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*  Analysis of Dopamine D4 Receptor Function in Gene Knockout Mice: A Role in Cortical Excitability | SpringerLink
Seeman, P., Guan, H.-C., Van Tol, H.H.M., 1993, Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia, Nature 365:441.PubMedCrossRef ... Both DA release and turnover rates in the PFC are increased by stress (Roth et al., 1988), while manipulations that attenuate ... Low M.J., Grandy D.K., Rubinstein M. (2002) Analysis of Dopamine D4 Receptor Function in Gene Knockout Mice: A Role in Cortical ... Analysis of Dopamine D4 Receptor Function in Gene Knockout Mice: A Role in Cortical Excitability. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-3538-3_39
*  Dopamine receptor - Wikipedia
D4 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). The D4 receptor gene displays polymorphisms that differ in a variable ... D4-adrenoceptor α1B D4-adrenoceptor β1 Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D5 are Gs coupled receptors that stimulate ... and release of dopamine into the synaptic cleft). The D2Lh form may function as a classical post-synaptic receptor, i.e., ... D1-adenosine A1 D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D1-D3 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-D4 dopamine receptor heteromer D2- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine_receptor
*  Scientists Show How Gene Variant Linked To ADHD Could Operate - Redorbit
Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse ... "Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study ... was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain ... In the study, published in today's Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/2097089/scientists_show_how_gene_variant_linked_to_adhd_could_operate/
*  Rhythmic Regulation of Photoreceptor and RPE Genes Important for Vision and Genetically Associated With Severe Retinal Diseases...
... the gene that encodes the dopamine D4 receptor.13 Therefore, circadian regulation of Arr1 in photoreceptors may be promoted by ... to require dopamine signaling via dopamine D4 receptors. Conclusions: The data of the present study suggest that daily ... D4 receptor-dependent control of photoreceptors12 appears to derive from the clock-driven release of dopamine from amacrine ... Daily rhythmicity of Arr1, Arr4, and Rdh12 in retina deficient for dopamine D4 receptors. Transcript levels of the genes were ...
  https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2696329
*  Dopamine receptor D4 - Wikipedia
Current Research on the DRD4 Gene Receptors, Dopamine D4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000069696, ENSG00000276825 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000025496 - ... The dopamine receptor D4 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5. The structure of ... As with other dopamine receptor subtypes, the D4 receptor is activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is linked to many ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine_receptor_D4
*  Dopamine receptor D2 - Wikipedia
Agonism of D2sh receptors inhibits dopamine release; antagonism increases dopaminergic release. A third D2(Longer) form differs ... The dopamine D2 receptor is the main receptor for most antipsychotic drugs. This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine ... Piribedil - also D3 receptor agonist and α2-adrenergic antagonist Pramipexole - also D3, D4 receptor agonist Quinelorane - ... Hasbi A, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Feb 2010). "Heteromerization of dopamine D2 receptors with dopamine D1 or D5 receptors generates ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine_receptor_D2
*  Adenosine and Dopamine Receptors Coregulate Photoreceptor Coupling via Gap Junction Phosphorylation in Mouse Retina | Journal...
2004) Dopamine D4 receptors inhibit depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in the rat subthalamic nucleus. Eur J Pharmacol 498 ... 2003) Caffeine regulates neuronal expression of the dopamine 2 receptor gene. Mol Pharmacol 64:1463-1473. ... Therefore the DOPAC/dopamine ratio is a good index of dopamine turnover and release (Witkovsky, 2004). As expected, dopamine ... 1994) D4 dopamine receptor-mediated signaling events determined in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 269: ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/7/3135
*  Frontiers | Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors | Frontiers in Neural Circuits
... with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. ... with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. ... Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in ... Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncir.2013.00152/full
*  Biology of depression - Wikipedia
Polymorphisms of the D4 and D3 receptor have been implicated in depression further suggesting a role of dopamine in MDD. ... by serotonergic antidepressants is hypothesized to result from inhibition of dopamine release by activation of 5-HT2C receptors ... One review identified multiple frequently studied candidate genes. The 5-HTT SLC6A4 and 5-HTR2A gene's yielded inconsistent ... as well as post mortem findings of altered Dopamine receptor D3 and dopamine transporter expression. Hyperactivity of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology_of_depression
*  Publications
abstract = {Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous ... Cocaine-induced endocannabinoid release modulates behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in mice. Journal Article ... However, there remains some debate about the involvement of cannabinoid receptors/ligands in cocaine-induced plasticity and ... Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric ...
  https://irp.drugabuse.gov/organization/mtmdb/ccmbu/publications-2/
*  PAR-11-207: National Cooperative Drug Discovery/Development Groups (NCDDG) for the Treatment of Mental Disorders, Drug or...
