*  Lay perceptions of risk factors for Rift Valley fever in a pastoral community in northeastern Kenya
Background: Human behavioral factors have been found to be central in the transmission of Rift Valley fever. Consumption of contaminated meat and milk in particular have been identified as one of the key risk factors for the transmission of Rift Valley fever in humans. In pastoral communities, livestock is the main source of livelihood from which many benefits such as food as well as economic and cultural services are derived. Zoonotic diseases therefore have a great impact on pastoral communities livelihoods. However, lay perceptions regarding the transmission of these diseases including Rift Valley fever hampers their effective control. This study investigated the lay perceptions of risks for Rift Valley fever transmission in a pastoral community in northeastern Kenya. Methods: A qualitative study was ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/70218
*  Rift Valley Fever: Fever in Adults
Another name for Rift Valley Fever is Rift Valley Fever. Medications commonly used to control pain and fever in adults with Rift Valley fever include ...
  http://www.freemd.com/rift-valley-fever/home-care-fever-in-adults.htm
*  China reports 1st Rift Valley Fever case, imported from Angola - Outbreak News Today
The case, the first of its kind reported in China, is reported in a 45-year-old man from Henan province in Central China's Yellow River Valley who returned from Angola. He presented with fever, headache, joint and muscle pain last week.. On July 21, he returned to Beijing and was hospitalized in quarantine and began treatment. He was diagnosed positive for RVF virus yesterday. He is currently in critical condition.. Rift Valley Fever is mosquito-borne virus that is endemic in parts of Africa including South Africa. It primarily infects animals like sheep, cattle and goats and it can have an economic impact on a community due to the loss of livestock.. Humans get infected through contact with infected animal blood or organs. Butchering and slaughtering of animals is a primary cause of transmission to humans. Certain occupations are at a higher risk of getting Rift Valley ...
  http://outbreaknewstoday.com/china-reports-1st-rift-valley-fever-case-imported-from-angola-99383/
*  Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats
Author Summary Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-transmitted disease of ruminants and man, which occurs in Africa, Saudi Arabia and Yemen but could spread to other areas. There isn't much information on some aspects of the immune response to this disease and how it affects cells of the immune system in the natural animal hosts. To fill in some of this knowledge gap, we studied RVF in goats experimentally infected with the RVF virus. We also compared RVF virus grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Virus was present in the blood of the goats one day after infection. Some goats had fever coinciding with the time when the virus level in the blood was highest. Some cells in the blood dropped in number possibly as a direct effect of virus. Infected goats secreted cytokines (interferon gamma and interleukin-12), which possibly contributed to protection against RVF. Virus ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0001623
*  Veterinary PCR Kits - RVF - Rift Valley fever (RVF) RT-PCR Detection Kit
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-causing viral disease most commonly observed in domesticated animals (such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo, and camels), with the ability to infect and cause illness in humans. The disease is caused by RVF virus (RVFV), a member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Mosquitoes, mainly from the genera Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles, spread the virus between animals and humans; direct transmission through aerosol spread of infected biological fluids plays a major role in human infection. VetPCR RVF detection Kit is the direct detection of RVF virus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. It can amplify only specific gene using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, and take only 3 hours for detection. Therefore, it is a very fast, accurate, and reliable technique.
  http://www.kitpcr.com/product2/956-RVF
*  Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbron disease in Angora goats
... EM van Tonder. 1. Introduction. As a result of the extremely favourable climatic conditions encountered during the past two years, a variety of disease problems has again occurred or showed an increased incidence amongst Angora goats. Two of these diseases which deserve the urgent attention of all goat farmers and against which timeous preventative measures must be taken are undoubtedly Rift Valley Fever and Wesselsbron disease. Both these diseases have occurred in Angora goats during the past two seasons and it can be stated without doubt that deaths caused by them were often mistakenly attributed to other causes.. 2. Causes. Both diseases are caused by viruses which are transmitted by mosquitoes.. As they mainly breed in stagnant waters, the incidence of mosquitoes is in turn dependent upon favourable climatic conditions. A good rainfall with the formation of open pools and dams affords additional breeding sites which together with ...
  http://gadi.agric.za/articles/Agric/riftvalley.php
*  Great Rift Valley - Wikipedia
The East African rift has two branches, the Western Rift Valley and the Eastern Rift Valley.. The Western Rift, also called the Albertine Rift, is bordered by some of the highest mountains in Africa, including the Virunga Mountains, Mitumba Mountains, and Ruwenzori Range. It contains the Rift Valley lakes, which include some of the deepest lakes in the world (up to 1,470 metres (4,820 ft) deep at Lake Tanganyika).. Much of this area lies within the boundaries of national parks such as Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwenzori National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda. Lake Victoria is considered to be part of the rift valley system although it actually lies between the two branches. All of the African Great Lakes were formed as the result of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Rift_Valley_
*  Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?
