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*  Spitzenkorper, exocyst, and polarisome components in Candida albicans hyphae show different patterns of localization and have...
During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Spitzenkorper-exocyst-and-polarisome-components-in-Jones-Sudbery/10a00057c0ffbebdd63d18545223c3172fde3d3b
*  Unusual hyphal branching
Hi Unusual hyphal branching is studied for edible mushrooms by the unsiversity of toronto. Maybe you may try to contact Prof. Horgen at phorgen at credit.erin.utoronto.ca who may tell you more about his current research. Leo van Griensven Mushroom Experimental Station Holland Begin forwarded message: Resent-From: server-daemon at dl.ac.uk Date: Wed, 1 Dec 1993 02:01:30 GMT Resent-Date: Wed, 1 Dec 93 0:0:20 UT Resent-Message-Id: ,CHC2yJ.A15 at massey.ac.nz, Precedence: list From: Richard Johnson ,R.D.Johnson at Massey.ac.nz, Reply-To: Richard Johnson ,R.D.Johnson at Massey.ac.nz, Sender: 'bionet.mycology mail newsgroup' ,server-daemon at dl.ac.uk, To: 'bionet.mycology mail newsgroup' ,bionet-news at dl.ac.uk, Subject: Unusual hyphal branching Comments: List problems/queries to ,biosci at daresbury.ac.uk, Comments: To mail both the group and netnews send to (mycology at dl.ac.uk) X-Article-Number: bionet.mycology Msg # 195 X-Listpath: bionet-news X-Mailer: MXT V 12.13.0 we have observed unusual ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/mycology/1993-December/000171.html
*  Evaluation of adhesion forces of Staphylococcus aureus along the length of Candida albicans hyphae
C. albicans hyphae were virtually divided into a "tip" (the growing and therefore youngest part of the hyphae), a "middle" and a so-called "head" region (the yeast cell from which germination started). Adhesion forces between S. aureus NCTC8325-4GFP and the different regions of C. albicans SC5314 hyphae were measured using atomic force microscopy. Strong adhesion forces were found at the tip and middle regions of C. albicans hyphae (−4.1 nN and −4.0 nN, respectively), while much smaller adhesion forces were measured at the head region (−0.3 nN). Adhesion forces exerted by the head region were comparable with the forces arising from budding yeast cells (−0.5 nN). A similar regional dependence of the staphylococcal adhesion forces was found for the clinical isolate involved in this study, C. albicans MB1 ...
  http://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=386022
*  PLOS Pathogens: Septation of Infectious Hyphae Is Critical for Appressoria Formation and Virulence in the Smut Fungus Ustilago...
Author Summary Pathogens exhibit various developmental stages during the process of infection and proliferation. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a model organism for plant pathogenic fungi. On the plant surface U. maydis grows as a cell-cycle arrested filament. Growth of infectious hyphae involves regular formation of retraction septa leaving empty sections behind. The tip cell forms an appressorium and penetrates the cuticle. In this study we identified for the first time a signaling module regulating formation of retraction septa in fungal hyphae. The module consists of the highly conserved small GTPase Cdc42, its activator Don1 and the actin-organizing formin Drf1. After penetration of the plant, cell cycle arrest is released and hyphal septation is resumed in planta but was found to be independent of Cdc42 and Drf1. Thus, during infection Cdc42 signaling and Drf1 coordinate hyphal ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044.g007
*  PLOS Pathogens: Septation of Infectious Hyphae Is Critical for Appressoria Formation and Virulence in the Smut Fungus Ustilago...
Author Summary Pathogens exhibit various developmental stages during the process of infection and proliferation. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a model organism for plant pathogenic fungi. On the plant surface U. maydis grows as a cell-cycle arrested filament. Growth of infectious hyphae involves regular formation of retraction septa leaving empty sections behind. The tip cell forms an appressorium and penetrates the cuticle. In this study we identified for the first time a signaling module regulating formation of retraction septa in fungal hyphae. The module consists of the highly conserved small GTPase Cdc42, its activator Don1 and the actin-organizing formin Drf1. After penetration of the plant, cell cycle arrest is released and hyphal septation is resumed in planta but was found to be independent of Cdc42 and Drf1. Thus, during infection Cdc42 signaling and Drf1 coordinate hyphal ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044.g006
*  Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and...
