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*  Gankyrin has an antioxidative role through the feedback regulation of Nrf2 in hepatocellular carcinoma | JEM
Severe oxidative stress reportedly leads to progressive cell dysfunction and ultimately to cell death (Fruehauf and Meyskens, ... Oxidative stress status has a key role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. Normally, reactive oxygen ... reduces oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage, inhibits apoptosis, and promotes the development of HCC. ... Molecular mechanisms of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in stress response and cancer evolution. Genes Cells. 16:123-140. doi:10.1111/j. ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/content/213/5/859
*  Cancers | Free Full-Text | Interfering with ROS Metabolism in Cancer Cells: The Potential Role of Quercetin | HTML
Persistent ROS stress may induce adaptive stress responses, enabling cancer cells to survive with high levels of ROS and ... Quercetin depletes intracellular glutathione and increases intracellular ROS to a level that can cause cell death. ... is a persistent pro-oxidative state that leads to an intrinsic oxidative stress. Cancer cells have higher levels of reactive ... Nrf2 promotes cell survival mainly through the regulation of several oxidative stress-inducible genes, like those encoding for ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/2/2/1288/htm
*  The Impact of MicroRNAs on Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration
... including cell proliferation, development, cancer formation, stress responses, and apoptosis. The rapid progression of miRNA ... miRNAs are known to regulate pathways controlled by genes such as p53, MYC, and RAS. Furthermore, miR17-92 cluster has been ... oxidative stress, or apoptosis of neurons. More recently, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) signaling ... Cell Cycle Regulation. Cell cycle progression can be halted by two separate but interacting pathways the p53 and p16-pRb ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2012/359369/
*  MicroRNA-195 acts as an anti-proliferative miRNA in human melanoma cells by targeting Prohibitin 1 | BMC Cancer | Full Text
Cell proliferation, cell-cycle analysis and caspase 3/7 assay were performed to investigate the potential action of miR-195 as ... TCGA-RNAseq data obtained from 341 melanoma patient samples as well as a panel of melanoma cell lines were used in an ... with potential impact in sensitization of melanoma cell death. This study support the role of miR-195 as anti-proliferative ... Our recent data shown that accumulation of PHB1 protects melanoma cells from chemotherapy-induced cell death. Lacking of post- ...
  https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-017-3721-7
*  Tumor metabolome - Wikipedia
It provides resistance to oxidative stress that would regulates a set of genes that increase glucose metabolism and reduce ... Hypoxic adaptation by cancer cells is essential for survival and progression of a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous changes ... 1998). "Role of HIF-1 alpha in hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, cell proliferation and tumour angiogenesis". Nature. 394 (6692): 485 ... Mutated Ras also enhances glycolysis, partly through increasing the activity of Myc and hypoxia-inducible factors. Although HIF ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_metabolome
*  Rational Categorization of the Pipeline of New Treatments for Advanced Cancer - Prostate Cancer as an Example | IntechOpen
Genes Dev 1999 13 (4) 382-387. 93 - Dolcet X, Llobet D, Pallares J et al: NF-kB in development and progression of human cancer. ... One possible mediator of the inflammation that leads to cancer and is instigated by oxidative stress from a diverse arrays of ... propagation through the cell cycle (cyclin D1); and evasion of apoptosis (cIAP-1, TRAF-2, Bcl-XL) [91 - 95]. As such, NFκB ... ras and through MAP kinase signaling [18, 19]. A small proportion of CRPC tumours will also harbour amplifications or point ...
