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*  Ascochyta pisi - Wikipedia
These fungal spores then penetrate the leaf. In the spring, it produces conidia in pycnidia. The release of these spores begins ... Symptoms appear within 2-4 days after initial infection. The Ascochyta pisi spores are viable on crop debris, although they do ... not survive for more than a year. Other Ascochyta blight pathogens have thick walled chlamydospores, which can survive for up ... field as possible in order to limit the spread of infection. The spores have a short distance dispersal during the growing ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascochyta_pisi
*  Alternaria black spot of canola - Wikipedia
... initial spores can persist in the environment and survive without a host, until conditions are favorable for infection. Conidia ... When a spore lands on plant tissue, it infects via an appresorium and infection peg that directly penetrates the leaf. This ... There are no macroscopic signs of the pathogen, however conidia and fungal hyphae can be observed microscopically inside ... The prevalence of the disease varies from year to year based on fluctuations in temperature and moisture, especially during ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_black_spot_of_canola
*  Alternaria solani - Wikipedia
Initial infection occurs on older leaves, with concentric dark brown spots developing mainly in the leaf center. The disease ... Mature lesions are typically covered by a black, velvety mass of fungal spores that may be visible under proper light ... In the spring, conidia are produced. Multicellular conidia are splashed by water or by wind onto an uninfected plant. The ... Clear infected debris from field to reduce inoculum for the next year. Water plants in the morning so plants are wet for the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_solani
*  Black knot
In the spring, two winters after initial infection, the fungus produces sexual spores called ascospores. The ascospores develop ... that produces abundant olive-green conidia during the summer on the surfaces of one-year-old knots (Figure 9). It appears that ... However, the fungal disease-causing agent has been present for quite some time. The pathogen's presence disrupts the normal ... The germinating ascospores have the ability to penetrate unwounded surfaces of elongating, green shoots directly. ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/ascomycetes/Pages/BlackKnot.aspx
*  Corn grey leaf spot - Wikipedia
... unlike most spores that need to penetrate within hours to ensure survival. Once infection occurs, the conidia are produced in ... Burying the debris under the last year's crop will help in reducing the presence of Cercospera zeae-maydis, as the fungal- ... Susceptible varieties should not be planted in previously infected areas (see high risk table). The amount of initial inoculum ... the characteristic grey color that follows is due to the production of grey fungal spores (conidia) on the lesion surface. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corn_grey_leaf_spot
*  Podosphaera macularis - Wikipedia
Following infection, masses of asexual spores (conidia) will be produced during the season. It is these masses of conidia that ... Conidia can be produced at temperatures above 25oC, but their infectivity is often reduced. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal ... In addition, solar irradiation can kill released spores, but as hops grow, the sun can't penetrate the dense canopy. The two ... Many of them operate by either causing the initial haustorium to lyse, or by preventing the pathogen from spreading. The spread ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podosphaera_macularis
*  Glomerella graminicola - Wikipedia
Initial necrotic spots or lesions can be seen within 72 hours after infection by conidia. Lower leaves that develop lesions ... In the spring, fruiting structures (acervuli) form from corn residue and produce spores (conidia) that are dispersed by wind ... Tillage systems that are able to fully bury corn residue deep underground along with one year crop rotation will reduce the ... Keeping in mind, hybrid selection may be resistant to leaf blight but they are not necessary resistant to other fungal diseases ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomerella_graminicola
*  Alternaria dauci - Wikipedia
Initial threshold recommendations vary depending on location, time of year, and moisture level. Different recommendations ... Petiole infection can also occur without any lesion development on leaflets, and A. dauci can additionally result in damping- ... Following these events, conidia are repeatedly produced from leaf and stem lesions throughout the summer months, allowing the ... Mycelium and spores are spread through splashing rain, tools for cultivation or contaminated soils. Alternaria diseases, in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_dauci
*  Fungi facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Fungi
AM fungi (in the Zygomycota order Glomales) form an endo-infection by penetrating rootlets to form coils and vesicles or finely ... The hyphae grow until they form an extensive mycelium of fungal tissue. At this point a young fruiting body initial (or button ... Molds, such as Penicillium, produce microscopic asexual fruiting bodies that in turn produce asexual spores called conidia on ... Each year the diameter of the ring will increase while the mycelium dies out in the middle because the food base is exhausted. ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/fungi
