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*  Cyclospora cayetanensis - Wikipedia
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps primates. It has been linked in the United States to fecally contaminated imported produce, and was virtually unknown before about 1990, but has been on the rise since. The health risk associated with the disease is usually confined to adult foreigners visiting regions where the species is endemic and acquiring the infection; consequently, C. cayetanensis is a cause of "traveler's diarrhea". This species was placed in the Cyclospora genus because of the spherical shape of its sporocysts. The species name refers to the Cayetano Heredia University in Lima, Peru, where early epidemiological and taxonomic work was done. The first published report of Cyclospora cayetanensis in humans appears to be by Ashford (1979), who found unidentified Isospora-like coccidia in the feces of three individuals in Papua, New Guinea. The photomicrographs in the paper ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclospora_cayetanensis
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Cyclospora cayetanensis in a Pediatric Hospital in Morelia, México
Abstract. Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite, can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans and is characterized by watery and persistent diarrhea and abdominal pain. Cyclosporiasis has been associated with traveler's diarrhea. The infection is acquired through food and waterborne transmission, particularly by consumption of contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables. In the present study, stool samples from 8,877 children were examined for ova and parasites at the Pediatric Hospital of Morelia in Michoacán, Mexico, during 2000-2009. Sixty children (0.67%) had Cyclospora in their stools. Diarrhea (45.8%), abdominal pain (39.6%), and vomiting (18.8%) were the most frequent symptoms of cases with cyclosporiasis. Most of the cases (93.3%) were observed during June-August, the rainy season. In 45 children, Cyclospora was the only ...
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0535
*  Go to Cyclosporiasis.
Cyclosporiasis FAQ. Cyclosporiasis What is cyclosporiasis? Cyclosporiasis is an infection of the intestine caused by a parasite called Cyclospora cayetanensis (SIGH-clo-SPORE-uh KYE-uh-tuh-NEN-sis). The first known human cases of Cyclospora infection (cyclosporiasis) were reported in 1979.. Who gets cyclosporiasis? People of all ages can get this infection. Although travelers to tropical countries may be at increased risk from exposure to contaminated water or food, the disease also occurs in the United States. The risk may vary with season; cases are reported year-round, but the majority of cases and outbreaks are reported during the spring and summer months. Persons who have previously been infected with Cyclospora can become infected again.. How is cyclosporiasis spread? The disease can be spread when a form of the Cyclospora parasite that can make someone sick enters the body through the mouth. People with cyclosporiasis pass the ...
  http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/cyclosporiasis/
*  Cyclospora cases up in the US this summer - Outbreak News Today
According to a Health Alert Network published Monday, as of August 2, 2017, 206 cases of Cyclospora infections have been reported to CDC in persons who became infected in the United States and became ill on or after May 1, 2017. These cases have been reported from 27 states, most of which have reported relatively few cases. Eighteen cases reported hospitalization; no deaths have been reported.. Related: Texas cyclospora cases top 2016 numbers. The number of cases (206) reported in 2017, is higher than the number of cases reported by this date in 2016. As of August 3, 2016, 88 Cyclospora infections had been reported in persons who became infected in the United States and became ill on or after May 1, 2016.. LISTEN: Parasites 101: Cyclospora. At this time, no specific vehicle of interest has been identified, and investigations to identify a potential source of infection are ongoing. It is too early to say whether cases of ...
  http://outbreaknewstoday.com/cyclospora-cases-us-summer-51339/
*  Canada cyclospora outbreak tops 100 cases - Outbreak News Today
Since July 14, 47 additional cases were reported. A total of 104 cases have been reported in two provinces: British Columbia (6) and Ontario (98).. The source of the outbreak has not been identified. To date, no multi-jurisdictional outbreaks of Cyclospora have been linked to produce grown in Canada.. The most common way that Cyclospora is spread is by eating food or drinking water that contains the Cyclospora parasite.. Cyclospora is not common on food and is not in drinking water in Canada.. However, food can be a source of cyclosporiasis for Canadians when imported from countries where Cyclospora is common. Foods imported to Canada that have been linked to the Cyclospora parasite include:. ...
