*  The zinc finger transcription factor Gfi1, implicated in lymphomagenesis, is required for inner ear hair cell differentiation...
The auditory hair cells in the organ of Corti located in the cochlea also fall into two categories, inner hair cells and outer ... Inner ear hair cell development. Mammalian inner ear hair cells function as mechanoreceptors to transduce sound and ... including the fast evolution of the human cortex. ... The hair cells and support cells of the organ of Corti continue ... 3I,J) each show one inner hair cell and two outer hair cells. Thus, though some hair cells appear to be missing, hair cell- ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/130/1/221
*  Frontiers | Assessing Auditory Processing Deficits in Tinnitus and Hearing Impaired Patients with the Auditory Behavior...
Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex ... Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex ... These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, ... These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2017.00187/full
*  Hair cell - Wikipedia
... hair cells detect movement in their environment. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of ... Mammalian cochlear hair cells are of two anatomically and functionally distinct types, known as outer, and inner hair cells. ... into electrical signals that are then relayed via the auditory nerve to the auditory brainstem and to the auditory cortex. The ... The human cochlea contains on the order of 3,500 inner hair cells and 12,000 outer hair cells at birth. The outer hair cells ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_cell
*  Susan K. McConnell's Profile | Stanford Profiles
The mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, the organ of Corti, comprises the hair cells and supporting cells that are pivotal ... In the mammalian cerebral cortex, neurons in a given layer are generated at about the same time in development. These cells ... reduction in the number of auditory hair cells. The primary cause appears to be reduced precursor cell proliferation in the ... The nerve cells of the cortex are generated during fetal life; once these cells are born, they migrate over long distances ...
  https://profiles.stanford.edu/susan-mcconnell
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... the auditory organ inside the mammalian inner ear. The name "hair cells" derives from their characteristic apical bundle of ... Combined fMRI and TMS applied over the auditory cortex should enable a better understanding of brain mechanisms of auditory ... Similar approaches have been used to target the motor cortex 8,9, premotor cortex 10, primary somatosensory cortex 11,12 and ... Auditory cortex pertains to the processing of sound, which is at the basis of speech or music-related processing1. However, ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/19890383/effect-before-cause-supramodal-recalibration-of-sensorimotor-timing
*  Specialized hair | definition of specialized hair by Medical dictionary
What is specialized hair? Meaning of specialized hair medical term. What does specialized hair mean? ... Looking for online definition of specialized hair in the Medical Dictionary? specialized hair explanation free. ... auditory hair. The stereocilia of a specialized epithelial cell. These are present in the ear in the spiral organ of Corti, ... Below this is the thick cortex of horny cells and the core of softer rectangular cells. The hair colour comes from pigment ...
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/specialized+hair
*  Sense of balance - Wikipedia
"The Kinocilium of Auditory Hair Cells and Evidence for Its Morphogenet." Ic Role during the Regeneration of Stereocilia and ... motor cortex areas, via pons and cerebellar dentate nucleus. It outputs to thalamus, motor cortex areas, and red nucleus). ... Otolithic organs have a thick, heavy gelatin membrane that, due to inertia (like endolymph), lags behind and continues ahead ... May, Paul J. "The Mammalian Superior Colliculus: Laminar Structure and Connections." Science Direct. 2006. Web. 28 Mar. 2016. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense_of_balance
*  Organ of Corti - Wikipedia
The organ of Corti is also capable of modulating the auditory signal. The outer hair cells (OHCs) can amplify the signal ... The organ of Corti, or spiral organ, is the receptor organ for hearing and is located in the mammalian cochlea. This highly ... An electrical signal is then sent through the auditory nerve and into the auditory cortex of the brain as a neural message. ... and one row of inner hair cells (IHCs). Separating these hair cells are supporting cells: Deiters cells, also called phalangeal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_of_Corti
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Bernd Fritzsch
... hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Cross-regulation of Atoh1 and Neurog1 results in hair cell changes ... Within vertebrates and arthropods, some mechanosensory organs evolved into auditory organs, greatly increasing sensitivity to ... In Neurod1 null mice, granule cells die throughout the posterior two thirds of the cerebellar cortex during development. ... inner to outer hair cells) gradients. The most intense labeling is in outer hair cells at the apex and in inner hair cells as ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Bernd_Fritzsch
