*  Frontiers | Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the...
For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein ... For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein ... and/or lipophilic binding sites on the channel). Rescue from the hydrophilic and lipophilic traps can be promoted by alkalic ... interactions. One way to probe this is to modify the pH of the extracellular fluid, which alters the ratio of charged vs. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2015.00210/full
*  Indian Patents. 234877:BIARYL SUBSTITUTED 6-MEMBERED HETEROCYCLES AS SODIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
Catterall, W. A. Structure and function of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. Current Opinion in NeuroUology 1,5-13 ( ... which constitutes the rising phase of the action potential and in turn activates voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels. ... Several regions in the sodium channel secondary structure are involved in interactions with these blockers and most are highly ... Sodium channels are the target of a diverse array of pharmacological agents, including neurotoxins, antiarrhythmics, ...
  http://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/234877-biaryl-substituted-6-membered-heterocycles-as-sodium-channel-blockers
*  Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | µ-Conotoxins Modulating Sodium Currents in Pain Perception and Transmission: A Therapeutic...
µ and µO-CTX are two isoforms that specifically target voltage-gated sodium channels. These, by inducing the entrance of sodium ... In this review, we describe the current knowledge of µ-CTX interacting with the different sodium channels subtypes, the ... Hyperexcitability and mutations of sodium channels are responsible for perception and transmission of inflammatory and ... and voltage-gated potassium channel subtypes of the KV1 family [46]. Recent findings also demonstrated that μ-PIIIA targets the ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/15/10/295/htm
*  p75 and TrkA Signaling Regulates Sympathetic Neuronal Firing Patterns via Differential Modulation of Voltage-Gated Currents |...
2001) Nerve growth factor regulates sodium but not potassium channel currents in sympathetic B neurons of adult bullfrogs. J ... Indeed, pharmacological manipulations that increase sodium current promote tonic firing and blockers decrease firing in ... 4). Furthermore, we found that the M-current blocker linopirdine blocked C2-ceramide-dependent induction of phasic firing, ... of threshold current. Pharmacological agents were applied to separate pools of neurons, which were recorded from between 15 min ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/17/5411
*  Saxitoxin Is a Gating Modifier of hERG K+ Channels | JGP
It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels by binding to the outer ion conduction pore, and causes rapid neuromuscular paralysis ... as expected for a open state pore blocker). There was no tail current crossover as is seen with some open state blockers that ... A novel extracellular calcium sensing mechanism in voltage-gated potassium ion channels. J. Neurosci. 21:4143-4153. ... STX Modulates hERG K+ Channel Gating. To explore the mechanism of the STX-channel interactions both kinetically and in steady- ...
  http://jgp.rupress.org/content/121/6/583
*  Frontiers | Involvement of gap junction channels in the pathophysiology of migraine with aura | Physiology
Gap junction channels seem to be involved in several ways in the pathophysiology of migraine with aura and emerge as a new ... quinidine and the derivative mefloquine are able to inhibit CSD suggesting an involvement of neuronal connexin36 channels in ... shown to induce headache by activating the trigeminovascular system through the opening of stressed neuronal Pannexin1 channels ... shown to induce headache by activating the trigeminovascular system through the opening of stressed neuronal Pannexin1 channels ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2014.00078/full
*  Antagonism of Lidocaine Inhibition by Open-Channel Blockers That Generate Resurgent Na Current | Journal of Neuroscience
Human voltage-gated sodium channel mutations that cause inherited neuronal and muscle channelopathies increase resurgent sodium ... express a native blocker), these cells may have a decreased sensitivity to use-dependent clinical agents. ... 2006) Differential lidocaine sensitivity of human voltage-gated potassium channels relevant to the auditory system. Otol ... 1979) Interactions between quaternary lidocaine, the sodium channel gates, and tetrodotoxin. Biophys J 27:39-55. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/11/4976
*  Development of models for predicting Torsade de Pointes cardiac arrhythmias using perceptron neural networks | BMC...
