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*  Hafnium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table
Element Hafnium (Hf), Group 4, Atomic Number 72, d-block, Mass 178.49. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Common oxidation states. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as ... Hafnium oxide is used as an electrical insulator in microchips, while hafnium catalysts have been used in polymerisation ... Hafnium has been successfully alloyed with several metals including iron, titanium and niobium. ...
  http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/72/hafnium
*  US Patent # 6,982,132. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same - Patents.com
Metal nitrides such as those of titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, niobium and hafnium may also be used. In the most ... While these metals may be employed as current collectors 130, since some of these metals may be less resistant to oxidation by ... nickel oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide, titanium oxide, iron oxide, chromium oxide, and mixed metal oxides comprising at ... nickel oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide, titanium oxide, iron oxide, chromium oxide, and mixed metal oxides comprising at ...
  http://patents.com/us-6982132.html
*  US6291868B1 - Forming a conductive structure in a semiconductor device - Google Patents
The selective oxidation is performed in a single-wafer rapid thermal processing system, in which a selected ambient, including ... Selective oxidation can be performed to reduce the amount of oxidation of selected materials in a structure containing multiple ... hydrogen, is used to ensure low oxidation of a selected material, such as tungsten or a metal nitride. ... titanium silicide nitride (TiSixNy), tantalum silicide (TaSix), tantalum silicide nitride (TaSixNy), molybdenum silicide (MoSix ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US6291868
*  Forgings and Forged Stock Specifications | Engineering360
Tantalum / Tantalum Alloy Tantalum is an extremely corrosion resistant refractory metal. Tantalum can be fabricated by ... Reactive metals combine readily with oxygen at elevated temperatures to form very stable oxides. Titanium, zirconium, and ... They are magnetic, have good ductility, and resistant against corrosion and oxidation. Ferritic stainless steels have chromium ... hafnium (Hf), thorium (Th), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), rhenium ( ), and titanium (Ti). Refractory metals and ...
  http://www.globalspec.com/SpecSearch/SearchForm/materials_chemicals_adhesives/stock_fabricated_materials_components/forgings_forged_stock
*  Patent US5527442 - Refractory protective coated electroylytic cell components - Google Patents
... hafnium, vanadium, silicon, niobium, tantalum, nickel, molybdenum and iron and at least one refractory oxide of rare earth ... inter-metallic compounds and mixtures of one of titanium, chromium, zirconium, ... Protection of non-carbon anodes and other oxidation resistant components with iron oxide-containing coatings. ... aluminide or oxide of at least one of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, silicon, niobium, tantalum, nickel, molybdenum ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5527442?dq=6,332,126
*  Surface hardened biocompatible metallic medical implants - Smith & Nephew Richards Inc.
... titanium alloy implants which do not include any elements which have be ... abrasion resistant high strength, biocompatible metal medical implants, in particular, ... for purposes of internal oxidation. Ti--Nb alloys may contain zirconium, aluminum, yttrium, hafnium, or tantalum in ... WEAR-RESISTANT TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME. 1969-10-07. Wood. 148/237. ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5415704.html
*  Patent US5916518 - Cobalt-base composition - Google Patents
... and this composite significantly improves the cyclic oxidation resistance of the coating compared to the properties of the ... hafnium, niobium, titanium, and tantalum; sacrificial oxide formers such as chromium; carbide formers such as zirconium; ... Oxidation resistant rhenium alloys. US20040056074 *. Nov 8, 2001. Mar 25, 2004. Sjodin Per Erik. Material for joining and ... This composition may also include aluminum, chromium, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, hafnium, tantalum, iron, ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5916518?dq=%235,519,867