*  Sense - Wikipedia
The mechanoreceptors are hair cells, the same mechanoreceptors for vestibular sense and hearing. It is used primarily for ... Flies and butterflies have taste organs on their feet, allowing them to taste anything they land on. Catfish have taste organs ... Cortex. 81: 215-220. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.03.021. PMC 4962768 . PMID 27253723. Farr OM, Li CS, Mantzoros CS (May 2016). " ... Hearing or audition (adjectival form: auditory) is the sense of sound perception. Hearing is all about vibration. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense
*  Feature detection (nervous system) - Wikipedia
... like in auditory systems of other vertebrates, primary sensory afferent neurons, which receive inputs from hair cells from a ... They observed that the cat striate cortex contained more cells than the lateral geniculate, and they reasoned that the cortex ... Oertel D, Fay RR, Popper AN (2002). Integrative functions in the mammalian auditory pathway. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 385 ... The response of a Single End-Organ". The Journal of Physiology. 61 (2): 151-71. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1926.sp002281. PMC 1514782 ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_detection_
*  Feature detection (nervous system) - Wikipedia
... like in auditory systems of other vertebrates, primary sensory afferent neurons, which receive inputs from hair cells from a ... They observed that the cat striate cortex contained more cells than the lateral geniculate, and they reasoned that the cortex ... Oertel D, Fay RR, Popper AN (2002). Integrative functions in the mammalian auditory pathway. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 385 ... which helps to regulate the discharge frequency of the electric organ in the jamming avoidance response. In the auditory system ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_detection_(nervous_system)
*  A dual function for canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the developing mammalian cochlea | Development
The mammalian organ of Corti (OC) comprises two types of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) along with underlying support cells ... 2011). Cooperative functions of Hes/Hey genes in auditory hair cell and supporting cell development. Dev. Biol. 352, 329-340. ... adenomatous polyposis coli protein is an essential regulator of radial glial polarity and construction of the cerebral cortex. ... 2010). Notch signaling is required for the generation of hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Proc. Natl ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/139/23/4395
*  Auditory system - Wikipedia
... which is what elicits the hair cells' electrical responses. Inner hair cells, like the photoreceptor cells of the eye, show a ... The primary auditory cortex is the first region of cerebral cortex to receive auditory input. Perception of sound is associated ... Vestibular duct perilymph vibrations bend organ of Corti outer cells (4 lines) causing prestin to be released in cell tips. ... The plan view of the human cochlea (typical of all mammalian and most vertebrates) shows where specific frequencies occur along ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_system
*  Sensory nervous system - Wikipedia
While mechanoreceptors are present in hair cells and play an integral role in the vestibular and auditory systems, the majority ... the somatosensory cortex, the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, the primary olfactory cortex, and the gustatory cortex. Other ... The receptive field is the area of the body or environment to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For instance, ... Satir, P. & Christensen, S.T. (2008) Structure and function of mammalian cilia. in Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol 129:6 " ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_nervous_system
*  Katsuhi Arisaka at UCLA - Blog
Grid cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex form a principal component of the mammalian neural representation of ... Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common form and is caused by the loss of sensory hair cells in the cochlea. Hair cell ... The mammalian circadian system, which is comprised of multiple cellular clocks located in the organs and tissues, orchestrates ... The authors induced long-lasting enhancements and decrements to excitatory synaptic strength in rat primary auditory cortex by ...
  http://home.physics.ucla.edu/~arisaka/home/Blog/index.php?categories=Neuroscience
*  Katsuhi Arisaka at UCLA - Blog
Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common form and is caused by the loss of sensory hair cells in the cochlea. Hair cell ... The mammalian circadian system, which is comprised of multiple cellular clocks located in the organs and tissues, orchestrates ... The authors induced long-lasting enhancements and decrements to excitatory synaptic strength in rat primary auditory cortex by ... Regenerate Sensory Hair Cells, Restore Hearing to Noise-Damaged Ears. Thu, Jan 10 2013 06:10 , Arisaka Favorites, Epigenetics, ...