Repolarization involves interactions among numerous calcium, sodium, and potassium channels. Nevertheless, potassium channels ... potassium channels generally are separated into the following major categories: the voltage-gated channels with six ... Villoutreix BO, Taboureau O. Computational investigations of hERG channel blockers: new insights and current predictive models ... There are a few drugs that block hERG channels without causing TdP. Verapamil, a potent hERG channel blocker is not associated ...
  https://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12859-017-1895-2
*  Abstracts of Papers at the sixty-second annual meeting of the society of general physiologists | JGP
Intracellular Ca2+ can mediate bimodal regulation of the voltage-gated cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5) through its C terminus ( ... Whole-cell current measurements have confirmed this observation. Analysis of the single-channel currents allowed us to conclude ... These interactions among intracellular channel proteins are important for understanding regulation of Ca2+ signaling and its ... Structural Determinants of Phosphoinositide Regulation of M-type Potassium Channels. CIRIA C. HERNANDEZ and MARK S. SHAPIRO, ...
  http://jgp.rupress.org/content/132/1/3a
*  Analgesic - Wikipedia
Some novel and investigational analgesics include subtype-selective voltage-gated sodium channel blockers such as funapide and ... N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[120] ... Comes in sodium, potassium and diethylamine (topically used as a gel) salt forms; sparingly soluble in water but soluble in ... Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgetics
*  The Centrality of Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytoskeleton Involving Calmodulin Kinases and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Failure,...
NCX, sodium/calcium exchanger.. Calcium enters the myocyte through voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels; this triggers release of ... Further, he observes that with the exception of so-called beta blockers, none of the current anti-arrhythmic drugs have been ... Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) contain a potassium pore and an enzyme complex that participate in ... Differential regulated interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with isoforms of voltage-gated calcium ...
  https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2013/09/08/the-centrality-of-ca2-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-involving-calmodulin-kinases-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-cardiac-failure-arterial-smooth-muscle-post-ischemic-arrhythmia-similarities-and-differen/
*  Dopamine and Aging: Intersecting Facets | SpringerLink
Rescue of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in culture by low-level stimulation of voltage-gated sodium channels. J Neurosci ... Wei L, Yu SP, Gottron F et al (2003) Potassium channel blockers attenuate hypoxia- and ischemia-induced neuronal death in vitro ... Wang JW, Humphreys JM, Phillips JP et al (2000) A novel leg-shaking Drosophila mutant defective in a voltage-gated K+ current ... Salgado E, Murray DB, Lloyd D (2002) Some antidepressant agents (Li+, monoamine oxidase type A inhibitors) perturb the ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11064-008-9858-7
*  Molecular characterization of the cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel of bovine rod outer segments - UBC Library Open...
... ion channels 10 1.3.1 Sodium channels 13 1.3.2 Calcium channels 15 1.3.3 Potassium channels 18 1.3.4 Cyclic nucleotide-gated ... Quandt, F.N., Nicol, G.D., Schnetkamp, P.P.M. (1991) Voltage-dependent gating and block of the cyclic-GMP-dependent current in ... The system presented here will also enable further characterization of the CNG channel subunit interactions. Ultimately, large ... The most potent blocker of the cGMP-dependent channel is the /-stereoisomer of cisdiltiazem (Koch and Kaupp, 1985). Work with ...
  https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0094703
*  Plus it
... sodium channel blockers, exogenous potassium, or potassium channel openers) improve survival has been published. ... protein in various heterologous systems confirmed this protein to be a voltage-gated potassium channel protein subunit, which ... slowly activating potassium current. HERG. human ether-a-go-go-related gene. IKr. delayed rectifier potassium current. ... However, long-term potassium therapy with associated potassium-sparing agents has been unable to keep the serum potassium above ...
  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/29/4/574
*  Advances in Neurobiology of the Neuromuscular Junction:Implications for the Anesthesiologist | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
... including voltage-gated and Ca2+-activated potassium channels. The potassium channels are likely to limit the duration of nerve ... In contrast, the action of steroidal neuromuscular blockers, agents dependent on organ elimination, is prolonged in the elderly ... A non-inactivating sodium current and the effect of extracellular pH. Muscle Nerve 1987; 10: 363-74Lehmann-Horn, F Kuther, G ... An open channel blocker of the nAChR, quinidine sulfate, is therapeutically efficacious in SCCMS because it normalizes the open ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1944783
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Alessandro Mugelli (Translated to German)
... current were used. All calcium channel blockers, at concentrations blocking less than 30% of L-type Ca(2+) current, inhibited a ... opposite to most voltage-gated channels. Recently, electrophysiological and molecular data demonstrated that f-channels are ... whereas the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)), pacemaker current (I(f)), and L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)) ... channels). In particular, we focus on the role of the "late sodium current" (INaL), a sustained component of the fast Na(+) ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Alessandro_Mugelli?language=German
*  Taking Lamictal (Lamotrigine) For Anxiety Disorders: Does It Help?
