*  Sporogenous tissue, Sporogenous Tissue The primary sporogenous cells (PSCs) result, Biology
Biology Assignment Help, Sporogenous tissue, Sporogenous Tissue The primary sporogenous cells (PSCs) result after the periclinal division of the archesporial cells. The PSCs may undergo mitotic divisions and increase in number before functioning as MMCs or the PSCs may function directly as
  http://www.expertsmind.com/questions/sporogenous-tissue-30129599.aspx
*  ASMscience | The Role of Bacterial Spores in Metal Cycling and Their Potential Application in Metal Contaminant Bioremediation
Bacteria are one of the premier biological forces that, in combination with chemical and physical forces, drive metal availability in the environment. Bacterial spores, when found in the environment, are often considered to be dormant and metabolically inactive, in a resting state waiting for favorable conditions for them to germinate. However, this is a highly oversimplified view of spores in the environment. The surface of bacterial spores represents a potential site for chemical reactions to occur. Additionally, proteins in the outer layers (spore coats or exosporium) may also have more specific catalytic activity. As a consequence, bacterial spores can play a role in geochemical processes and may indeed find uses in various biotechnological applications. The aim of this review is to introduce the role of bacteria and bacterial spores in biogeochemical cycles and their potential use as toxic metal bioremediation agents.
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0018-2013
*  Protons' binding within nanometer scaled compartments of natural ionic reservoirs: Bacillus subtilis spores
Dormant spores of bacteria of Bacillus genus are intriguing micrometer-scaled objects for a physico-chemical study. The most paradoxical feature of dormant spores is that, being metabolically inactive and resistant to environmental insults, they actually monitor the external environment continuously in order to sense a specific germinant, i.e., life of a spore is determined by the balance between stabilization factors and germination effectors. One may suggest that this dynamic alert system is linked to the spore's multi-layered structure which can change with time. The structure of Bacillus spores and mechanisms of spore resistance and dormancy support the hypothesis on the spore's ability to act as a natural ionic reservoir accumulating/releasing ions in response to environmental stimuli. At least two of the spore integuments, cortex and core, can be considered as interacting ion-sensitive polymer networks with different mobility of small ions. Since the ...
  http://www.nsti.org/procs/Nanotech2007v2/8/X27.03
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Bacillus megaterium QM B1551
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
  http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?bmq00900
*  Spore Germination?
Your needle might have been too hot. Let it cool inthe water agar for 20-30 seconds before picking up the spores. Also, it often happens that % germination is low. I recommend spreading out the spores and leaving them to germinate overnight. Next day you can just pick off those that have actually germinated. This way you get 100% recovery. Good luck. Dave Brayford, IMI ---------- From: BIOSCI-REQUEST To: mycology Subject: Spore Germination? Date: 25 November 1995 5:51 I did monospore isolation with water agar and fine metal thread under microscopy. The agar that contained a single spore was cut and the isolated spore was cultured into PDA slants at 30 degree Celsius, but the germination rate was very low. Only 10 slants out of 200 slants germinated, did I do anything wrong ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/mycology/1995-November/003070.html
*  ASMscience | Spore Surface Display
A variety of bioactive peptides and proteins have been successfully displayed on the surface of recombinant spores of Bacillus subtilis and other sporeformers. In most cases, spore display has been achieved by stably anchoring the foreign molecules to endogenous surface proteins or parts of them. Recombinant spores have been proposed for a large number of potential applications ranging from oral vaccine vehicles to bioremediation tools, and including biocatalysts, probiotics for animal or human use, as well as the generation and screening of mutagenesis libraries. In addition, a nonrecombinant approach has been recently developed to adsorb antigens and enzymes on the spore surface. This nonrecombinant approach appears particularly well suited for applications involving the delivery of active molecules to human or animal mucosal surfaces. Both the recombinant and nonrecombinant spore display systems have a number of advantages over cell- or phage-based systems. The stability, ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TBS-0011-2012
*  Termites as models of swarm cognition | SpringerLink
Eusociality has evolved independently at least twice among the insects: among the Hymenoptera (ants and bees), and earlier among the Isoptera (termites). Studies of swarm intelligence, and by inference, swarm cognition, have focused largely on the bees and ants, while the termites have been relatively neglected. Yet, termites are among the world's premier animal architects, and this betokens a sophisticated swarm intelligence capability. In this article, I review new findings on the workings of the mound of Macrotermes which clarify how these remarkable structures work, and how they come to be built. Swarm cognition in these termites is in the form of "extended" cognition, whereby the swarm's cognitive abilities arise both from interaction amongst the individual agents within a swarm, and from the interaction of the swarm with the environment, mediated by the mound's dynamic architecture. The latter provides large scale "cognitive maps" which enable termite swarms to assess the functional ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11721-010-0049-1
*  Pollen : Map (The Full Wiki)
In angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a partially differentiated dermis. As the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form with in the anther, the fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of sterile cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac, some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. Four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell called a microsporocyte, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the development of the pollen grain walls begins. The callose wall is broken down by an enzyme called callase and the freed pollen grains grow in size and develop their characteristic shape and form a resistant outer wall called the exine and an inner wall called ...