... corticotropin releasing hormone: CRF R1, CRF R2; dopamine: D1, D3, D4, D5; estrogen; GABA A subunits; GABA ion channel; GABA B ... G-protein coupled receptors, such as the dopamine receptor, an indirect site of action for cocaine and amphetamine, or ligand ... Intracellular targets: gene expression/transcription markers; markers of neurogenesis or neuronal cell death; markers of ... receptors: NK1, NK2, NK3; heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptor subunits; NMDA subunits; opioid receptors: mu, delta, kappa; ...
  https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-11-207.html
*  Novelty seeking - Wikipedia
Studies have found an area on the Dopamine receptor D4 gene on chromosome 11 that is characterized by several repeats in a ... The overall effect of dopamine when exposed to a novel stimuli is a mass release of the neurotransmitter in reward systems of ... DRD4 receptors are highly expressed in areas of the limbic system associated with emotion and cognition. It is important to ... Lusher, JM; Chandler, C; Ball, D (September 2001). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with Novelty Seeking (NS) ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novelty_seeking
*  Dopaminergic Signaling in the Cochlea: Receptor Expression Patterns and Deletion Phenotypes | Journal of Neuroscience
1997) Mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors are supersensitive to ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Cell 90:991-1001. ... 1996) A targeted mutation of the D3 dopamine receptor gene is associated with hyperactivity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... Although in other systems, D2-like receptors can be presynaptic (Beaulieu and Gainetdinov, 2011), cochlear dopamine release ... Cochlear phenotypes with targeted deletion of dopamine receptors. To assess the role of dopamine receptors in the auditory ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/1/344.long
*  Table of Contents - October 07, 2008, 105 (40) | PNAS
Neuregulin-1 regulates LTP at CA1 hippocampal synapses through activation of dopamine D4 receptors Oh Bin Kwon, Daniel Paredes ... A Drosophila orphan G protein-coupled receptor BOSS functions as a glucose-responding receptor: Loss of boss causes abnormal ... Gene expression changes in the course of normal brain aging are sexually dimorphic Nicole C. Berchtold, David H. Cribbs, Paul D ... Differential dependence of phasic transmitter release on synaptotagmin 1 at GABAergic and glutamatergic hippocampal synapses ...
  https://www.pnas.org/content/105/40
*  INABIS '98 - A Behavioral Validation of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) as an Animal Model of Attention-Deficit...
1996) Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry ... 1991) Effect of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole on the in vivo release of dopamine in the caudate nucleus of ... 1998) Differential distribution, affinity and plasticity of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the target sites of the ... and D-amphetamine-stimulated release of [3H]dopamine from brain slices suggest impaired vesicular storage of dopamine in an ...
  http://www.mcmaster.ca/inabis98/sadile/sagvolden0567/six.html
*  Dopamine receptor D4 - Wikipedia
Current Research on the DRD4 Gene. *Receptors, Dopamine D4 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... dopamine hypothesis of psychosis. References[edit]. *^ a b c ENSG00000276825 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000069696, ... The dopamine receptor D4 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.[5] ... LaHoste GJ, Swanson JM, Wigal SB, Glabe C, Wigal T, King N, Kennedy JL (May 1996). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine_D4_receptor
*  Biological Profile of L-745,870, a Selective Antagonist with High Affinity for the Dopamine D4 Receptor | Journal of...
D4 receptors in the brain. These results show that dopamine D4 receptor antagonism in the brain does not result in the same ... 1990) Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature 350:610- ... 1992) Dopamine release and metabolism in rat frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum: A comparison of acute clozapine ... to the rat D4 receptor (Ki 1.5 nM) compared to the human D4 receptor (Ki 0.43 nM) but still retained ,1000-fold D4 receptor ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/283/2/636
*  Activation of the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors increase skeletal muscle mass and force production under non-atrophying...
