*  Identification and characterization of a salivary adenosine deaminase from the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi, the vector of...
In their saliva, blood-feeding arthropods have potent pharmacologically active components that help them counteract the hemostatic and inflammatory system of the vertebrate host each time they attempt to take a blood meal (Ribeiro, 1987). Vasodilators, anticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation are part of this salivary mixture (Ribeiro and Francischetti, 2003). Recently, with the technological advances in DNA and protein sequencing, novel and unexpected molecules with potential biological activities have been isolated from the saliva of blood-feeding arthropods. Such molecules include hyalorunidase, nucleotidases, novel apyrases, amine-binding proteins, tissue-factor pathway inhibitors and others (Ribeiro and Francischetti, 2003). Another such protein is adenosine deaminase (ADA), which was identified from transcripts of a salivary gland cDNA library of the New World sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Charlab et al., 2000) and the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/210/5/733
*  Phlebotomus | definition of Phlebotomus by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Phlebotomus in the Medical Dictionary? Phlebotomus explanation free. What is Phlebotomus? Meaning of Phlebotomus medical term. What does Phlebotomus mean?
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Phlebotomus
*  Phlebotomus major | definition of Phlebotomus major by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Phlebotomus major in the Medical Dictionary? Phlebotomus major explanation free. What is Phlebotomus major? Meaning of Phlebotomus major medical term. What does Phlebotomus major mean?
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Phlebotomus+major
*  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Temporal Dynamics and Impact of Climate Factors on the Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous...
Author Summary Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease occurring in rural areas of developing countries. The main reservoirs are the rodents Psammomys obesus and Meriones shawi. Zoonotic Leishmania transmission cycle is maintained in the burrows of rodents where the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi finds the ideal environment and source of blood meals. In the present study we showed seasonality of the incidence of disease during the same cycle with an inter-epidemic period ranging from 4 to 7 years. We evaluated the impact of climate variables (rainfall, humidity and temperature) on the incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniais in central Tunisia. We confirmed that the risk of disease is mainly influenced by the humidity related to the months of July to September during the same season and mean rainfall lagged by 12 to 14 months.
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/email?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0001633
*  Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on on dogs against Phlebotomus perniciosus and...
Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on on dogs against Phlebotomus perniciosus and Ctenocephalides canis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
  http://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/aug2/150171179465-Efficacy-of-dinotefuran-permethrin-and-pyriproxyfen-combination-spot-on-on-dogs-against-Phlebotomus-perniciosus-and-Ctenocephalides-canis.php
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Antigenic Relationships among Phlebotomus Fever Group Arboviruses and...
Abstract The antigenic relationships of 21 known or presumed Phlebotomus fever group serotypes and of 2 ungrouped, solvent sensitive, sandfly-associated arboviruses (Pacui and Charleville) were studied by complement fixation, plaque neutralization, and hemagglutination-inhibition methods. Results of complement fixation and neutralization tests were specific, allowing clear separation of the various serotypes, while those of the hemagglutination-inhibition test showed broader crossing and lack of specificity. Pacui virus was shown to be a member of the Phlebotomus fever serogroup. Six new Phlebotomus fever group serotypes are also described, increasing the known members of the group to 22. The implications of these and other recent data about the epidemiology of sandfly fever are discussed.
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1975.24.135
*  Colonization of Phlebotomus papatasichanges the effect of pre-immunization with saliva from lack of protection towards...
Colonization of Phlebotomus papatasichanges the effect of pre-immunization with saliva from lack of protection towards protection against experimental challenge with Leishmania majorand saliva : Sand fly saliva has been postulated as a potential vaccine or as a vaccine component within multi component vaccine against leishmaniasis. It is important to note that these studies were performed using long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi . The effect of sand flies colonization on the outcome of Leishmania infection is reported. Results While pre-immunization of mice with salivary gland
  http://www.youscribe.com/catalogue/documents/savoirs/colonization-of-phlebotomus-papatasichanges-the-effect-of-2062212
*  "Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalp" by David S. Denlinger, Saul Lozano-Fuentes et al.
Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the ...
  https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/biology_facpub/1133/
*  A sand fly salivary chemotactic protein drives neutrophil migration and exacerbates Leishmania infection | The Journal of...