  http://maps.thefullwiki.org/Pollen
*  Bacterial Spores Power Small Engine - Xaf Gadget
A car that runs on bacteria? It might not be quite the kind of car you're imagining, but researchers report they have built a rotary engine powered by bacterial spores.. A spore lengthens as it soaks up water from the air and shortens with evaporation. To harvest energy from those natural movements, biophysicist Ozgur Sahin and his Columbia University colleagues glued spores to both sides of small tapes, shown in yellow. When dry, the spores make the tapes curl; in humid surroundings, they stretch out.. The team arranged about 100 tapes evenly around a wheel scaffold and encased it in a moist shell that covers half of the wheel. After they rigged it up to a toylike car that weighs as little as a small apple, their contraption, reported in Nature Communications, actually propelled the car - albeit at less than 4 inches per minute.. ...
  http://xafiiska.com/bacterial-spores-power-small-engine
*  Fern Spore Propagation - How To Propagate A Fern Plant
Ferns provide airy foliage and texture for the home gardener, both as indoor and outdoor plants. Propagating ferns is easiest by division, but they can also be grown from their spores. Learn more here.
  https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/houseplants/ferns-houseplants/propagating-ferns.htm
*  Parasite spores, SEM - Stock Image Z115/0075 - Science Photo Library
Parasite spores. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of microsporidia (Tubulinosema ratisbonensis) spores cultured on human lung fibroblast cells (brown). Microsporidia are single-celled parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), but may also be able to infect humans with weakened immune systems. The spores are the infective phase of the life cycle. They are excreted by the host and enter the gut of a new host. The spores' contents, the sporoplasm, are injected into the host's cells via the polar tubule (two seen). Once in the cell the organism divides many times with the resultant organisms producing more spores. Magnification: x5100 at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image Z115/0075
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/365475/view
*  Swarms | Bee Culture
Now, sometimes we are lucky and can "hive the swarm" if the queen lands in a convenient and easy to reach location (not on a branch 200 feet in the air). But what really sucks about swarms, especially for queen breeders, is when their prized queen, (the one they've been collecting data on for the past few years; the one they are about to graft from to produce more queens), flies away - or as we seasoned beekeepers like to say, she "hits the trees." One of the largest swarms I ever saw was in the top of an old pine tree. It broke my heart because in the middle of that massive, unreachable swarm was one of my favorite queens that I was only days away from grafting from. If only I had a bucket truck, she would have been back inside a comfy hive. Instead, she flew away several days later - never to be seen again. Over the years, our bee lab receives numerous calls during the Spring months about swarms - from frustrated beekeepers to nervous public folk who are afraid to go outside due to the massive ...
  http://www.beeculture.com/swarms/
*  A fluid-driven earthquake swarm on the margin of the Yellowstone caldera - Shelly - 2013 - Journal of Geophysical Research:...