Wardell, JN, Stocks, SM, Thomas, CR and Bushell, ME (2002) Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and increased antibiotic production ...
  http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/823140/
*  Staurosporine Induces Filamentation in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Signaling through Cyr1 and Protein Kinase...
Protein kinases regulate diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes through the highly regulated propagation and amplification of stimuli via signal transduction cascades that modulate biological responses. As a consequence of the profound impact of protein kinases on cellular signaling, perturbation of kinase-mediated signaling pathways is implicated in diverse diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammation (1, 2). Kinases implicated in human disease provide attractive targets for drug development, as do kinases that enable virulence and drug resistance of microbial pathogens. For example, the protein kinase Pkc1 regulates fungal drug resistance and virulence (3), and the cognate natural product inhibitor cercosporamide displays potent antifungal activity against diverse pathogenic fungi (4). Bioactive natural products have provided an unparalleled source of therapeutic agents, particularly for the treatment of infectious disease. They provide a ...
  http://msphere.asm.org/content/2/2/e00056-17
*  Verruculogen associated with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and conidia modifies the electrophysiological properties of human...
The production of toxins by A. fumigatus may help the fungus to colonize and invade the respiratory epithelium by modifying the natural clearance of the respiratory tract. Previous research has shown that A. fumigatus culture filtrate modifies the transepithelial resistance (Rt) and transepithelial potential differences (Vt) of HNEC, an in vitro model of the air-liquid interface of airway epithelium [11]. The aim of this study was to use HPLC and MS-MS to identify which toxins produced by A. fumigatus are responsible for these modifications. Our data suggest that verruculogen, which has never been implicated in invasive aspergillosis, is one of the probable candidates.. The fact that A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances that slow ciliary beating, damage epithelium, and that may affect colonization of the airways has already been reported using culture explants [17]. Among these substances, such toxins as gliotoxin, fumagillin, and helvolic acid have been implicated in ...
  https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-7-5
*  Polar growth in the infectious hyphae of the phytopathogen ustilago maydis depends on a virulence-specific cyclin - The...
The maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis switches from yeast to hyphal growth to infect maize (Zea mays) plants. This switching is promoted by mating of compatible cells and seems to be required for plant penetration. Although many genes distinctively expressed during this dimorphic switch have been identified and shown to be essential for the infection process, none seems to be explicitly required for polar growth control. Here, we report the characterization of pcl12, encoding a cyclin that interacts specifically with Cdk5, an essential cyclin-dependent kinase with regulatory roles in morphogenesis in U. maydis. Pcl12 fulfills the requirements to be a virulence-specific regulator of polar growth in U. maydis. First, pcl12 expression is induced during the pathogenic development. Secondly, Pcl12 is sufficient to induce hyperpolarized growth in U. maydis cells, as haploid cells overexpressing pcl12 in axenic conditions produce filaments that were morphologically indistinguishable from those ...
  http://christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/72846
*  TSLP bridging innate and acquired immunity in corneal cell lines challenged by Aspergillus fumigates | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: We investigated the expression and function of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (THCEs) and telomerase-immortalized human stroma fibroblasts (THSFs) challenged by A. fumigatus hyphae and its relationship with Toll-like receptors (TLR).. Methods: We stimulated THCEs and THSFs with TLR2 Ligand zymosan, TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), human recombinant TSLP or A. fumigatus hyphae for various periods, with or without the inhibition of TLR2, TLR4 or TSLP using monoclonal antibody or small interfering RNA previously. The release and expression of TLR2, TLR4, TSLP, IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and TNF-α were measured by means of ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR or western blot.. Results: It was demonstrated that enhanced expression of TSLP, IL-4 and IL-13 was associated with the treatment of A. fumigatus hyphae in human corneal cell lines. Stimulation of THCEs and THSFs with TLR2 Ligand zymosan or TLR4 ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2334896
*  Difference Between Mycelia and Hyphae | Difference Between
Hyphae can be classified into categories by their cell division, by their cell wall and overall form, and by their refractive appearance. Hyphae by cell division can be further classified as septate (with septa), aseptate (without septa), and pseudohyphae. The first two classifications are considered to be "true" hyphae.. In addition, hyphae classified by their cell walls are separated into three categories: generative, skeletal (which is divided into two - the classical form and fusiform skeletal), and binding. Unformed hyphae are called yeast - a substance that is very useful and applicable in many industries and fields.. ...