*  US6208016B1 - Forming submicron integrated-circuit wiring from gold, silver, copper and other metals - Google Patents
Examples of suitable barrier materials include zirconium, hafnium, titanium, tantalum, and tantalum nitride. The principle ... Integrated circuit with oxidation-resistant polymeric layer US6183564B1 (en) * 1998-11-12. 2001-02-06. Tokyo Electron Limited. ... Ernest, et al., "Growth Model for Metal Films on Oxide Surface Cu on ZnO (0001) -O″", Physical Review B, 47, 13782-13796, (May ... hafnium, tantalum, and titanium and at least one of gold, silver, and copper. ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US6208016?oq=6985872
*  Patente US3677795 - Method of making a prosthetic device - Google Patentes
... tantalum, niobium, vanadium, molybdenum, aluminum, zirconium, titanium and hafnium. Generally, such an element would not be ... Interstitially protected oxidation resistant carbon-carbon composite. US4846834 *. 16 Mar 1988. 11 Jul 1989. Clemson University ... Zirconium oxide and nitride coated prosthesis for wear and corrosion resistance. US5258022 *. 4 Feb 1992. 2 Nov 1993. Smith & ... titanium, tantalum, boron, tungsten, niobium, vanadium, molybdenum, aluminum, or hafnium. ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US3677795?dq=flatulence
*  Heavy metals - Wikipedia
Hafnium oxide, an insulator, is used as a voltage controller in microchips; tantalum oxide, another insulator, is used in ... Ruthenium(IV) oxide coated titanium anodes are used for the industrial production of chlorine. Home electrical systems, for the ... and to lead to make it harder and more acid-resistant. The biocidal effects of some heavy metals have been known since ... to exist in different oxidation states and therefore act as catalysts; poorly overlapping 3d or 4f orbitals (in iron, cobalt, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metals
*  US20060035102A1 - Strengthened bond coats for thermal barrier coatings - Google Patents
... the adherence of a thermal barrier coating to an underlying metal substrate to resist spallation without degrading oxidation ... tantalum, about 5.80% aluminum, about 0.80% titanium, about 0.06% hafnium, about 0.4% niobium, balance nickel and incidental ... The oxide scale, often referred to as a thermally grown oxide (TGO), primarily develops from selective oxidation of the ... Oxidation-resistant film and its deposition method, thermal barrier coating, heat-resistant member, and gas turbine ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US20060035102A1/en
*  Intermetallic alloys for use in the processing of steel - Patent # 5824166 - PatentGenius
The substitutional elements that may be added are boron, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, ... The resistance to oxidation and scaling of furnace rolls made from the nickel aluminide alloys are equal to or more resistant ... The alloys generally are protected from oxidation by the formation of an alumina (aluminum oxide . . . Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) ... Titanium, Strengtheners Nickel Hafnium, Columbium Creep Precipitation Tantalum, Tungsten Strengtheners Zirconium Creep ...
  http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5824166.html
*  Zirconium - Wikipedia
The liquid-liquid extraction of the thiocyanate-oxide derivatives exploits the fact that the hafnium derivative is slightly ... Zardiackas, Lyle D.; Kraay, Matthew J. & Freese, Howard L. (1 January 2006). Titanium, niobium, zirconium and tantalum for ... Zirconium is highly resistant to corrosion by alkalis, acids, salt water and other agents. However, it will dissolve in ... In general, these compounds are colourless diamagnetic solids wherein zirconium has the oxidation state +4. Far fewer Zr(III) ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zirconium
*  Patent US5415704 - Surface hardened biocompatible metallic medical implants - Google Patents
... tantalum, aluminum, silicon, chromium, or thorium via internal oxidation or nitridation. Alternatively, nitrogen, oxygen, or ... Further, the invention provides methods of strengthening and hardening the surfaces of other titanium, zirconium, and cobalt- ... titanium alloy implants which do not include any elements which have been shown or suggested as having short term or long term ... abrasion resistant high strength, biocompatible metal medical implants, in particular, ...