  http://home.physics.ucla.edu/~arisaka/home/Blog/index.php?categories=X%20-%20Physics%2089%20Topics
*  Mechanoreceptor - Wikipedia
Rapidly adapting: Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors include Meissner corpuscle end-organs, Pacinian corpuscle end-organs, hair ... Indeed, the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in humans are the hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear (no relation to the ... The third-order neurons then send the signal to the somatosensory cortex. More recent work has expanded the role of the ... Normally there are four main types in glabrous mammalian skin: lamellar corpuscles, tactile corpuscles, Merkel nerve endings, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanoreceptor
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... the auditory organ inside the mammalian inner ear. The name "hair cells" derives from their characteristic apical bundle of ... of auditory function thus leading to a better understanding of species-independent features of the mammalian auditory cortex. ... quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and ... Sense Organs, auditory cortex, BOLD signal change, hemodynamic response, hearing, acoustic stimuli ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/25923338/passive-acoustic-monitoring-temporal-variability-odontocete-tonal
*  Stimulus modality - Wikipedia
... auditory hair cells at the base of the basilar membrane while medium frequency sounds cause vibrations of auditory hair cells ... In insect and mammalian taste, receptor cells changes into attractive or aversive stimulus. The number of taste receptors in a ... Silent lip reading activates the auditory cortex. When sounds are matched or mismatched with the movements of the lips, ... This opening allows the vibrations to move through the liquid in the cochlea where the receptive organ is able to sense it. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stimulus_modality
*  Hairlike | definition of hairlike by Medical dictionary
auditory hair. The stereocilia of a specialized epithelial cell. These are present in the ear in the spiral organ of Corti, ... Below this is the thick cortex of horny cells and the core of softer rectangular cells. The hair colour comes from pigment ... in animals) a filamentous structure of mammalian skin formed of cornified epidermal cells that multiply in the hair follicle. ... Paintbrush hair, Pubic hair, Ringed hair, See-through hair, Telogen hair, Terminal hair, Vellus hair, Whisker hair.. hair. (hār ...
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/hairlike
*  2017-2021 NIDCD Strategic Plan | NIDCD
TMC1 and TMC2 Localize at the Site of Mechanotransduction in Mammalian Inner Ear Hair Cell Stereocilia. Cell Rep. 2015;12(10): ... Mechanisms of noise robust representation of speech in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(18):6792-7. ... Single-cell RNA-Seq resolves cellular complexity in sensory organs from the neonatal inner ear. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8557. doi: ... hair cells. sensory cells of the inner ear, which are topped with hair-like structures (stereocilia) and which transform the ...
  https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/about/strategic-plan/2017-2021-nidcd-strategic-plan
*  Goethe-Universität - Kössl, Manfred - AK Kössl - Biowissenschaften
Kössl M, Hechavarria J, Voss C, Schaefer M, Vater M (2015) Bat auditory cortex - model for general mammalian auditory ... In mammals, the focus of the project is on how efferent innervation to the outer hair cells influences the cochlear amplifier. ... Mora EC, Cobo-Cuan A, Macias-Escriva F, Koessl M (2015) Unexpected dynamic up‑tuning of auditory organs in day‑flying moths. J ... Level-dependency of neuronal correlates for auditory streaming in the primary auditory cortex of the Mongolian gerbil.. FENS ...
  http://www.bio.uni-frankfurt.de/36526813/koessl-manfred/
*  Bat - Wikipedia
The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers. For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death) only ... Bats have typical mammalian lungs, which are thought to be more sensitive to sudden air pressure changes than the lungs of ... Many moth species have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight ... Accordingly, megabats have a well-developed visual cortex and good visual acuity. Megabats have a claw on the second finger of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat
*  Pap 0111 | Auditory System | Brainstem
The ICP receives a projection from the auditory cortex (Jones and Rockel. This laminar arrangement of cells. Multipolar cells ... the great majority of which innervate inner hair cells. in which only crude auditory sensations. and they have produced many ... Four of the nuclei are easily recognized in Nissl-stained material in most mammalian species. and humans. Cells in these nuclei ... 1958). The central projections of ganglion cells innervating individual semicircular canals or otolithic organs have been ...
  https://www.scribd.com/document/148306483/Pap-0111