  http://www.differencebetween.net/science/nature/difference-between-mycelia-and-hyphae/
*  Candida albicans morphogenesis and host defence: discriminating invasion from colonization.
Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen of humans that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of most healthy individuals. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms by which mucosal antifungal defences tolerate colonizing C. albicans but react strongly when hyphae of the same microorganism attempt to invade tissue. In this Review, we describe the properties of yeast cells and hyphae that are relevant to their interaction with the host, and the immunological mechanisms that differentially recognize colonizing versus invading C. albicans ...
  http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/95699
*  Cooling Inflammation: Health Diagrams III - Inflammation from Cell to Tissue
Given the apparent importance of hypha formation in pathogenicity and epithelial activation, determining how ECs are activated by the yeast and hyphal form of C. albicans is of fundamental importance. To this end, recently a novel mechanism was identified that enables oral ECs to discriminate between C. albicans yeast and hyphae. Oral ECs orchestrate responses to C. albicans via NF-κB and a bi-phasic MAPK signaling response. Activation of NF-κB and an initial, transient MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Jun transcription factor, is independent of morphology and thus activated by both yeast and hyphae. However, activation of a second, stronger MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Fos transcription factor and production and stabilisation of the MAPK phosphatase MKP1, is specifically associated with hypha formation and correlates with proinflammatory responses and cell damage. A key finding was that the hypha-mediated response was strongly ...
  http://coolinginflammation.blogspot.com/2014/03/health-diagrams-iii-inflammation-from.html?showComment=1499710410051
*  Click to print
The mycelium of a fungus is made up of one continuous cytoplasm and is thus said to be coenocytic. Most hyphae have structures called septa that divide the hyphae into cells. Each septum has a central pore (or multiple micropores) which allows it to regulate movement of nuclei and other organelles and to allow nutrients and resources to be quickly moved around. There are a few levels of complexity of septa. The least complex level has no septa, and the nuclei are free to move around the hyphae. In this case there are many nuclei in each hyphae and the hyphae are said to be polykaryotic (plant and animal cells are usually monokaryotic*). In mated fungi, this allows for an interesting situation where you can think about populations of nuclei within an individual. Other hyphae are septate but have a large pore at the center of each septum. This pore allows all organelles to pass through. Thus, ...
  https://www.fungusfactfriday.com/004-fungal-hyphae/
*  Candida albicans yeast and hyphae stages, SEM - Stock Image C032/3050 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Candida albicans - yeast and hyphae stages. A yeast-like fungus commonly occurring on human skin, in the upper respiratory, alimentary and female genital tracts. This fungus has a dimorphic life cycle with yeast and hyphal stages. The yeast produces hyphae (strands) and pseudohyphae. The pseudohyphae can give rise to yeast cells by apical or lateral budding. Causes candidiasis which includes thrush (an infection of the mouth and vagina) and vulvo-vaginitis. Magnification: x800 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3050
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799917/view
*  science by paddy: gettin' hyphae with mycelium
As epic as that would be, the answer is no. However, what you see when mushroom hunting is just the ephemeral fruiting body, the distributor of spores, and far less than the proverbial tip of the iceberg. The bulk of a fungus is actually underground, in a dense network of cells called a mycelium. There are a few really cool things about mycelium: 1)it's made up of cells called hyphae, which are all pretty much identical, 2)strands of these hyphae are only one cell thick, 3)hyphal growth is directed by organelles called "spitzenkörper" (which is just a really cool word) and 4)the cobweb-like structure of mycelium can be so dense that a single cubic inch of soil can contain up to eight miles of hyphae ...
