unknown. Evidence suggests a possible implication of nitric oxide (NO) in schizophrenia. NO is a gas with unique chemistry and influences the release of neurotransmitters, learning, memory and neurodevelopment. Recent studies that investigated the role of NO in patients with schizophrenia found evidence that points to a disruption in NO-mediated neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we believe that the administration of sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, will ameliorate schizophrenia symptoms ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01548612?view=results
*  Are You Crazy ! Take a Schizophrenia Test ?
Schizophrenia has long endured the fallacy that its diagnosis is equivalent to insanity, or in earlier times, being possessed. However the symptoms of schizophrenia can be difficult to hone in on due to their confusing nature, so in order to ascertain if you are actually a sufferer, it's important to undergo a schizophrenia test. Of course, with technological advances occurring all the time, it has been realised that schizophrenia is actually a mental disorder, which can be treated very successfully with medication, in order to allow the sufferer to live a life relatively free of the standard symptoms of schizophrenia. Unfortunately though, as effective as these treatments may be, there is no known cure for it at present. A schizophrenia test is not a complicated procedure. For the most part, it's a series of multiple choice questions such as "I feel like people are plotting against me" followed by scaled ...
  http://signsofschizophrenia.net/schizophrenia-test.html
*  Improving Adherence to Oral Antipsychotic Medications in People With Schizophrenia - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating mental disorder. People with schizophrenia often experience unusual thoughts or perceptions, decreased pleasure in everyday life, and difficulty functioning in social situations. Antipsychotic medications have been shown to be effective in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia. Poor adherence to medication, however, leads to re-hospitalization, impedes the process of recovery, and contributes to the high costs associated with schizophrenia treatment. Studies have shown that PharmCAT, cognitive adaptive training that specifically targets medication adherence, has been effective in improving adherence and outcomes in people with schizophrenia. The Med-eMonitor™ is a new pill device that is able to alert patients when they should take medication, when they are taking the wrong medication, and when they are taking medication at the wrong time. The device can also record side effect ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00406718
*  Feds approve first adult schizophrenia drug for teens, youth - ScienceBlog.com
The efficacy of Risperdal in the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents was demonstrated in two short-term (6 to 8 weeks), double-blind, controlled trials. All patients were experiencing an acute episode of schizophrenia at the time of enrollment. Treated patients generally had fewer symptoms, including a decrease in hallucinations, delusional thinking, and other symptoms of their illness.. The efficacy of Risperdal in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes in children or adolescents with bipolar I disorder was demonstrated in a three-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in patients who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode. Treated patients generally had fewer symptoms, including a decrease in their elevated mood and hyperactivity, and other symptoms of their illness.. Drowsiness, fatigue, increase in appetite, anxiety, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, tremor, and rash were among the most common side effects reported.. ...
  https://scienceblog.com/14005/feds-approve-first-adult-schizophrenia-drug-for-teens-youth/
*  Ayurvedic & Western approaches to the treatment of Schizophrenia (by Rubén Vega, MA)
The real causes of schizophrenia are unfortunately not known, however, there are several theories and hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Western scientists and psychologists do not yet understand all the factors that produce schizophrenia. An interaction of sociological, biological, and psychological factors seems to contribute to the condition. Schizophrenia also may result from various factors such as drug abuse, aging, and/or brain injuries and diseases. One of the more influential views of the origins of schizophrenia is the theory of biochemical and brain dysfunction. This view attempts to "identify the biological abnormalities that are inherited or developed by persons with schizophrenia. The two most likely candidates are biochemical abnormalities and abnormal brain structure. It also involves disturbances of the brain's chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which in turn distort perceptions ...
  http://www.ayurvedacollege.com/book/export/html/181
*  J Clin Psychiatry/A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Modafinil for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia
Objective: Negative symptoms are core features of schizophrenia that are functionally debilitating, associated with poor outcomes, and resistant to existing pharmacotherapies. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil, a medication approved for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness, to explore its efficacy as an adjunctive therapy for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Method: Twenty subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with modafinil or placebo for 8 weeks. The study ran from March 2002 through March 2006. Outcome measures included the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale, Quality of Life Interview, neurocognitive assessments (California Verbal Learning Test, Degraded Performance-Continuous Performance Test, Trail-Making Test B), and somatic ...
  http://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2007/v68n05/v68n0507.aspx
*  Functional serotonin 1A receptor variant influences treatment response to atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia - Zurich...
The serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor has been found to be dysregulated in prefrontal cortex and other brain regions in schizophrenia, and 5-HT1A receptor levels in the amygdala have been related to negative schizophrenia symptoms. We have assessed the impact of the functional C-1019G variant of the 5-HT1A receptor on the response to risperidone or haloperidol in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Patients were treated for 4 weeks and negative symptoms assessed weekly. The variant influenced the response to risperidone: improvement of negative symptoms by 4.38 points for carriers of the C allele, compared with the GG genotype (1.22 points, P=0.046). In a second independent study of 130 schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, this effect was confirmed (P=0.003). The functional variant of the 5-HT1A receptor thus influences the response of schizophrenia patients to atypical antipsychotics and may be useful in the ...
  http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/5725/
*  Members in the News | Schizophrenia International Research Society
Michael Green, Memory Training Opportunities Exist for Patients With Schizophrenia, August 2017. John Kane, Valbenazine Effective for Tardive Dyskinesia in Schizophrenia, May 2017. Christoph Correll, Adolescents with Schizophrenia Prove Able to Tolerate Lurasidone, May 2017. Henry Nasrallah, Metabolic, Endocrine Profiles Examined in Long-term Schizophrenia Therapy, May 2017. Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Pitt Study Sheds Light on Genetic Link Between Schizophrenia and Arthritis, March 2017. Madhavi Ganapathiraju, Clues to Relationship Between Schizophrenia and Rheumatoid Arthritis, February 2017. Patrick McGorry, What is Taurine and How Can it Improve Psychosis?, November 2016. Ragnar Nesvåg, Cannabis Abuse Triples Risk of Psychosis: Study, November 2016. Larry Seidman, Significant Cognitive Impairment in Those at High Risk of Psychosis, November 2016. Robert Freedman, Can a Prenatal Supplement Prevent Mental ...
  https://schizophreniaresearchsociety.org/publications/members-in-the-news/
*  Neuregulin 1 and schizophrenia: genetics, gene expression, and neurobiology. - Department of Psychiatry
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a leading schizophrenia susceptibility gene. The NRG1 locus on chromosome 8p shows linkage to the disorder, and genetic association has been found between schizophrenia and various non-coding polymorphisms and haplotypes, especially at the 5' end of the NRG1 gene, in many but not all case-control and family studies. NRG1 is a pleiotropic growth factor, important in nervous system development and functioning; roles include the modulation of neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, neuron-glia communication, myelination, and neurotransmission. Understanding the neurobiology of NRG1 and its involvement in schizophrenia is challenged by the complexity of the gene, which gives rise to multiple functionally distinct isoforms, including six 'types' of NRG1 defined by 5' exon usage. Type IV and type I NRG1 may be particularly relevant to schizophrenia, with initial data showing altered expression of these isoforms in ...
  https://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/97902
*  Cancer Mortality Higher in Patients with Schizophrenia
Shocking findings were reported in the August 1st issue of CANCER; cancer patients with schizophrenia possess a mortality rate that is 50% higher than general populations. In fact, cancer in patients with schizophrenia is the second leading cause of death among the group, suicide being the leading cause. According to Frederic Limosin, MD, PhD, of the University of Reims and Robert Debre Hospital in Reims, France, and colleagues, the mortality rate among cancer patients with schizophrenia is nearly four times as high as in general populations. "The continuing cultural stigma associated with schizophrenia can lead to barriers to access to medical care for these patients and may also contribute to diagnostic or treatment delays… It appears essential for psychiatrists to be attentive to the medical care of schizophrenic patients and to evaluate their compliance to therapy for somatic disease," the researchers said. Perhaps cancer patients with ...
  http://www.renewalchristiancare.com/cancer-mortality-higher-in-patients-with-schizophrenia/