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*  Optics - Wikipedia
Optical illusions (also called visual illusions) are characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective ... This causes horizontally extended objects to be focused on different parts of the retina than vertically extended objects, and ... Related, but not strictly illusions, are patterns that occur due to the superimposition of periodic structures. For example, ... brightness, tilt, colour, movement), and cognitive illusions where the eye and brain make unconscious inferences. Cognitive ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optics
*  space perception | Britannica.com
Process through which humans and other organisms become aware of the relative positions of their own bodies and objects around ... Still another group of visual cues of depth and distance consists of apparent differences in object brightness. In experimental ... major reference (in human eye: Projection of the retina) *optical illusions (in illusion: Visual perceptual illusions) ... the result being such structures as apartment houses. Geographic distance may also be maintained to separate individuals who ...
  https://www.britannica.com/topic/space-perception
*  Visual space - Wikipedia
For us, distances in object space are independent of the nature of the objects. But this is not so simple in visual space. At a ... The orderly array of retinal locations is preserved in the passage from the retina to the brain, and provides what is aptly ... Mathematicians, for example, deal with ordered structures, ensembles of elements for which rules of logico-deductive ... called geometrical-optical illusions, are widely demonstrated but of minor consequence. Its founder, Gustav Theodor Fechner ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_space
*  human eye - The higher visual centres | anatomy | Britannica.com
The axons of the ganglion cells converge on the region of the retina called the papilla or optic disk. They leave the globe as ... the optic nerve, in which they maintain an orderly arrangement in the sense that fibres from the macular zone of the retina ... Binocular brightness sensation. When the two eyes are presented with differently illuminated objects or surfaces some ... Optical illusions. Many instances have been cited of well-defined and consistent errors in visual estimates under special ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/human-eye/The-higher-visual-centres
*  The Vision Thing: Mainly in the Brain | DiscoverMagazine.com
Somewhere in the visual system, he says, there must be a code for contours that separate objects from their backgrounds. The ... the brightness of the colors doesn't correspond to the relative brightness of shadows and highlights, however. Since shadows ... The retina, which contains 150 million light-sensitive rod and cone cells, is actually an outgrowth of the brain. In the brain ... We might call them illusions. But to the eye- brain system, they're merely the result of following sensory reasoning to its ...
  http://discovermagazine.com/1993/jun/thevisionthingma227
*  Floater - Wikipedia
As these objects exist within the eye itself, they are not optical illusions but are entoptic phenomena. They are not to be ... The shapes are shadows projected onto the retina by tiny structures of protein or other cell debris discarded over the years ... Patients with new onset flashes and/or floaters, especially when associated with visual loss or restriction in the visual field ... The brightness of the daytime sky also causes the eyes' pupils to contract, reducing the aperture, which makes floaters less ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floater
*  Visual cortex - Wikipedia
In humans and animals with a fovea in the retina, a large portion of V1 is mapped to the small, central portion of visual field ... Visual area V4 is not tuned for complex objects such as faces, as areas in the inferotemporal cortex are. ... Ganel T, Tanzer M, Goodale MA (2008). "A double dissociation between action and perception in the context of visual illusions: ... a characteristic that is usually present in brain structures involved in fast transmission of information.[citation needed] ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Cortex
*  Consciousness Studies/Neuroscience 2 - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Perceptual "filling in" occurs when visual properties such as textures, colours, brightness or motion are extended in the ... In scotoma an area of the retina is damaged and unresonsive to visual stimuli, immediately after the damage patients report an ... Fang, F. & He, S. (2005).Cortical responses to invisible objects in the human dorsal and ventral pathways. Nat Neurosci. 2005 ... There are many stimuli that cause "filling in". These stimuli are known as "illusions" because they produce phenomenal ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Consciousness_Studies/Neuroscience_2
*  Multisensory integration - Wikipedia
It can be derived directly from the object image that forms on the retina, irrespective of other visual factors. In fact, data ... and various cortical structures such as the superior temporal gyrus (GT) and visual and auditory association areas. Although ... A significant finding was that a sound increased the perceived brightness of the light, regardless of their relative spatial ... Shams L, Kamitani Y, Shimojo S (December 2000). "Illusions. What you see is what you hear". Nature. 408 (6814): 788. doi: ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multisensory_integration
*  Consciousness - Wikipedia
In the visual system, for example, sensory signals from the eyes are transmitted to the thalamus and then to the primary visual ... Consciousness in this sense has been compared to the blind spot in the retina where it is not an adaption of the retina, but ... 4) It always appears to deal with objects independent of itself. (5) It is interested in some parts of these objects to the ... The structures assumed to be critical for consciousness in mammalian brains have homologous counterparts in avian brains. Thus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness
*  Neurotheology JCER - Holographic Archetypes, by Iona Miller, 2017
Electrical activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and temporal can 'spill over' into nearby structures. If it ignites the visual ... The three illusions of space, time and personality are obliterated in cosmic consciousness, as the soul completes its journey ... This brightness has no relation to any visible light. Visionary experience, which has symbolic or religious content, may give ... Curiously, this gland is light sensitive and actually has a lens, cornea, and retina. DMT production is particularly stimulated ...
