*  A mouse model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection produced by coinjection with sand fly saliva. | JEM
To development a reliable murine model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection, parasites were injected into BALB/c mice in the presence of phlebotomine sand fly salivary gland lysates, which have previously been shown to greatly increase the infectivity of L. major in mice. When injected with salivary gland lysates, L. braziliensis braziliensis produced progressively enlarging cutaneous nodules, containing many macrophages filled with Leishmania amastigotes. In contrast, L. braziliensis injected without gland extracts produced small and rapidly regressing lesions. Isoenzyme analysis, monoclonal antibodies, and the polymerase chain reaction with L. braziliensis-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes confirmed that parasites causing the lesions were L. braziliensis. ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/content/173/1/49
*  Neutrophils and Macrophages Cooperate in Host Resistance against Leishmania braziliensis Infection | The Journal of Immunology
Neutrophils, by interacting with monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, through cell-cell contact or secreted products, drive inflammatory responses involved in host defense and tissue repair (7). Neutrophils have been shown to play an active role in the control of infections with specific and distinct pathogens such as Legionella (17), Toxoplasma (27), Mycobacterium (28), Entamoeba (29), Histoplasma (30), and Cryptosporidium (31). BALB/c mice infected in the ear dermis with L. braziliensis develop cutaneous lesions at the site of inoculation and histological analyses of infected ear sections have demonstrated a constant recruitment of neutrophils to the inoculation site (14). Since in this experimental model ear lesions heal spontaneously, we hypothesized that neutrophils exert a protective effect. Data presented herein collectively indicate that live neutrophils play an important yet unresolved role during experimental infection with Lb: in vivo ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/183/12/8088
*  Histopathology of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis: 4. A histopathological...
RESUMO. Os A A. analisaram as alterações histológicas encontradas em 162 casos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar da localidade de Três Braços, Estado da Bahia, dos quais 131 (80,9%) eram de portadores de lesões cutâneas e 31 (19,1%) de portadores de lesões mucosas. Analisaram, também, o comportamento clínico dos cinco padrões histopatológicos, já antes descritos, em relação à terapêutica. O melhor prognóstico esteve sempre ligado ao padrão de Reação Exsudativa e Granulomatosa, ou seja, a uma fase na qual o organismo, tendo lançado mão de um mecanismo endógeno de lise parasitária, já circunscreveu a área de necrose por uma reação granulomatosa, e esta é agora apenas o elemento residual. A ação terapêutica nessa fase somente acelera a resolução natural do caso. O grupo seguinte é amplo, e compreende os casos em que a lesão pertence aos padrões de Reação Exsudativa Celular (formas cutâneas), Reação Exsudativa e Necrótica e Reação Exsudativa e ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46651986000600008&lng=en&nrm=iso
*  Please, sign here! Leishmania braziliensis infection and its microbial signature
With greater or less bacterial diversity, it is clear that this protozoan parasite is contributing to alter the intricacy of this node, which is only another in the big web of life. The essential point is to determine when this interactive web leads to beneficial or harmful events, and how to restore the system when a disequilibrium arises. Here, balance is the key word.. Adeilton Brandão. REFERENCES. Jernberg C, Löfmark S, Edlund C, Jansson JK. Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota. Microbiology. 2010; 156(Pt 11): 3216-23.. Lopes ME, Carneiro MB, dos Santos LM, Vieira LQ. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunol. 2016; 38(1): 37-44.. Raymond F, Ouameur AA, Déraspe M, Iqbal N, Gingras H, Dridi B, et al. The initial state of the human gut microbiome determines its reshaping by antibiotics. ISME J. 2016; 10: 707-20.. Salgado VR, de Queiroz ATL, Sanabani SS, de Oliveira CI, Carvalho EM, Costa JML, et al. The microbiological signature of ...
  http://memorias.ioc.fiocruz.br/recent-posts/106-please-sign-here-leishmania-braziliensis-infection-and-its-microbial-signature
*  Miltefosine in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil: A Randomized and...
Author Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is characterized by skin ulcerations and occurs in rural poor areas of developing countries. It is treated with daily injections of antimony for 20 days, which is associated with irregular use and increasingly lower cure rates. Miltefosine is an oral medication with activity against the agent of CL (Leishmania). We have studied the efficacy and safety of miltefosine compared with antimony in patients with CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Bahia, Brazil. A total of 90 patients participated; 60 received miltefosine and 30 were treated with antimony. Six months after treatment, 75% of patients treated with miltefosine were cured, compared with 53% of the patients in the antimony group, a difference considered significant (p = 0.04). We also found that miltefosine was more effective than antimony in adults than in children. The incidence of side effects was similar with both drugs (76.7% vs. ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000912&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000912.t001
*  Imunização genética contra infecção experimental por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis
A Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis é o agente etiológico de mais de 90% dos casos de leishmanioses cutânea e mucocutânea no Brasil. Apesar da alta freqüência no Brasil, poucos estudos de vacinação estão descritos utilizando esta espécie de Leishmania. Com intuito de iniciar os estudos de vacinação experimental contra as leishmanioses cutânea e mucocutânea causada por L. (V.) braziliensis, isolamos os genes que codificam os antígenos LACK, TSA, LeIF e LbSTI1 desta espécie. Os genes foram caracterizados segundo sua seqüência de DNA e transcrição de mRNA nas diferentes formas do parasita. Observamos alta conservação na seqüência predita de aminoácidos quando comparamos as espécies L. (V.) braziliensis e L. (L.) major com identidades de 83% a 96%. Observamos também a presença de mRNA tanto nas formas promastigotas como amastigotas de L. (V.) braziliensis. Em seguida, inserimos estes genes em vetores para ...