  https://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-prostate-cancer/rational-categorization-of-the-pipeline-of-new-treatments-for-advanced-cancer-prostate-cancer-as-an-/
*  Prkd1 - Serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Prkd1 gene & protein
Under oxidative stress, is phosphorylated at Tyr-469 via SRC-ABL1 and contributes to cell survival by activating IKK complex ... which leads to accumulation of immediate-early gene products including FOS that stimulate cell cycle progression. Plays an ... During apoptosis induced by cytarabine and other genotoxic agents, PRKD1 is cleaved by caspase-3 at Asp-378, resulting in ... YWHAE and YWHAZ and increased competition with RAF1 for binding to GTP-bound form of Ras proteins (NRAS, HRAS and KRAS). Acts ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q62101
*  The Emerging Role of Mitochondrial Targeting in Kidney Disease
2015). In line with this notion, oxidative stress and cell senescence promote tubular cell apoptosis and mitochondrial ... 2010). Mutation of pro-autophagic genes in mice during nephrogenesis causes podocyte and tubular cell mitochondrial ... In the rat RAS model, necrotic death of tubular epithelial cells in the clipped kidneys is dependent on upregulation and ... Experimental studies directly implicate mitochondrial injury in the development and progression of renal hypertension (Eirin et ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5164968/
*  Plus it
... is an oxidative stress-sensitive transcription factor that plays a critical role in the regulation of a variety of genes ... Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by EGCG. Apoptosis is a highly ordered protective mechanism through which unwanted ... Although EGCG has been shown to affect a number of factors associated with cell cycle progression, the direct inhibition of ... In this cascade, Ras interacts with and activates Raf-1, which in turn phosphorylates and activates MAP/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2 ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/5/2500
*  Cells | Free Full-Text | Updates from the Intestinal Front Line: Autophagic Weapons against Inflammation and Cancer | HTML
... resulting in a shift from glycolysis genes to genes involved in fatty acid catabolism and protection against stress conditions ... Along tumor progression, autophagy acquires a leading role as a tumor cell protective mechanism against newly arising ... rely on this phenomenon to either proliferate in a hypoxic environment or to escape apoptosis by down-regulating the oxidative ... genetic ablation of autophagic genes (ATG genes) suppresses the transforming ability of Ras, thus suggesting that activated ...
  http://mdpi.com/2073-4409/1/3/535/htm
*  CDK5 Gene - GeneCards | CDK5 Protein | CDK5 Antibody
Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses enhances its stabilization by preventing ubiquitin ... Cdks (cyclin-dependent kinases) are heteromeric serine/threonine kinases that control progression through the cell cycle in ... and induces transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes, thus regulating apoptosis. Phosphorylation of p35/CDK5R1 enhances its ... Phosphorylates many downstream substrates such as Rho and Ras family small GTPases (e.g. PAK1, RAC1, RHOA, CDC42) or ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CDK5&snp=69
*  Plus it
Increased Rheb-TOR signaling enhances sensitivity of the whole organism to oxidative stress. J Cell Sci 2006;119:4285-92. ... RIP3 an energy metabolism regulator that switches TNF-induced cell death from apoptosis to necrosis. Science 2009;325:332-6. ... It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in the ... which form heterodimeric complex inhibiting the small GTPase Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), that is necessary for the ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/76/24/7130
*  Autophagy in mammalian diseases | Biology Letters
... impairments in autophagic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune cell homeostasis and/or immune cell activation may ... Autophagic activity and the expression of autophagy-related genes varies dynamically during the progression of heart failure. ... removing damaged mitochondria to reduce oxidative stress, regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress, and removing damaged ... 2017 Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis ...
  http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/14/1/20170540
*  SHC1 - Wikipedia
A rise in p66SHC promotes stress induced apoptosis.[8] p66SHC functionally is also involved in regulating oxidative and stress ... When SgK269 is overexpressed in mammary epithelial cells it promotes the cell growth and might contribute to the progression of ... This regulation affects the SHC-Ras-ERK pathway.[8] With MCT-1 reduction the phosphor activation of Ras, MEK and ERk ½ were ... "Genes and Mapped Phenotypes". National Center for Biotechnology Information. US National Library of Medicine.. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHC1
*  Insights into the Shc Family of Adaptor Proteins
Parallel to the role of p66ShcA in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, p66ShcA was found to initiate anoikis and apoptosis due ... 1999). Shc dominant negative disrupts cell cycle progression in both G0-G1 and G2-M of ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells. Cell ... regarding the inhibitory effect of the p66ShcA-CH2 domain on p66ShcA/Ras signalling. Under oxidative stress conditions, the CH2 ... The Shc family consists of four members encoded by four distinct genes: Shc/Shc1/ShcA, Sli/Shc2/ShcB, Rai/Shc3/ShcC and RaLP/ ...