Introduction. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an economically important, emerging arthropod-borne viral disease of both livestock and man. The disease was first identified in 1931 following sudden death of lambs and ewes on a single farm along the shores of Lake Naivasha in the greater Rift Valley of Kenya (Daubney et al. 1931, reviewed in Pepin et al. 2010). The importance of the disease lies in its public health impact and the economic losses resulting from the cessation of trade in livestock and livestock related products. This has been shown by the prolonged import bans from countries in the Horn of Africa where RVF has been registered, causing great hardship to the livestock trade based communities.. In Zambia, RVF was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in Chisamba (Central Province) and Mazabuka (Southern Province) districts and some parts of Copperbelt Province (Hussuein et al. ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652012000200022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Rift Valley Fever: improving predictive models for disease forecasting
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne disease endemic to much of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula causing abortion storms and high neonatal mortality in sheep, goats, and cattle and influenza-like to hemorrhagic illness in humans. RVF is transmitted by over 30 species of arthropods and can persist in the soil for decades in the trans-ovarially infected, desiccation resistant eggs of Aedine species of mosquitoes. Recent increases in the severity and frequency of RVF outbreaks within East Africa in addition to concern for the potential for RVF spread to new areas has prompted interest by several public health authorities in improving disease forecasting tools. This report describes factors of RVF ecology and epidemiology important to current disease forecasting efforts and gives recommendations for the spatial and temporal refinement of extant modelling efforts ...
  https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/12730
*  Rain may help forecast Rift Valley fever in West Africa - SciDev.Net
|p|As Mauritania is hit by a Rift Valley fever outbreak, a new model could help to forecast outbreaks of the mosquito-transmitted form of the disease.|/p|
  http://www.scidev.net/global/farming/news/rain-may-help-forecast-rift-valley-fever-in-west-africa-.html
*  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Journal
Author Summary Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease transmitted by a mosquito bite (Aedes). Humans can also be infected through direct contact with blood (aerosols) or tissues (placenta, stillborn) of infected animals. Although severe clinical cases can be observed, infection with RVF virus (RVFV) in humans in most cases causes a febrile illness without serious symptoms. In small ruminants RVFV mainly causes abortion and neonatal death. RVFV distribution has been poorly investigated in Central Africa. We conducted a large scale serological survey of RVF antibodies in rural populations in Gabon, involving 4,323 individuals from 212 randomly selected villages. The results showed an overall RVFV prevalence of 3.3%, with values of 2.9% in the forested zones, 2.2% in savannas and 8.3% in the lakes region. These findings strongly suggest for the first time the wide circulation of Rift valley fever virus in Gabon ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/citation?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000763
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Rift Valley Fever Potential, Arabian Peninsula - 16043 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Yemen in 2000 was the first recognized occurrence of the illness outside of Africa and Madagascar. An assessment of potential mosquito vectors in the region yielded an isolate from A ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/16043
*  Fever Rift Valley: Transmission
Another name for Fever Rift Valley is Rift Valley Fever. Facts about the transmission of Rift Valley fever: * The virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes ...
  http://www.freemd.com/fever-rift-valley/transmission.htm
*  Rift Valley Fever - Redorbit
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that causes fever. It is spread through infected mosquitoes. It was first reported in 1915 in Kenya were it infected livestock. Outbreaks occur across sub-Saharan Africa, and in the "˜77-"˜78 outbreak several million people were infected and thousands died during a violent epidemic. In 1998 the virus killed 400 Kenyans and in 2000 an outbreak occurred in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.. The virus causes mild illness with fever, headache, myalgia and liver abnormalities. In a few patients illness can progress to hemorrhagic fever syndrome or meningoencephalitis. Patients usually recover 2-7 days after onset. Only about 1% of human sufferers die of the disease.. Livestock fatality rates are much higher. Pregnant livestock that get infected with RVF have a 100% abortion rate thus a wave of unexplained abortions is a pre-cursor to an RVF infection. There are several animal ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/reference/rift_valley_fever/
*  Occurrence Of Rift Valley Fever And Associated Risk Factors In Cattle In Ijara District, Kenya
Ijara district in Kenya was one of the hotspots of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) during the 2006/2007 outbreak which led to human and animal deaths causing huge economic losses. The main constraint in the control and prevention of RVF is inadequate knowledge on its occurrence during the interepidemic period. This study was aimed at understanding the occurrence of RVF and perceived risk factors by pastoralists in cattle in Ijara to enable the development of improved community-based disease surveillance, prediction, control and prevention. Six herds of 700 to 1000 cattle were identified and one animal tagged with Global Position System (GPS) collar to enable follow up during sero-surveys as well as understanding the herd‟s movement through various ecological zones. Sixty animals under 3 years from each herd were randomly selected during each sero-survey and sero-surveyed for RVF four times (September 2012, December 2012, February 2013 and May 2013) during the study ...