Neutrophils are the first cells recruited to the site of an infected sand fly bite and interact with Leishmania parasites. Here we investigate the effect of sand fly salivary proteins on neutrophil recruitment. We purified bone marrow neutrophils from C57BL/6 mice or from peripheral blood of healthy human or dog donors. Chemotaxis driven by sand fly saliva of vectors of visceral (Lutzomyia longipalpis) or cutaneous (Phlebotomus duboscqi) disease was measured by modified Boyden chamber assay and by imaging with the EZTAXIScan assay. Neutrophils migrated towards saliva glands of the vectors P. duboscqi and L. longipalpis, in a dose-dependent manner. Proteinase K treatment of saliva completely abrogated neutrophil recruitment, suggesting a protein as the chemotactic factor. To unearth the identity of the chemotactic protein, we generated plasmids coding for the 20 most abundant salivary proteins from P. duboscqi and injected them in the ears of C57BL/6 mice. ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/198/1_Supplement/77.15
*  British Library EThOS: Systematics and biology of Phlebotomine sandflies of the Visceral Leishmaniasis foci of Northern Pakistan
The aim of this study was to incriminate the vector (s) of visceral leishmaniasis in Northern Pakistan. Two contrasting disease foci were studied- Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK) and Northern Areas (NA) through monthly sampling. Studies on the systematics defined morphologically variable species of the subgenera Phlebolomus (Larrousslus) and P. (Adlerius). Morphological characters of all the species belonging to these subgenera were intensively studied. The species belonging to the subgenus Phlebotoinus (Larroussius) were identified as P. major, P.keshishiani, P.kandelakii burneyi and P. spA. and those belonging to subgenus Alderius as P.hindustanicus and P. salangensis. Species belonging to other subgenera. P (Phlebotomus) papatasi, P (Paraphlebtomus) sergentli and P (Paraphlebtomus) alexandri were easily identified. The longitudinal entomological studies were carried out in Bagh district (Rehra village) in AJK and Chilas district (Hudur village, 1200m and Thor ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.503500
*  Measurement of Recent Exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes, the Vector of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis, by Using Human Antibody...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2861389/
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Emergence of Toscana Virus in Europe - 16012 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus in central Italy. Many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the Mediterranean region have shown that TOSV has a tropism for the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. In central Italy, TOSV is the most frequent cause of meningitis from May to October, far exceeding enteroviruses. In other northern Mediterranean countries, TOSV is among the 3 most prevalent viruses associated with meningitis during the warm seasons. Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies. Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/16012
*  Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis definition
... zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis n. An acute form of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurring among people living in rural areas
  https://definithing.com/define-dictionary/zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis/
*  Phlebotomus noguchi definition | Drugs.com
Definition of Phlebotomus noguchi. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
  https://www.drugs.com/dict/phlebotomus-noguchi.html
*  Filamentous proteophosphoglycan secreted by Leishmania promastigotes forms gel-like three-dimensional networks that obstruct...
Development of Leishmania parasites in the digestive tract of their sandfly vectors involves several morphological transformations from the intracellular mammalian amastigote via a succession of free and gut wall-attached promastigote stages to the infective metacyclic promastigotes. At the foregut midgut transition of Leishmania-infected sandflies a gel-like plug of unknown origin and composition is formed, which contains high numbers of parasites, that occludes the gut lumen and which may be responsible for the often observed inability of infected sandflies to draw blood. This "blocked fly" phenotype has been linked to efficient transmission of infectious metacyclic promastigotes from the vector to the mammalian host. We show by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy on two Leishmania/sandfly vector combinations (Leishmania mexicana/Lutzomyia longipalpis and L. major/Phlebotomus papatasi) that the gel-like mass is formed mainly by a ...
  http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/56036/
*  Mating activity of Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on its larval host plant Solanum mauritianum Scopoli...