  http://outbreaknewstoday.com/canada-cyclospora-outbreak-tops-100-cases-97420/
*  The first two cases of Cyclospora in dogs, São Paulo, Brazil
YAI, Lúcia Eiko Oishi et al. The first two cases of Cyclospora in dogs, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 1997, vol.39, n.3, pp.177-180. ISSN 1678-9946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46651997000300011.. Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidium which has been identified in diarrheal feces or immunocompetent individuals or in AIDS patients. The main aspects related to its epidemiology and pathogeny have not been solved so far, as well as the possibility of human infection by this protozoan being a zoonosis. We describe in this work the first case identifying the Cyclospora in dogs. Our findings, notwithstanding their preliminary characteristics, could suggest that besides untreated water, other transmission means, along with contact with dogs, there could be important factors in the human diarrhea associated with Cyclospora. Keywords : Coccidia; ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0036-46651997000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Cyclospora cayetanensis - microbewiki
Cyclospora cayetanensis infects the epithelial cells that line the small intestine using several mechanisms, however much is still not known about this parasites virulence factors and characteristics used to infected the host. Of course it is known that several requirements are needed for a parasite to cause disease in a host, and without these, the parasite would not be able to invade the host. These requirements include the ability for the organism's infectious form, and in the case of Cyclospora , its oocyst, to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The oocyst has a thick bilayered wall, allowing the organism to be environmentally resistant and able to survive until ingestion of a host, and allows the pathogen to survive while traveling through the stomach to get to the small intestine where it wants to be. [10] This characteristic help the oocyst to survive a chlorination process of water, leaving it still contaminated by the pathogen. Another helpful feature of the ...
  https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Cyclospora_cayetanensis
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Henan, China - 10816 | CDC Public...
To determine prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection in Henan, China, we conducted a study of 11,554 hospital patients. Prevalence was 0.70% (95% confidence interval 0.70% ± 0.15%), with all age groups infected. Most cases were found in the summer. Minor sequence polymorphisms were observed in the 18S rRNA gene of 35 isolates characterized ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/10816
*  Cyclospora Infection in Adults Infected with HIV: Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Prophylaxis | Annals of Internal...
Results:. 804 of 2400 patients (33%) seropositive for HIV had a history of chronic or intermittent diarrhea; 502 of these 804 patients (62%) currently had diarrhea, and 450 patients each provided two stool specimens for examination. Enteric protozoa identified included Cryptosporidium (30%), Isospora belli (12%), Cyclospora species (11%), Giardia lamblia (3%), and Entamoeba histolytica (1%). Forty-three patients with diarrhea and Cyclospora infection were studied; their symptoms were indistinguishable from those seen in patients with isosporiasis or cryptosporidiosis. In all patients, diarrhea ceased and results from stool examinations were negative within 2.5 days after beginning oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. Recurrent symptomatic cyclosporiasis developed in 12 of 28 patients (43%) followed for 1 month or more, but it also ...
  http://annals.org/aim/article/708136/cyclospora-infection-adults-infected-hiv-clinical-manifestations-treatment-prophylaxis
*  Cyclosporiasis | Wisconsin Department of Health Services
Cyclospora cayetanensis Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by an infection with a microscopic one-celled parasite named Cyclospora cayetanensis. The first known human cases of cyclosporiasis were reported in 1979. People can become infected with Cyclospora by consuming food or water contaminated with the parasite. People traveling to countries where the disease is endemic may be at increased risk for infection.
  https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/disease/cyclosporiasis.htm
*  Cyclospora Infection (Cyclosporiasis) Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes
Cyclospora cayetanensis (8-10 µm in diameter), a coccidian protozoan parasite, produces an intestinal infection in nonimmune persons that is ultimately self-limited (lasting up to 7-9 wk) and characterized by cyclical diarrhea (explosive at times; up to numerous times per day), accompanied by fatigue, malaise, anorexia, nausea, weight loss, a...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236105-clinical
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Asian freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) were exposed for 24 hr in 38 liters of water contaminated with 1.0 x 10(5) Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts (2.6 x 10(3) oocysts/L). The hemolyph and gill smears of 30 clams were examined by acid-fast stain on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 18 postexposure (PE). Since no oocysts were detected in the water 24 hr after contamination by the membrane filter-dissolution method, the oocyst retention rate was 4.6 X 10(2) oocysts/clam. The prevalence of oocyst-positive clams significantly decreased (P < 0.01) from 93% to 47% during 13 days PE. None of the clams contained oocysts on day 18 PE; no oocysts were detected in the clam feces. The numbers of oocysts recovered from six clam size classes varied and significantly decreased with smaller clam size (P < 0.01). The lowest prevalence values of oocyst-positive clams, 45% and 34%, were observed in the two lowest size classes: 12.1-14.0 mm and 14.1-16.0 mm, respectively. The prevalence values in the ...