*  Peronospora hyoscyami f.sp. tabacina - Wikipedia
Each year Peronospora Hyoscyami is introduced as blue mold, known as windblown spores from outside the region by infected ... This infection is called "systemic infection". The infection causes a stunt in growth and the leaves become narrow and short. ... Downy mold carries thousands of small reproductive units called conidia If conidia forms at different spots in the seedbed an ... The disease spreads rapidly because of the fungal pathogen. The rate of continental spread is based on the potential for high ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peronospora_hyoscyami_f.sp._tabacina
*  Sphaceloma perseae - Wikipedia
After the initial infection, lesions may spread to more parts of the plant such as twigs and leaf petioles. The symptoms on the ... In the places where the pathogen is present, windy conditions are what most favor dispersal of fungal spores. These regions ... During cool, moist weather, conidia may be formed on infected leaves, twigs and fruit. They are carried to infection courts by ... The Florida avocado industry brings in nearly $35 million per year, and sells 80% of the crop out-of-state. Its economic impact ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaceloma_perseae
*  PP-232/PG133: 2013 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Guava (Psidiumguajava)
Conidia (asexual spores) are the fungal structures responsible for anthracnose infection. Conidia are produced on dead twigs, ... Initial infections of the pathogen have been presumed to be via airborne basidiospores released from the gills on the ... fields for onset of disease or during the times of year when environmental conditions are favorable for pathogen infection are ... The pathogens are capable of directly penetrating host tissues. Once infected, the fungus reproduces abundantly from the lower ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg133
*  Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fungi - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The following describes the infection process of asexual spores. Spore Attachment. When a rust spore lands on a plant surface ... Like the many other species of the genus Penicillium, P. chrysogenum reproduces by forming dry chains of spores (or conidia) ... Avoid breathing dust (fungal spores) generated by moldy building materials, crops, and other materials. ... Rust fungi penetrate the plant by using the natural pores on the underside of a leaf, but first the growing germ tube must ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Nature/Fungi
*  Thousand cankers disease - Wikipedia
Initial description of thousand cankers disease in a refereed journal occurred in August 2009. Symposia dedicated to this new ... The fungal mycelium initially colonize tissue immediately surrounding the beetle galleries. However, in less than a month black ... Cankers also may continue to expand and penetrate into the cambium of the tree. Each such injury destroys the phloem and robs ... They predicted the annual wood product loss after established infection would have a total value of $36,333,677, with a loss of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thousand_cankers_disease
*  Dactylellina haptotyla - Wikipedia
The sub-cuticle swells and infection bulbs permeate the body. The infection bulb is separated from the sticky knob with septum ... The spindle spores can develop into adhesive knob in the presence of nematodes. The adhesive knob is a globose adhesive cell ... The initial transcriptional responses begin after one hour of attachment. Approximately 40% of nematodes were paralyzed after ... A conventional system was soil plots that were fertilized by inorganic matters and grown with cover crop every four year. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dactylellina_haptotyla
*  From the patient to the clinical mycology laboratory: how can we optimise microscopy and culture methods for mould...
The incidence of fungal infection in the immunocompromised has continued to increase over the last two or three decades. ... Initial specimen processing and microscopy. Samples from patients at risk of fungal infections with the UK category Hazard ... Challenges and pitfalls of morphologic identification of fungal infections in histologic and cytologic specimens: a ten-year ... for example systemic Aspergillus or Candida infection, or a penetrating keratomycosis due to Candida, Aspergillus, Fusarium or ...
  http://jcp.bmj.com/content/65/6/475
*  Introduction
The criteria for fungal infection was to detect any yellow pustule of C. abietis on Norway spruce needles. Five random sample ... Initial hyphae were growing from tips of the spores. On the malt agar the fungus produced secondary basidiospores, but later ... The upper rust sori are free of infection. Fig. 5. Conidia of Eudarluca caricis, stained by Cotton blue. Scale bar = 10 m m. ... In case of severe infection, almost all needles were lost from the last-year-growth shoots, only new-growth shoots and needles ...