  http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/23464
*  Mucosal Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon
Author Summary Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected disease with 1.5 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurring each year. In the Amazon region and in the Americas in general, ML is caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, though in rare cases it has been related to other species. ML, which is associated with inadequate treatment of CL, normally manifests itself years after the occurrence of CL. Clinical features evolve slowly and most often affect the nasal cavity, in some cases causing perforation, or even destruction, of the septum. Diagnosis is made using the Montenegro skin test, serology and histopathology of the patients' mucosal tissues, or by isolation of the parasites. PCR is the best way to identify the species of leishmaniasis and is therefore the diagnostic method of choice. This paper describes 46 cases of ML and their geographical origin, 30 cases associated with L. (V.) ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000980
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Biotin metabolism - Leishmania braziliensis
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
  http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?lbz00780
*  Ecto-nucleotidase activities of promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis relates to parasite infectivity and...
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but p
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ecto-Nucleotidase-Activities-Promastigotes-from/23071853.html
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Abstract Two Aotus trivirgatus (owl monkeys) were infected experimentally with Leishmania braziliensis and two with L. mexicana strains of Panamanian origin in a pilot study to determine the susceptibility and the course of infection of cutaneous leishmaniasis in this primate species. Montenegro skin tests performed on all animals prior to parasite inoculation were negative. A standardized inoculum of promastigotes was injected intradermally on the nose of each monkey. All of the animals developed infections which lasted from 3.5 to 8.5 months. Depigmentation developed at the site of the inoculation in all of the subjects. The severity of the resulting lesions was greater in the animals infected with L. braziliensis. Positive skin tests developed in three A. trivirgatus at days 62, 76, and 139 postinoculation, respectively. An explanation for the negative skin test in the fourth animal is discussed.
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1981.30.54
*  Influence of **Leishmania (Viannia)** species on the response to antimonial treatment in patients with American Tegumentary...
Background. Pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) are the first-line chemotherapy for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). There are, however, reports of the occurrence of treatment failure with these drugs. Few studies in Latin America have compared the response to Sbv treatment in ATL caused by different Leishmania species. Methods. Clinical parameters and response to Sbv chemotherapy were studied in 103 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Peru. Leishmania isolates were collected before treatment and typed by multilocus polymerasechain- reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis. Results. The 103 isolates were identified as L. (Viannia) peruviana (47.6%), L. (V.) guyanensis (23.3%), L. (V.) braziliensis (22.3%), L. (V.) lainsoni (4.9%), L. (Leishmania) mexicana (1%), and a putative hybrid, L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana (1%). L. (V.) guyanensis was most ...
  https://repository.uantwerpen.be/link/irua/90726
*  SciCombinator - Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct shows in vitro activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis associated with...
Comments, concepts and statistics about 'Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct shows in vitro activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis associated with a reduction in IL-6 and IL-10 but independent of nitric oxide'.
  http://scicombinator.com/articles/166825
*  ARCA: Clinical observations of unresponsive mucosal Leishmaniasis
We report the long-term clinical follow-up of two patients with unresponsive mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from the Treˆs Brac¸os area in Bahia State, Brazil. Both were agricultural male workers with extensive upper respiratory mucosal involvement that was not cured with conventional and experimental therapy ...
  https://www.arca.fiocruz.br/handle/icict/20092?mode=full
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Abstract A total of 498 two-toed sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni, collected in central Panama was examined for Leishmania braziliensis over a 10-year period. Isolations of the parasite from 96 (19.3%) of the animals were confirmed by culture and inoculation of golden hamsters. Improved culture techniques developed toward the end of the study assisted in determining a greater prevalence of the disease. Infections were completely cryptic in all animals, and the parasite was isolated from skin, blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow and lung tissues. Sloths maintained under seminatural conditions remained infected up to 23 months, the longest period of survival. This edentate, considered the principal reservoir host of L. braziliensis in Panama, showed infection rates from 0-59.4% in various communities, which appeared to correlate with the parasite prevalence in the indigenous human populations.
