*  Augmentation pharyngoplasty - Wikipedia
Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001) Pharyngeal flap surgery is a common alternative surgery. "Velopharyngeal Insufficiency". Vhi ... This type of surgery is best for patients with velopharyngeal defects. (Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001) Cartilage implants: ... Peterson-Falzone, Sally J., Hardin-Jones, Mary J., Karnell, Michael P. (2001). Cleft Palate Speech (3rd ed). USA: Mosby. Witt, ... Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001) Pg 320-321 Synthetic materials: synthetic materials used to augment the posterior pharyngeal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmentation_pharyngoplasty
*  Velopharyngeal inadequacy - Wikipedia
McWilliams, Betty Jane; Peterson-Falzone, Sally J.; Hardin-Jones, Mary A.; Karnell, Michael P. (2001). Cleft palate speech. St ... Velopharyngeal insufficiency: The inability of the velopharyngeal sphincter to sufficiently separate the nasal cavity from the ... Velopharyngeal inadequacy (VPI) is a malfunction of a velopharyngeal mechanism. The velopharyngeal mechanism is responsible for ... These other causes are outlined in the chart below: A common method to treat Velopharyngeal insufficiency is pharyngeal flap ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velopharyngeal_inadequacy
*  Obstructive sleep apnea - Wikipedia
McWilliams, Betty Jane; Peterson-Falzone, Sally J.; Hardin-Jones, Mary A.; Karnell, Michael P. (2001). Cleft palate speech (3rd ... apnea syndrome in children with cleft palate following Furlow palatoplasty or pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency ... The surgical treatment for velopalatal insufficiency may cause obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. When velopalatal insufficiency ... One of the surgical treatments for velopalatal insufficiency involves tailoring the tissue from the back of the throat and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obstructive_sleep_apnea
*  Pharyngeal flap surgery - Wikipedia
Some patients may even require secondary surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency. It is common that individuals who have to ... Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001). In 1979, Shprintzen advocated 'tailor-made' flaps, with the width of the flap determined by the ... Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001). Pharyngoplasties correcting hypernasal speech can be traced back as far as the 19th century ... Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001). In the 1970s, Hogan and Shprintzen advanced posterior pharyngeal flaps, leading to an increased ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharyngeal_flap_surgery