32] The association between fluid pressure fluctuations and earthquake swarms is supported by the observed spatial-temporal migration and the "swarm-like" character in which seismicity does not follow a decaying main shock-aftershock pattern [Mogi, 1963]. Seismic swarms are usually thought to reflect heterogeneous stresses and some type of external forcing, commonly either aseismic slip or fluid pressure increase [e.g., Vidale and Shearer, 2006]. For the 2010 Madison Plateau swarm, the spatial and temporal histories are most readily produced by a fluid pressure transient. In particular, an abrupt release of fluids into the fault zone could explain the abrupt initiation of the swarm and the fact that earthquake hypocenters eventually surround the point of initiation, both characteristics that deviate from patterns associated with earthquakes triggered by aseismic slip [e.g., Segall et al., 2006; Lohman and McGuire, 2007]. Though stress triggering from previous events is still a primary process, ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrb.50362/full
*  Fungal mould spores on a ragweed stamen, SEM - Stock Image C032/3290 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Fungal mould spores on a ragweed stamen. Powdery mildew mould hypha and spores. Moulds often produce allergic reactions and can cause serious agriculture diseases. Spores are usually produced at the ends of the fungal hyphae. Magnification: x500 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3290
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/800157/view
*  An invitation to die: initiators of sociality in a social amoeba become selfish spores | Biology Letters
In our experimental mixes, we observed large increases in the percentage of prestarved cells, indicating that early starvers cheat by forming more than their fair share of the spores, while forcing late starvers to produce disproportionately more sterile stalk cells (see electronic supplementary material). Roughly 20 per cent of the cells in an aggregate form the stalk, while 80 per cent form spores. If prestarved cells formed no stalk cells in 1 : 1 mixes with newly starved cells, we would see a 25 per cent increase in prestarved cells among the spores. We observed average increases in prestarved cells ranging from over half this maximum increase to almost the full amount, indicating that entering fruiting body development first is potentially a viable strategy for wild clones to increase their fitness at a cost to another clone.. Studies using wild-type cells showed that cells fed glucose preferentially form prespore cells, and then ...
  http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/6/800
*  Swarm Robotics | Technology Trends
Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs. ...
  http://www.primidi.com/swarm_robotics
*  Spore Hero details revealed for Wii and DS - Pocket-lint
As Pocket-lint reported back in January, Spore is coming to the Wii, and extending its presence on the DS handheld. Spore Hero and Spore Hero Arena will
  http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/95440-spore-hero-details-wii-ds
*  Spore API | ProgrammableWeb
The Spore API gives you access to the database for the game Spore from Maxis and Electronic Arts. Millions of custom content created and shared by the community of players. You can select items made by individual users, grouped by sporecasts or customize your search by other filters.
  https://www.programmableweb.com/api/spore
*  Oriental Fermented Foods - Foodelphi.com
Polished rice is soaked in water overnight ® drained ® steamed for 1 hr ® mixed with 2% of wood ash, for trace elements ® inoculate with A. oryzae spores ® Spread out in tray 1,5 cm ® cover with damp clothes ® incubate at 30C for 5 days (green to yellowish spores of A. oryzae mycellium ® spores are harvested ® dried at 50 C and stored at 15 C. [ 25×107 viable spore/gm of tane koji ...
  https://www.foodelphi.com/oriental-fermented-foods/
*  Will Wright's E3 Spore Presentation - Slashdot
moto writes 'ThinkGaming is reporting from E3, and had a chance to take a look at Will Wright's Spore during the early-hours press access. From the article: 'To start, Will showed an overview of the latest creature editing system. He mentioned that almost all parts of the editing system, from hands ...
  https://slashdot.org/story/06/05/10/2250233/will-wrights-e3-spore-presentation
*  Spore Available For Download - Games news
Games news - Spore has become available for download on the EA Store. Everyone willing to pay the bill can rush over and click the download button. Don't be too ha
  http://news.portalit.net/fullnews_spore-available-for-download_1504.html
*  Spore • Eurogamer.net
Sims creator enormously ambitious new project sees you control life from the petri dish to the Star Destroyer in a totally user-defined environment. ...
  http://www.eurogamer.net/games/spore
*  Spore | GamesRadar+
You don't need us to tell you that E3 is packed full of more games than you can shake an outsize third-party joypad at - an awful lot of which are
  http://www.gamesradar.com/spore-2/
*  Energizing Spores - Spell - World of Warcraft
Increases the enemy's stats by 30. This is an NPC Ability. Requires Druid. A spell from World of Warcraft. Always up to date with the latest patch.
  http://www.wowhead.com/spell=35336/energizing-spores
*  Yankees no longer want Sori - AP Sports - recordonline.com - Middletown, NY
NEW YORK - Rafael Soriano still is looking for a job, but the Yankees rejected agent Scott Boras' overtures about potentially bringing the free-agent reliever back on a one-year deal.
  http://www.recordonline.com/article/20130108/SPORTS90/301080327