Potassium (K+) channel modulation: In addition to blocking various voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels, lamotrigine ... Agents with similar pharmacodynamics to lamotrigine (Na+ channel blockers), including carbamazepine (20-40 mg/kg) and riluzole ... lamotrigine's action as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker may generate a more substantial anxiolytic effect than other ... As of current, evidence suggests that lamotrigine's calcium channel antagonism may be more significant than initially suspected ...
  https://mentalhealthdaily.com/2016/10/04/lamictal-lamotrigine-for-anxiety-disorders/?replytocom=149006
*  Microsoft word - dobretsov 12.doc
Topiramate blocks activity-dependent voltage-gated sodium channels, enhances the action of GABA, inhibits L-type voltage-gated ... by voltage and frequency-dependent blockade of sodium channels. Other important actions include the blockade of Ca2+ currents, ... Moreover, sodium valproate blocks T-calcium channels, increases neuronal potassium conductance, and prevents the degradation ... channel blockers and 2,3-benzodiazepines. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 1993. 14(9): p. 325-31. 124. Chen, H.S., et al., Open-channel ...
  http://eddoctor24h.com/p/paulchristomd.com1.html
*  Lidocaine-Induced Brugada Syndrome Phenotype Linked to a Novel Double Mutation in the Cardiac Sodium Channel | Circulation...
del CD, Holmgren M, Liu Y, Yellen G. Blocker protection in the pore of a voltage-gated K+ channel and its structural ... Pharmacological agents capable of unmasking the congenital syndrome are sodium channel blockers such as flecainide,3,4,37,38 ... Time- and voltage-dependent interactions of antiarrhythmic drugs with cardiac sodium channels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977; 472 ... Figure 2. Effect of lidocaine on I-V and steady-state inactivation in WT and V232I+L1308F channels. Sodium currents generated ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/103/4/396
*  Optically active isomers of quinine and quinidine and their respective biological action - Academic Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
... sodium channel) current which is antagonized by class I anti-arrhythmic drugs. Voltage-gated NA+ channels are essential for ... ion channel is a sodium channel and the second recombinantly expressed transmembrane ion channel is a potassium channel. ... One being the typical quinidine effecting INa and IKr (peak b) while the other is a sodium channel blocker similar to ... action of many agents on supraventricular arrhythmia and ventricular arrhythmias are moderated via inhibition of sodium channel ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6844355.html
*  Reconstitution of Muscle Calcium Channel Function in Bilayer Membranes | Springer for Research & Development
Ion channels are membrane proteins that are used by the cell as signal transducers and as a pathway for the rapid entry of some ... Calcium channel selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations. Voltage and concentration dependence of single channel current ... Inactivation of the sodium channel. II. Gating current experiments. J. Gen. Physiol., 70: 567-590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Ca' channels in rat central and peripheral neurons: High-threshold current resistant to dihydropyridine blockers and omega- ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-2239-0_5
*  Voltage-Activated K+ Channels and Membrane Depolarization Regulate Accumulation of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors...
1997) Regulation of voltage- and ligand-gated currents in rat hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro. J Neurobiol 32:95-110. ... K+ channel blockers and depolarizing agents do not affect G0-G1 transition in synchronized oligodendrocyte progenitors. Time ... Forskolin reversibly blocks potassium channels and increases the rate of current inactivation by a cAMP-independent mechanism ... 1993) Sodium channels, GABAA receptors, and glutamate receptors develop sequentially on embryonic rat spinal cord cells. J ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/13/5380
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Sven G. Meuth (Translated to Spanish)
... along with the voltage-gated potassium channel K(V)1.3 and the calcium-activated potassium channel K(Ca)3.1 in the RVD of ... Application of specific channel blockers revealed that the increased current was carried by L-type Ca(2+) channels. ... For example, trials addressing the highly promising sodium channel blockers are under close observation because of potential ... blocked a TASK current masked by additional action on HCN channels. Only in the presence of the HCN blocker ZD7288 was the pH- ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Sven+G._Meuth?language=Spanish
*  Plus it
... channels, resulting in a transient KCa current. The resulting membrane hyperpolarization reduces voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel ... Cardiac and skeletal muscle RyR channels are redox sensitive and are activated by oxidizing agents, including H2O2 (42). ROS ... MnTMPyP, thapsigargin, a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase blocker that inhibits Ca2+ sparks, and iberiotoxin, a KCa channel ... 5-trisphosphate-gated Ca2+ channels. Although the physiological functions of Ca2+ waves have been less well described, Ca2+ ...
  http://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/290/4/C964