... the D1 receptor/D5 receptor group (D1-like) and the D2 receptor/D3 receptor/D4 receptor group (D2-like), based on their ... with splice variants of many of the dopamine receptors identified [1, 3]. Gene expression analysis of the dopamine receptors ... corticotrophin releasing factor 2 receptor agonists, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, vasoactive intestinal peptide 2 receptor ... The dopamine 1 receptor and its closely related homolog, the dopamine 5 receptor, are G-protein coupled receptors that are ...
  https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2474-12-27
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Neuro-immuno-endocrinological aspects of pathophysiology of affective disorders (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
Publications] Manki,H.: 'Dopamine D2,D3 and D4 receptor and transporter gene polymorphisms and mood disorders.' J.Affect.Dis.40 ... 6.Interleukin-1 mediated the restraint stress-induced monoamine release in hypothalamus of rats.. 7.Psychiatric morbidity in ... Publications] Ariyuki Kagaya: 'Cyclic GMP generation mediated 5-HT-2 receptors via nitric oxide-dependent pathway and its ... Publications] Manki, H.: 'Dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptor and transporter gene polymorphisms and mood disorders.' J. Affect. ...
  https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06304033/
*  Borderline personality disorder - Wikipedia
Genes under investigation as of 2012 include the 7-repeat polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on chromosome 11, ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) regulates cortisol production, which is released in response to stress. ... "The dexamethasone suppression test and glucocorticoid receptors in borderline personality disorder". Annals of the New York ... Twin studies may overestimate the effect of genes on variability in personality disorders due to the complicating factor of a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borderline_personality_disorder
*  Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, ... scarce in dopamine receptors) in response to dopamine [115, 116], presumably mediated by other receptor populations such as ... Both the SNc neuronal firing and the released striatal dopamine seem to activate the dopamine D1-GABAergic direct pathway ( ... polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene is shown to contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior [232]. ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Bladder-bowel-sexual-dysfunction-in/21918729.html
*  Prenatal and Postnatal Epigenetic Programming: Implications for GI, Immune, and Neuronal Function in Autism
... providing methyl groups to the D4 dopamine receptor; the D4 receptor, when stimulated by dopamine, subsequently transfers these ... Nrf2 is released from Keap-1 and moves to the nucleus where it promotes expression of a large number of genes via binding to ... "Casein and gluten-derived peptides modulate cysteine uptake and cellular thiol levels via activation of opiate receptors," ... The D4 dopamine receptor carries out a cycle of dopamine-stimulated phospholipid methylation which is completely dependent upon ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2012/190930/
*  Why Do I Find Stimulants Calming?
... and that dopamine D4 receptor gene might be abnormal on these individuals.[5]. "In contrast to the classical dopamine ... D3 dopamine receptors interact with dopamine D1 but not D4 receptors in the GABAergic terminals of the SNr of the rat.. ... a cocaine-induced depression of DA release was only present in cocaine-insensitive animals (DAT-CI). Similar effects of cocaine ... Dopamine transporter cell surface localization facilitated by a direct interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. ...
  https://nootropix.com/why-do-i-find-stimulants-calming/
*  Patent US8492107 - Neural proteins as biomarkers for nervous system injury and other neural ... - Google Patents
Glutamate receptor subunits (e.g. GluR4), 5-HT serotonin receptors (e.g. 5-HT(3)), dopamine receptors (e.g. D4), muscarinic Ach ... "Antibody" refers to a polypeptide ligand substantially encoded by an immunoglobulin gene or immunoglobulin genes, or fragments ... By monitoring the release of proteins unique to each of these regions, one can therefore monitor and define subcellular damage ... Glutamate receptor subunits (e.g. GluR4), 5-HT serotonin receptors (e.g. 5-HT(3)), dopamine receptors (e.g. D4), muscarinic Ach ...
  http://www.google.ca/patents/US8492107
*  A DIETARY SUPPLEMENT ABOLISHES AGE-RELATED COGNITIVE DECLINE IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING ELEVATED FREE RADICAL PROCESSES
Dopamine D4 and D2L receptor stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is dependent on trans-activation of ... release of peptide fragments from human growth hormone which displace 3H-dihydromorphine from rat brain opioid receptors. J ... Our TGM mice have metallothionein promoters fused to rat GH structural genes. [53] The rat GH genes are incorporated into one ... Disruption of the D2 dopamine receptor alters GH and IGF-I secretion and causes dwarfism in male mice. Endocrinology 143:1270 ...
  http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/A_Dietary_Supplement_Abolishes_Age.shtml