  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1998.59.928
*  Parasites 101: Cyclospora - Outbreak News Today
Just in the past week, I reported on cyclospora outbreaks in Ontario, Canada and Texas and an increase in cases in New York City on this website.. Parasitologist and author of the book, Parasites: Tales of Humanity's Most Unwelcome Guests, Rosemary Drisdelle joined me to discuss Cyclospora in the latest installment of Parasites 101 on the Outbreak News Interviews podcast.. ...
  http://outbreaknewstoday.com/parasites-101-cyclospora-15644/
*  Outbreak News This Week: Cyclospora, Vaccine falsehoods debunked - Outbreak News Today
On the Aug. 6 show, the main topics discussed were about the parasite, Cyclospora and a look at vaccines and some of the falsehoods concerning this life-saving science.. In the first half, Parasitologist and author of the book, Parasites: Tales of Humanity's Most Unwelcome Guests, Rosemary Drisdelle joined me to discuss Cyclospora.. During the second half, Public health physician and a vaccinologist, Melvin Sanicas, MD joined me to discuss several topics on vaccines to include how they are made, how they work and a look at several misconceptions.. ...
  http://outbreaknewstoday.com/outbreak-news-week-cyclospora-vaccine-falsehoods-debunked-28460/
*  2 Cases of Cyclospora in Connecticut - NBC Connecticut
More than 250 cases of Cyclospora infection have been reported in the United States since July 22, including two reported cases in Connecticut.
  https://www.nbcconnecticut.com/news/local/US-Cyclosporiasis-Outbreak-Includes-Connecticut-216759151.html
*  Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites: Case of the Week 267
Agree about the cyclospora! Yikes! We ran over 80 Cyclospora tests yesterday, and we're at a ~10% positivity rate. Sometimes the specimens are loaded and sometimes it's just a few. We're picking them up on our modified safranin stain for Cyclospora (they stain red like on a modified acid fast stain) as well as on the O&P wet prep. When we see them on wet prep, we confirm them using the safranin stain. Perhaps I will include a Cyclospora case for you in the weeks :) ...
  http://parasitewonders.blogspot.com/2013/07/case-of-week-267_30.html
*  Raw Vegetables Associated with Iowa Cyclospora Food Poisoning
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, is at the center of a Cyclospora outbreak that appears to be linked to raw veggies. The parasite previously has been found in imported produce
  http://foodpoisoningbulletin.com/2013/raw-vegetables-associated-with-iowa-cyclospora-food-poisoning/
*  Ways to prevent illness from Cyclospora, which has sicked 372 - UPI.com
Cyclospora, a one-cell parasite often misidentified as a stomach virus, sickened 372 people in 16 U.S. states, but experts say it can be prevented.
  https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2013/07/31/Ways-to-prevent-illness-from-Cyclospora-on-food/UPI-22991375246975/?st_rec=4551402062349
*  The Toxoplasma Blog: Emerging food-borne parasites
Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be ...
  http://toxoplasmaparasite.blogspot.com/2009/06/emerging-food-borne-parasites.html
*  Rare Parasite Attacks 9th County Resident - tribunedigital-sunsentinel
Health officials on Wednesday confirmed another case of cyclospora infection - in a man who attended a dinner party after which seven of the 12 guests developed severe diarrhea, nausea and other
  http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1995-06-29/news/9506290101_1_cyclospora-parasite-public-health-unit
*  News & Perspective | Page 9 | CIDRAP
Cilantro grown in the Puebla, Mexico, area is suspected as the cause of some cases in a summer outbreak of Cyclospora infections in Texas. ...
  http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective?f%5B0%5D=field_country%3A180&page=8
*  War on Bacteria: Health News: Health-department investigating cyclospora outbreak ♦ How neurons control muscle movement ♦...
New family of bio inspired antibiotic compounds developed The first results of a study of a new antibacterial compound based on natural peptides capable of selectively killing resistant pathogens have been released by scientists. The study has proved that these compounds are highly active against clinically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In vitro and in vivo tests have showed compounds' low toxicity. ...
  http://waronbacteria.blogspot.com/2015/06/health-news-health-department.html
*  Salad pegged in Iowa, Neb. cyclospora outbreak
Health officials in Iowa and Nebraska on Tuesday identified prepackaged salad mix as the source of a severe stomach bug that sickened hundreds of people in both states, but federal authorities said it's ...
  https://finance.yahoo.com/news/salad-pegged-iowa-neb-cyclospora-193659340.html
*  Fresh produce : Food Safety Watch
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has announced that Costco Wholesale Canada Inc. is voluntarily recalling Alpine Fresh brand Snap Peas from the market because of possible contamination with the protozoan parasite Cyclospora. The recall includes 2-pound packs of Alpine Fresh Snap Peas with 'best before' dates from 15-OC-01 to 15-OC-29 inclusive. The product was […]. Continue Reading. ...
  http://www.foodsafetywatch.org/tag/fresh-produce/
*  Stomach Bug Sickens People in More States
A parasite has sickened another 16 people, bringing the stomach bug outbreak total to 285 patients in 11 states as of Wednesday night, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cyclospora, the one-celled parasite that causes diarrhea, stomach cramps and other symptoms normally...
  https://www.yahoo.com/gma/blogs/abc-blogs/stomach-bug-sickens-people-3-more-states-161019881.html