  http://www.angelfire.com/wy/tianfuw/chrysomyxa.html
*  Fungicide use in the United States - Wikipedia
The secondary infection stage occurs when the infected leaves and flower grow conidia, these conidia release spores which will ... Planting occurs year-round. Banana bunches are ready for harvest 12 to 15 months after initial planting. On a banana plantation ... Sigatoka spores will incubate on the leaves for up to six days before penetrating the leaf. After this the infection will ... Powdery mildew is a common fungal infection of apples and can occur in almost any apple growing climate. The spores from fungi ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungicide_use_in_the_United_States
*  Guide to Wheat Diseases and Pests
Symptoms: Initial infection sites tend to be irregular in shape, oval to elongated chlorotic spots or lesions. As these sites ... conidia) Diapause A period of dormancy Exudate Gel-like accumulation of spores or bacterial ooze. Foot rot Disease symptoms, ... grayish fungal tissue Scab (Head Blight) *Superficial dark fungal tissue Spot Blotch Black Point Black Molds *Dark fungal ... Development: The primary infection originates from ascospores in fruiting bodies produced by sclerotia from the previous year's ...
  https://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wheatpests
*  2006 Potomac Division Meeting Abstracts
High transformation efficiency was achieved due to an improved induction stage following initial Agrobacterium infection. In ... Access to web-based information about fungal geographic distribution, host range, and scientific names using the USDA-ARS ... Techniques for the detection of P. ramorum spores in the soil are needed to give regulators a tool to prevent the spread of ... In 2004, soybean rust was identified for the first time in the continental U.S. in 9 states, and last year the disease was ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/members/divisions/pot/meetings/Pages/2006MeetingAbstracts.aspx
*  Fungus - Wikipedia
However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ... Money NP (1998). "Mechanics of invasive fungal growth and the significance of turgor in plant infection". Molecular Genetics of ... Asexual reproduction occurs via vegetative spores (conidia) or through mycelial fragmentation. Mycelial fragmentation occurs ... "Acaulosporoid glomeromycotan spores with a germination shield from the 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert". Mycological Progress ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus
*  2003 Southern Division Meeting Abstracts
While all three species produced conidia from 6 to 30°C, greatest numbers of conidia or conidia with dark pigmentation, which ... Based on first year results, CCR has a greater role than pre-till herbicide in the suppression of leaf spot by strip-tillage. ... Accumulation of amorphous material was a typical feature of cell reaction to infection by M. grisea in samples from plants with ... A spore suspensions was prepared by adding 20 ml distilled water to a PDA culture and disloding spores with a camel brush. ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/members/divisions/south/meetings/Pages/2003MeetingAbstracts.aspx
*  Search | Aspergillus & Aspergillosis Website
Infection usually begins when its spores (conidia) are inhaled into the airways, where they germinate, forming hyphae that ... Disease is primarily initiated upon the inhalation of the ubiquitous airborne conidia-the initial inoculum produced by A. ... year Potential Usefulness of Early Potassium Supplementation for Preventing Severe Hypokalemia Induced by Liposomal ... Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd) is linked ...
  https://www.aspergillus.org.uk/articles
*  PDMG-V3-50/PG056: 2015 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Strawberry
... with lesions becoming visible on green and ripening fruit 2 to 4 weeks after infection. Direct infection of fruit by spores is ... These spores (conidia) are dispersed by air, by water, and by harvesters to infect flowers during the main bloom period in ... Initial symptoms are wilting of the plant and browning of the margins and interveins of older leaves. Younger leaves may remain ... Bacteria can survive on dry infested leaves and tissue buried in the soil for up to 1 year. The pathogen is mainly dispersed by ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg056
*  Kingdom Fungi Continued Fungal Phyla 3 phyla but 4 groups: Phylum Zygomycota (zygomycetes or bread molds): Meiospores made by...
Fungal Phyla 3 phyla but 4 groups 4th group? Fungi that don't make meiospores (to our knowledge) Called Imperfect Fungi ... Yeast infection between toes 14 Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota Some ascomata are edible and highly prized by gourmets Truffles (worth ... These called conidia. Each can start new mycelium. 12 Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota Yeasts: an important group of (mostly) ... 19 Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota Sometimes form circle as fungus grows from initial point: "fairy ring" ...
  http://slideplayer.com/slide/4014458/