  http://www.google.ca/patents/US5415704
*  Refractory metals - Wikipedia
Tantalum is one of the most corrosion resistant substances available. Many important uses have been found for tantalum owing to ... Zirconium, Hafnium, and Titanium". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 53 (2): 97-104. doi:10.1021/ie50614a019. Hayes, Earl ( ... Especially the oxide of rhenium is more volatile than the metal, and therefore at high temperature the stabilization against ... It is used as a catalyst in reactions such as alkylation, dealkylation, hydrogenation and oxidation. However its rarity makes ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refractory_metals
*  Anodizing - Wikipedia
Anodized titanium is used in a recent generation of dental implants. An anodized oxide layer has a thickness in the range of 30 ... hafnium, and tantalum. Iron or carbon steel metal exfoliates when oxidized under neutral or alkaline microelectrolytic ... which slowly dissolves the aluminium oxide. The acid action is balanced with the oxidation rate to form a coating with ... The coatings are hard and corrosion resistant. Zinc or galvanized steel can be anodized at lower voltages (20-30 V) as well ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anodizing
*  Patent US6825132 - Manufacturing method of semiconductor device including an insulation film on ... - Google Patents
Titanium is typical of refractory metal. Refractory metal also includes molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, zirconium, ... Silicon oxide film 4 can be formed by various methods such as oxidation, CVD, or PVD. ... In general, a silicon oxide film formed by plasma CVD is less hygroscopic and more water resistant than an organic SOG film. ... Particularly, element unitary ions of titanium, vanadium, niobium, hafnium, and tantalum, and compound ions thereof can be ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6825132?dq=5251294
*  SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE - Patent application
... hafnium oxide, titanium dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, or the like can be used. Further, a silicon oxide layer may be formed by ... tantalum pentoxide, or the like can be used. Further, a silicon oxide layer may be formed by solid-phase oxidation by plasma ... or silicon nitride oxide; an acrylic acid, a methacrylic acid, or derivatives thereof; a heat-resistant high-molecular compound ... indium zinc oxide containing tungsten oxide; indium oxide containing titanium oxide; indium tin oxide containing titanium oxide ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20080203477
*  Patent US20070012921 - Semiconductor device including semiconductor circuit made from semiconductor ... - Google Patents
It is also possible to substitute an oxide film by a normal oxidation process for the anodic oxidation film by the anodic ... For example, a single layer containing as its main constituent aluminum (Al), tantalum (Ta), copper (Cu), niobium (Nb), hafnium ... hafnium (Hf), zirconium (Zr), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), silicon (Si) or silicide, or multi-layers thereof. A film thickness ... In addition, by using as a base film a structure consisting of a heat resistant metal film and an insulating film layered ...
  http://www.google.com.au/patents/US20070012921
*  Patente US20090233451 - Semiconductor device having a gate insulating film structure including an ... - Google Patentes
... or a gate insulating film structure having a first gate insulating film including an oxide film of a first metal element and a ... a gate insulating film structure having a laminated structure of an amorphous metal oxide film and metal silicate film, ... tantalum oxide film, titanium oxide film, lanthanum oxide film, hafnium oxide film, gadolinium oxide film, yttrium oxide film ... is formed on the surface of zirconium by using a small amount of oxygen and zirconium which is highly resistant to oxidation ( ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US20090233451
*  Patent US8087324 - Cast cones and other components for earth-boring tools and related methods - Google Patents
... transition metal carbide particles selected from the carbides of titanium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, ... The bit body may comprise hard particles, wherein the hard particles comprise at least one of carbide, nitride, boride, oxide ... Method to produce high temperature oxidation resistant metal matrix composites by fiber density grading. ... The hard particles or hard phase may comprise one or more of carbides, oxides, borides, and nitrides, and the binder phase may ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US8087324?dq=5179747
*  Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects | Journal of The Royal...
2001 Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of refractory metal implants, titanium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and rhenium. ... Behavior of in vitro, in vivo and internal motion of micro/nano particles of titanium, titanium oxides and others. J. Ceram. ... 2007 Surface carbonization of titanium for abrasion-resistant implant materials. Dent. Mater. J. 26, 245-253. doi:10.4012/dmj. ... 2005 Oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by nitric acid. Carbon. 43, 3124-3131. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2005.06.019. ...
  http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/Suppl_3/S371
*  Patent US4040129 - Surgical implant and alloy for use in making an implant - Google Patents
... tantalum, chromium, molybdenum and aluminum. Dissolved gases may also be included. The alloy is free from copper, cobalt, ... comprising an alloy containing defined critical amounts of titanium and/or zirconium, and other selected elements including ... Titanium alloy self-expanding stent. US5954724 *. 27 Mar 1997. 21 Sep 1999. Davidson; James A.. Titanium molybdenum hafnium ... Each metal, even Pt, corrodes in the body liquid and results in corrosion products (hydroxides, oxides in different oxidation ...
  http://www.google.ca/patents/US4040129
*  Patente US7001859 - Low conductivity and sintering-resistant thermal barrier coatings - Google Patentes
In preferred embodiments, the base oxide is selected from zirconia and hafnia. The group A and group B cluster-promoting oxide ... The composition has a base oxide, a primary stabilizer, and at least two additional cationic oxide dopants. Preferably, a pair ... of group A and group B defect cluster-promoting oxides is used in conjunction with the base and primary stabilizer oxides. The ... and so that the primary stabilizer oxide has a small cationic radius than that of the group B dopant. ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7001859?hl=es&dq=flatulence