A detailed study was conducted on the mating behaviour of Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in nature. Plant tissues from Solanum mauritianum Scopoli, the primary larval host for B. cacuminata, were also analysed for methyl eugenol content. In the field, over a 15 month period, 44,171 observations of adult B. cacuminata individuals were made including 1109 mating pairs on S. mauritianum. Calling behaviour consisting of wing fanning and anus beating by males was also consistently observed on the underside of leaves of S. mauritianum after sunset. Female flies that arrived into these groups of 10-15 calling males were mated and often remained coupled until dawn. No methyl eugenol was detected from the analysis of leaves, flowers and fruits of S. mauritianum. Thus, B. cacuminata does not need to aggregate at sites where methyl eugenol is present and the hypothesis that this chemical plays a role in the selectiong of mating sites by B. cacuminata is not supported by the current ...
  https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/23587
*  Phleboviruses | Article about Phleboviruses by The Free Dictionary
Looking for Phleboviruses? Find out information about Phleboviruses. An acute viral infection, transmitted by the fly Phlebotomus papatosii and characterized by fever, pains in the head and eyes, inflammation of the... Explanation of Phleboviruses
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Phleboviruses
*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North...
Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic
  http://mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/8/3172/htm
*  In Tunisia, instances of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by are increasing | immune-source.com
immune Uncategorized 1135280-28-2 supplier, a 140 kDa B-cell specific molecule, Mouse monoclonal to CD22.K22 reacts with CD22 In Tunisia, instances of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the consequences of environmental adjustments could explain the way the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. Author Summary In Tunisia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a significant public health problem. Since 1884, the Gafsa, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid governorates are the most endemic areas of ZCL. This study used a multi-locus microsatellite ...
  http://www.immune-source.com/2017/08/in-tunisia-instances-of-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-are-increasing/
*  Quantification of the natural history of visceral leishmaniasis and consequences for control | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian sub-continent (ISC) is a disease caused by chronic infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, transmitted by the Phlebotomus argentipes sandfly. Clinically manifest visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar (KA), is progressive with a high mortality rate, and characterized by prolonged fever and an enlarged liver and/or spleen. Clinical and laboratory diagnostics are imprecise [1-4], partly because only a small proportion of infected individuals develop disease (so that the presence of infection alone is not diagnostic), and partly because the clinical features of VL overlap with those of other endemic diseases (e.g. hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly, typhoid fever and disseminated tuberculosis), so that clinical presentation alone is not diagnostic. The current diagnosis generally relies on clinical features, specifically a fever lasting at ...
  https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-1136-3
*  Saboya virus - Wikipedia
Il Saboya virus (SABV) è un arbovirus della famiglia dei Flaviviridae, genere Flavivirus, appartiene al IV gruppo dei virus a ((+) ssRNA). Il virus SEPV appartiene al gruppo dei virus della febbre gialla, gruppo costituito da nove specie del genere flavivirus. Il (SABV) è presente in Nigeria e Senegal ed anche in Guinea. Il virus SABV ha un genoma noto. Il virus ha un vettore sconosciuto anche se ricerche indicherebbero essere i Phlebotominae, tra i quali vi è il (Phlebotomus papatasi); mentre l'animale ospite è il pipistrello Nycteris gambiensis ed anche piccoli roditori. ^ Varelas-Wesley I, Calisher CH. Antigenic relationships of flaviviruses with undetermined arthropod-borne status. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982 Nov;31(6):1273-84. PubMed PMID 6293325. ^ Claude M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger and L.A. Ball, Virus Taxonomy: VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Academic Press, 15 luglio 2005, pp. 1257-, ISBN ...
  https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saboya_virus
*  Sandflies | definition of sandflies by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of sandflies in the Medical Dictionary? sandflies explanation free. What is sandflies? Meaning of sandflies medical term. What does sandflies mean?
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/sandflies
*  Molecular and Immunogenic Properties of Apyrase SP01B and D7-Related SP04 Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/526069/citations/
*  WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Sterna anaethetus Scopoli, 1786
additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details] ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=212605
*  Publications
Salehi A,Delcroix JD,Belichenko PV,Zhan K,Wu C,Valletta JS,Takimoto-Kimura R,Kleschevnikov AM,Sambamurti K,Chung PP,Xia W,Villar A,Campbell WA,Kulnane LS,Nixon RA,Lamb BT,Epstein CJ,Stokin GB,Goldstein LS,Mobley WC ...
  https://neurosciences.ucsd.edu/centers/down-syndrome-center/research/Pages/publications.aspx