  http://science-by-paddy.blogspot.com/2010/02/gettin-hyphae-with-mycelium.html
*  Hgc1, a novel hypha‐specific G1 cyclin‐related protein regulates Candida albicans hyphal morphogenesis | The EMBO Journal
Candida albicans (Ca) is one of the most important fungal pathogens of humans (Odds, 1988; Berman and Sudbery, 2002). It may cause serious infections when the host is immunocompromised by factors such as HIV infection and anticancer and immunosuppressive therapies. If the pathogen enters the blood stream, it may colonize internal organs leading to the death of patients. Understanding its biology, particularly the aspects that directly contribute to infection and virulence, is necessary for developing antifungal therapies.. Many microbial pathogens undergo morphological changes during infection, which may assist the pathogens to exploit and adapt to certain host environments and enhance their survival and infectivity (Lengeler et al, 2000; Gow et al, 2002). C. albicans yeast cells switch to hyphal growth when phagocytosed or exposed to host serum, which is thought to facilitate its invasion of host tissues ...
  http://emboj.embopress.org/content/23/8/1845
*  What is the difference between hyphae and pseudohyphae? | Reference.com
According to the science journal Nature, the differences between pseudohyphae and hyphae are dictated by the shape of the cells, the location of the septin ring and the septum relative to the mother...
  https://www.reference.com/science/difference-between-hyphae-pseudohyphae-6a11167541c6ad9f
*  What is the difference between hyphae and mycelium? | Reference.com
Hyphae are clusters of cells in a fungus that grow in a branch-like design; mycelium are large groups of hyphae. Large groups of mycelium make up the body of a fungus. It forms after a single spore...
  https://www.reference.com/science/difference-between-hyphae-mycelium-377ec70249134b70
*  Hyphal morphology and growth of wild type strain CEA10 | Open-i
Hyphal morphology and growth of wild type strain CEA10 and SrbA mutant SDW1.Strains were grown overnight on slides coated with GMM. Brightfield microscopy pict
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2572145_ppat.1000200.g004&req=4
*  Neutrophil engulfing thrush fungus, SEM - Stock Image C004/9488 - Science Photo Library
Neutrophil engulfing thrush fungus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a neutrophil white blood cell (pink) engulfing and destroying hyphae (orange) from a thrush (Candida albicans) fungus. This process is called phagocytosis. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell and are part of the body's immune system. Hyphae are the long, branching filamentous cells of a fungus. - Stock Image C004/9488
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/113698/view
*  kinnes micronurses labs.htm
PREVIEW. For the next few labs we will be examining microorganisms other than bacteria. In each case, there are two labs for each group of organisms. Therefore, we will discuss the entire group in the first module and review it in the second module.. The Fungi Kingdom was frequently placed in other kingdoms for many years due to its weird characteristics. They are basically eukaryotic, non-photosynthetic cells that get their nutrition through absorption through the cell wall/membrane. While some of them are distinctly unicellular (Module 15) others are composed of many cells (Module 16). However, these are not really organized enough to be called multicellular organisms like plants or animals.. In terms of basic non-reproductive structure, the kingdom can be divided into those that are unicellular (yeasts) and those that are composed of hyphae (molds, etc.). The hyphae are actually chins of cells that grow ...
  http://home.apu.edu/~skinnes/kinnes_micronurses_labs.ht.htm
*  Hypha | The Daily Dread
Today, our good friend Bevvy Swift's remix project from his debut LP, Monochrome, sees its release via California-based record label, Muti Music. It contains remixes from label owner Dov, Humboldt-based & Muti-affiliated Hypha, as well as mixes from fellow BC-based artists HxdB … Continue reading →. ...
  https://dailydread.wordpress.com/tag/hypha/
*  Transcriptional regulator of filamentous growth elisa and antibody
Shop Transcriptional regulator of filamentous growth ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Transcriptional regulator of filamentous growth Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
  https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=transcriptional-regulator-of-filamentous-growth
*  hack//DIVERGENCE Main • View topic - Delta Bursting Flare Hypha
I need some people to join my party so we can set off. It's a level 2 field with 5 portals. Lets clear the field and then takle the dungeon. Who's up for it ...
  http://divergencerp.org/divergence/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=466