  https://jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.5334/1750-2187-12-2/
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Regulation in Ageing and Age-Related Diseases | HTML
Here, we review how epigenetics takes part in the control of stress stimuli and the mechanisms of ageing physiology and ... miR-200c is upregulated by oxidative stress and induces endothelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ZEB1 inhibition. Cell ... fundamental for the progression of the cell cycle, and cause interruption of cell cycle progression [35]. ... Gene profiles of caloric-restricted aged mice shows low level expression of genes involved in oxidative stress in comparison ...
  http://mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/9/17643/htm
*  NQO1 Stabilizes p53 in Response to Oncogene-Induced Senescence
... oxidative stress, oncogene activation (premature senescence) and telomere erosion (replicative senescence) [1]. Genes that have ... Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a. Cell. 1997;88:593-602 ... Garate M, Wani AA, Li G. The NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 induces cell cycle progression and proliferation of melanoma ... and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and potentiates apoptosis. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2006;281:19798-808 ...
  http://www.ijbs.com/v11p0762.htm
*  Molecular targets and oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma: an overview | Journal of Translational Medicine ...
Several molecular pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation and cell death are implicated in the ... Continuous oxidative stress, which results from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by environmental factors or ... This condition can lead to tumour progression.. Genes that are components of MAPK cascade, such as Ras-GTP, c-RAF, c-FOS, and c ... apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, cell senescence, etc. [85]. However, an increased level of ROS causes oxidative stress and ...
  https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5876-9-171
*  TP53 - Cellular tumor antigen p53 - Felis catus (Cat) - TP53 gene & protein
One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by ... Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. ... In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; the function is largely ... LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell- ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P41685
*  Plus it
Additional studies conducted in cell culture uncovered a network of genes intimately involved in cell-cycle progression that ... and oxidative stress (60). The downstream effectors of FOXM1 that mediate resistance to apoptosis have just started being ... AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) and N-Ras (neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog) coactivation in the ... Forkhead box M1 regulates the transcriptional network of genes essential for mitotic progression and genes encoding the SCF ( ...
  http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/12/3/245
*  C-jun - Wikipedia
This suggests that c-jun regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis through two separated mechanisms. A study utilized ... oxidative and other forms of cellular stress, and UV irradiation. For example, UV irradiation is a potent inducer for elevated ... "Control of cell cycle progression by c-jun is p53 dependent". Genes Dev. 13 (5): 607-19. doi:10.1101/gad.13.5.607. PMC 316508 ... a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain". Cell. 76 (6): ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-jun
*  Frontiers | Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in lung diseases: emphasis on mitophagy | Physiology
... coordinate stress responses, initiate mitophagy and activate cell death in relevance to pulmonary pathologies. Thorough ... coordinate stress responses, initiate mitophagy and activate cell death in relevance to pulmonary pathologies. Thorough ... However, if stress persists beyond recovery then dysfunctional mitochondria can ignite cell death. This review article ... However, if stress persists beyond recovery then dysfunctional mitochondria can ignite cell death. This review article ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2013.00384/full
*  Food and nutrient intakes and K‐ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer
... including limitation of tumour cell proliferation, increase of apoptosis, promotion of cell differentiation, modulation of ras ... It has been shown that the pancreas suffers DNA damage from oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.1,3 Vitamin E may reduce ... Over 20 years of research have shown that ras genes can be involved in the initiation of carcinogenesis and are critical DNA ... Dietary fats are thought to modulate ras functions during the promotion and progression of colon cancer, resulting in decreased ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2465759/
*  The Role of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Skin Cancer
It is known that DMBA/TPA treatment induces cell proliferation and apoptosis; both believed to be modulated by oxidative stress ... Nonetheless, oxidative stress alters both gene expression and cancer biology. Another key component of tumor progression is ... NF-κB regulates the expression of numerous genes that encode selectins, cytokines, and cellular adhesion molecules. Oxidative ... ras gene confer a selective advantage within H-ras initiated cells, which can develop into benign tumors after treatment with ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/er/2011/409295/
*  PA-12-147: Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers (R21)
... resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammatory environments are damaging to healthy host tissue, ... The activating K-ras mutation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates strongly with alcohol exposure. Ras operates ... Alternatively, if alcohol impacts promotion or progression rather than initiation, then the cancer stem cell, bearing one or ... Signal transduction leads ultimately to activation or repression of the expression of a specific set of genes, setting a ...
  https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-12-147.html