  https://holographicarchetypes.weebly.com/neurotheology-jcer.html
*  Ascending and descending mechanisms of visual lateralization in pigeons | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:...
... three-dimensional natural objects (Güntürkün & Kesch 1987), geometrical optic illusions (Güntürkün 1997b), reversal learning ( ... The structures are not all normally visible within a single plain because of their different positions in the anterior- ... b) The thalamofugal pathway (orange arrows) projects from the retina via the contralateral nucleus geniculatus lateralis, par ... 1986). More specifically, interocular transfer of pattern, brightness and colour discrimination was impaired by section of ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1519/955
*  Sense - Wikipedia
... function of the visual cortex of the brain where patterns and objects in images are recognized and interpreted based on ... Blindness may result from damage to the eyeball, especially to the retina, damage to the optic nerve that connects each eye to ... Some examples of specific receptors are: Hunger is a sensation that is governed by a set of brain structures (e.g., the ... and brightness. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods and cones. Rods are very sensitive to light, but do not distinguish ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense
*  Human eye - The work of the retina | Britannica.com
It is now time to examine some of the elementary facts of vision and to relate them to the structure of the retina and, later, ... The work of the retina: So far, attention has been directed to what are essentially the preliminaries to vision. ... The visual process*The work of the auxiliary structures*The protective mechanisms*Innervation ... illusion: Colour illusions. The normal human eye can detect about 130 gradations of colour in the visible spectrum (as in the ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/human-eye/The-work-of-the-retina
*  Stereoscopy - Wikipedia
... scene include Stereopsis Accommodation of the eye Overlapping of one object by another Subtended visual angle of an object of ... one on each retina. But if it be required to obtain the most faithful resemblances of real objects, shadowing and colouring may ... The no advantages of side-by-side viewers is the lack of diminution of brightness, allowing the presentation of images at very ... Salvador Dalí created some impressive stereograms in his exploration in a variety of optical illusions. Red-and-cyan anaglyph ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereoscopy
*  Download ppt on working of human eye
The Human Eye: Structures. We will look at the following parts: too small Light focused behind retina Corrected with converging ... Color Blind Test Solutions for Eye Correction Glasses Contacts Hardware of Visual Displays By Brandi Barron Hardware of Visual ... 4)Introduction to Illusions ~15 mins. 5)Optical Illusions ~20 mins. 6)Depth Perception and Movement Detection ~15 mins. Seminar ... To see how this works, use a small flashlight to see how your eyes or a friends eyes respond to changes in brightness. The ...
  http://slideplayer.com/theme/download-ppt-on-working-of-human-eye-395.html
*  Psychology, course for foreign students SPbGMU - кафедра психиатрии и наркологии 1СПбГМУ им. И.П. Павлова
The cues provided by the environment includes: the principle of relative size (objects producing larger images on the retina ... The telephone poles and other objects closest to you will appear to fly across your visual field at a rapid rate; in contrast, ... The first step in sensation involves accessory structures, which modify the stimulus. For example: the lens of the eye is an ... Perceptual Illusions. The perceptual attributes we have described constantly and automatically convey precise information about ...