  http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/73592
*  New Agriculturist: Developments - The impact of Rift Valley fever in Kenya
The spread of Rift Valley Fever in northern Kenya has now caused over 100 human deaths, with thousands of livestock succumbing to the disease. The impact on Kenya's meat industry - with the beef market alone valued at US$500 million per year - is now of major concern, with transport of livestock banned, and slaughterhouses working at a fraction of their normal capacity. Fears of a regional spread are growing, with the first human deaths now reported in Tanzania, and concern about a possible spread to Somalia.
  http://www.new-ag.info/en/developments/devItem.php?a=35
*  Irrigation and the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission: A case study from Kenya
Bett, B. 2016. Irrigation and the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission: A case study from Kenya. Presented at a Symposium on 'One Health for the Real World: Zoonoses, Ecosystems and Wellbeing', London, UK, 17-18 March 2016. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/72830
*  Sudanese Outbreak Of Rift Valley Fever -- UN | Scoop News
The United Nations agricultural agency has sent a senior animal health expert to Sudan to advise the country's Government on prevention and control measures to deal with a deadly outbreak of the viral haemorrhagic disease known as Rift Valley Fever ...
  http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0711/S00522.htm
*  Could Rift Valley fever be a weapon of mass destruction? An insidious insect-animal-people infection loop explored | ILRI...
The Fifth Plague: Livestock Disease, woodcut by Gustave Doré, 1866 (public domain, via Wikimedia Commons). Anthrax, bird flu , Ebola, HIV-AIDS, H1N1, H5N1, influenza, Rift Valley fever, SARS: What are the disease links between people, animals and environments? And what are we doing to protect ourselves against the next outbreak of a deadly infectious disease?…
  https://clippings.ilri.org/2012/02/12/could-rift-valley-fever-be-a-weapon-of-mass-destruction-an-insidious-insect-animal-people-infection-loop-explored/
*  Rift Valley Fever | Science Mission Directorate
Scientists are learning that the key to predicting certain epidemics -- like Rift Valley fever in Africa or Hanta virus in the U.S. -- lies in an unexpected place: the ocean.
  https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/17apr_rvf
*  PPT - Rift Valley Fever Symptoms PowerPoint Presentation - ID:98086
Rift Valley Fever Symptoms. Texas A&M University University of Pretoria College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Slideshow 98086 by elina
  https://www.slideserve.com/elina/rift-valley-fever
*  A92.4 RIFT VALLEY FEVER
ICD-10 A92.4 is rift valley fever (A924). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
  https://healthprovidersdata.com/hipaa/codes/ICD10-A92.4
*  Valley Fever | Congressman David Schweikert
Valley Fever is caused by the fungal spore coccidioides spp. endemic to arid and semi-arid geographical areas. Because these spores are carried by soil, any disruption to the ground creates a heightened risk of infection. While some individuals breathe in the spore with no repercussions, others fall ill from Valley Fever. Those affected most by Valley Fever are immunosuppressed patients; elderly individuals; pregnant females; and minority populations of African, Filipino, and Native American descent. Of the more than 150,000 individuals infected annually, roughly 50,000 warrant medical attention. Of those, nearly 600 cases have the infection spread from their lungs to other parts of their body. Ultimately, about 160 cases result in death. Reported cases of Valley Fever in the southwestern states of Arizona, California, Texas and New Mexico have skyrocketed in recent years; ...
  https://schweikert.house.gov/issues/valley-fever
*  Rift valley fever vaccine - Answers on HealthTap
Potentially: 1 in 4 people has a mild reaction to yellow fever vaccine. The sxs may include redness, soreness or swelling in the shot site as well as fever. Severe allergic reactions impact 1 in 55, 000 people. Severe illness w organ failure occurs in 1 in 250, 000 ; serious nervous system rxn in 1 in 125, 000. The alternative is possibly getting yellow fever virus which usually requires hospitalization. Of , ...Read more See 2 more doctor answers ...
  https://www.healthtap.com/topics/rift-valley-fever-vaccine
*  Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine, Inactivated - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
All subjects: 1.0-mL (SQ)doses on day 0, once between days 7 & 14, & once between days 28-42. Initial responders: A 6-month mandatory vaccine booster dose (1.0 mL, SQ) will be given if the PRNT80 is ≥1:40 after the primary series. Subsequent booster doses will be given for PRNT80 titer ,1:40. Initial non-responders: Individual who has a PRNT80 titer ,1:40 following the primary series may be administered a booster dose before 6 months. The individual will not receive the mandatory 6-month booster dose. Once an initial non-responder achieves PRNT80 ≥1:40, additional booster doses will be given for subsequent PRNT80 ,1:40). All subjects: RVF booster dose will be administered within 90 days after a PRNT80 result of ,1:40 ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00869713