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1980.29.1196
*  Parasitic protozoan promastigote, SEM - Stock Image C032/0915 - Science Photo Library
Parasitic promastigotes that cause leishmaniosis in humans (Leishmania braziliensis), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This tropical protozoan disease is transmitted by bites from infected sand flies (insect vector). The parasites are ingested by the insect vector during a blood meal from a mammal or human. The parasites in humans are found within macrophages in the amastigote form. In the blood stream they transform into the promastigote form. Promastigotes multiple by longitudinal fission in the gut of the insect. Leishmaniosis occurs in two forms: cutaneous which affects the skin and mucous membranes, usually giving rise to an ulcer at the site of the insect bite. Some patients develop a more destructive and progressive infection in mucosal tissue. The more serious kala-azar causes fever and liver damage, and it can be fatal. Magnification: x2,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0915
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/797738/view
*  Parasitic protozoan promastigote, SEM - Stock Image C036/9918 - Science Photo Library
Parasitic promastigotes that cause leishmaniosis in humans (Leishmania braziliensis), scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This tropical protozoan disease is transmitted by bites from infected sand flies (insect vector). The parasites are ingested by the insect vector during a blood meal from a mammal or human. The parasites in humans are found within macrophages in the amastigote form. In the blood stream they transform into the promastigote form. Promastigotes multiple by longitudinal fission in the gut of the insect. Leishmaniosis occurs in two forms: cutaneous which affects the skin and mucous membranes, usually giving rise to an ulcer at the site of the insect bite. Some patients develop a more destructive and progressive infection in mucosal tissue. The more serious kala-azar causes fever and liver damage, and it can be fatal. Magnification: x2,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C036/9918
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/873781/view
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This study evaluates cross-immunity in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) previously infected with one species of Leishmania and have had self-cured disease or were cured by antimony-based therapy upon development of full-blown disease. We found that a self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) following experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major induces significant protection for L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) guyanensis, and was dependent on time of re-challenge by L (L.) amazonensis after animals had recovered from primary lesions, but lacked protection against L. (V.) braziliensis. In contrast, monkeys that recovered from L. (V.) braziliensis CL or L. (L.) chagasi visceral leishmaniasis following chemotherapeutic intervention were protected by challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis and L (L.) amazonensis. These findings indicate the ...
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.297
*  The World of Copepods - Taeniastrotos braziliensis Montú & Boxshall, 1997
Walter, T. Chad (2008). Taeniastrotos braziliensis Montú & Boxshall, 1997. In: Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2017). World of Copepods database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/copepoda/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=361417 on 2017-12- ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/copepoda/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=361417
*  JoVE Author Search: Amato VS
Leishmaniasis, Patients, Cells, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Air, Mucosa, Nasal Mucosa, Osteitis, Paranasal Sinuses, Prospective Study, Sinusitis, Tomography, Treatment, Biopsy, Cytokines, Dermis, Epidermis, Granuloma, Leishmania Braziliensis
  http://labindex.jove.com/author/Amato-VS
*  Parasitology
Navarro, P; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Marín, C; García-España, E; Ramírez-Macías, I; Olmo, F; Rosales, MJ; Gómez-Contreras, F; Yunta, MJ; Gutierrez-Sánchez, R; (2014) In vitro leishmanicidal activity of pyrazole-containing polyamine macrocycles which inhibit the Fe-SOD enzyme of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Parasitology, 141 (8). pp. 1031-43. ISSN 0031-1820 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182014000201 Full text not available from this repository ...
  http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/view/publication/Parasitology.html
*  Cuniculus - oi
n. a genus of large forest-dwelling rodents, the pacas or spotted cavies, found in South and Central America. In Brazil these animals are a natural reservoir of the parasite Leishmania braziliensis, which causes espundia (see leishmaniasis). ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095653328
*  Grande Seca - Wikipedia
The Grande Seca, the Great Drought, or the Brazilian drought of 1877-78 is the largest and most devastating drought in Brazilian history. It caused the deaths of between 400,000 and 500,000 people. Of the 800,000 people who lived in the affected Northeastern region, around 120,000 migrated to the Amazon while 68,000 migrated to other parts of Brazil. Drought Agreste Sertão Caatinga "Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Amazônia: interesses e conflitos (in Portuguese) "Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History." Princeton University Press. Michael H. Glantz; Currents of Change : El Niño's Impact on Climate and Society; published 1996 by Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57659-8 Michael H. Glantz (editor); Drought Follows The Plow: Cultivating Marginal Areas; published 1994 by Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44252-4 Fagan, Brian; Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grande_Seca
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Two former patients treated for the cutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were reviewed eight and 11 years, respectively, following clinical cure. We were able to isolate Leishmania parasites in a culture of material from the two scar biopsies, and in one of them the parasite was characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In both cases, the histopathology revealed discreet hyperceratosis and a slight infiltrate of mononuclear cells surrounding and on the walls of the surface and deep dermal vessels. No amastigotes were seen on immunohistochemical or histopathologic examination. The Montenegro skin test result and the in vitro lymphoproliferative response to Leishmania antigen were positive, but no specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected. Otorhinolaryngologic examination showed no macroscopic alteration in the mucosae. These findings are important for the evaluation and criteria of post-treatment ...
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1998.58.824
*  LeishDB
The leishDB is genomic annotation database of the genus Leishmania organisms. Data is stored in the genome of L. braziliensis . These data were the result of a master's work lasting two years.
  http://www.leishdb.com/welcome