  http://spbmu.s-psy.ru/obucenie/kurs-psihologii/lechebnii/psychology-course-for-foreign-students-spbgmu
*  The Bounds of Cognition: December 2010
If every object were red there would be no point in seeing red, or using the word 'red'. What are illusions? ... spots of light on the retina and the spots of sensation in the brain can only be a correspondence of intensity to brightness ... So, I have been wrestling with TSRM for a while now, trying to figure out how they mean to explain visual illusions. They ... What these authors need, but do not really provide, is an argument for treating external structures as not only important for ( ...
  http://theboundsofcognition.blogspot.com/2010/12/
*  Digital information - bits, bytes and pixels
Art and optical illusions 'prove' that we mainly pay attention to edges in our visual perception.. o Picasso's Mother and Child ... The x, y and z axes give 256 different brightness levels for each of the red, green and blue primaries (The brightness levels ... The object now is to cut the cake (cube) into 256 smaller pieces (for 8-bit indexed color). Each piece will still contain many ... Receptive fields are our human 'filter' for perceiving edges better on our retina.. o Definition and examples of receptive ...
  https://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230/phys1230_fa03/DigiColor.htm
*  Publications
Schwiedrzik, C.M.: Retina or visual cortex? The site of phosphene induction by transcranial alternating current stimulation. ... Moca, V.V., I. Tincas, L. Melloni and R.C. Muresan: Visual exploration and object recognition by lattice deformation. Public ... Stichel, C.C., W. Singer and K. Zilles: Ultrastructure of PKC (II/III)-immunopositive structures in rat primary visual cortex. ... In: Deceptions and Illusions, Five Centuries of Trompe l'Oeil Painting, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 41-51. Singer, W ...
  http://brain.mpg.de/research/emeriti/prof-dr-hc-mult-wolf-singer/publications.html?type=1
*  The Bounds of Cognition: Gibson and Mach Bands
... since I don't think the retina structures light), what is it retina doing in there? What is that lateral inhibition doing if ... Panel three describes the visual experience.. The Gibsonian analysis is:. Panel one describes the ink and paper object.. Panel ... Personally, I think that psychological studies of visual illusions often provide understanding of vision that is beyond the ... To a retina wired the way Mach Bands reveal they are, perhaps the physical object in the top panel only gives rise to the ...
  http://theboundsofcognition.blogspot.com/2010/10/gibson-and-mach-bands.html
*  Blindness | Encyclopedia.com
Blindness and severe visual impairment occur everywhere in the world and at all social levels. They are least prevalent in the ... especially moving objects and sudden changes in brightness) in the 'blind' part of the visual field. Amazingly, if the stimulus ... The blood vessels sometimes leak or break open to damage the retina. More vessels also may grow and start to cover the retina ... Blindness raises questions about the frailty of social structures and the strengths and weaknesses of human nature. The central ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/blindness
*  NATURAL DMT ~ IONA MILLER | abzu2
... one's experience can become very visual. DMT is the visual third eye neurotransmitter. It enables the energy body and spirit to ... This brightness has no relation to any visible light. Visionary experience, which has symbolic or religious content, may give ... Curiously, this solitary gland is light sensitive and actually has a lens, cornea, and retina. Is there a retinal circus of ... "There may be certain neural pathways-neural structures in the temporal lobe and the limbic system-whose activity makes you more ...
  http://www.abzu2.com/2014/05/17/natural-dmt-iona-miller/
*  Many genes are completely new inventions and no...
Optical illusions harness the shift between what your eyes see and what your brain perceives. They reveal the way your visual ... Some human expert, or group of them, look at a slide or x-ray or retina image or something and say "yes, this is pulmonary ... The researchers calculate that a lens made from their purified crystal can in principle capture images of objects as small as ... The scientists experimentally constructed diverse multikilobase single-stranded structures, including a ~10,000-nucleotide (nt ...
  https://www.scoop.it/t/amazing-science/p/3998893147/2013/03/25/many-genes-are-completely-new-inventions-and-not-just-modified-copies-of-old-genes