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*  NIH Clinical Center: Astute Clinician Lectures
Dr. Miller is scientist emeritus at NCI. He came to NIH in 1961, where he was chief of the Epidemiology Branch and then the Clinical Epidemiology Branch, NCI, until 1994. He was chief of Pediatrics at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima before coming to NIH. At NIH, he combined his interest in birth defects and cancer; and worked to define syndromes with a high risk of cancer, leading to a new understanding of cancer genetics.. Mrs. Miller trained as a nurse in Japan and worked at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima. She was a research chemistry technician in NCI's Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis for most of her 27 years at NIH. ...
  https://www.cc.nih.gov/researchers/lectures/astuteclin98.shtml
*  DNA studies of the children of atomic-bomb survivors (1985-present) - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
A pilot study has been initiated to examine DNA in 100 families, 50 exposed and 50 controls. Minisatellite genes comprise high tandem repeats of core sequences (more than a few base pairs), which are located at many places in the genome, and are known as highly polymorphic in its repeat number (or total length). As such genes are highly unstable in nature and the spontaneous mutation rate is high, genetic effect of radiation can be detected with tests of a relatively small number of offspring. The results by eight probes and DNA fingerprints analysed by a multilocus probe, 33.15, are shown in Tables 1 and 2. No effects attributable to radiation have yet been observed. Among new mutations at minisatellite loci, more than 80% are derived from male parents (the production of sperm involves many times more cell divisions than that of eggs). RERF results on the minisatellite mutations are in contrast to the results obtained by an English group on radiation-exposed families (but the exposed doses are ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/genetics_e/dna.html
*  Birth defects among the children of atomic-bomb survivors (1948-1954) - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
In addition, a clinical health study of about 12,000 individuals was conducted between 2002 and 2006 with a focus on lifestyle diseases, based on the idea that adulthood is when disorders from radiation effects may develop. In this study, possible relationships between parental exposure and a combination of six multifactorial diseases (e.g., diabetes and hypertension) were analyzed, taking into consideration such lifestyle habits as drinking and smoking. The results showed no evidence at this time of increased risk of these multifactorial diseases among the target individuals. However, given that the subjects were still young at the time of the health examinations, with an average age of 48.6, it would be desirable to continue the clinical health study of this fixed cohort ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/genetics_e/birthdef.html
*  Blood protein mutations among the children of atomic-bomb survivors (1975-1985) - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
Over ten years, nearly 24,000 children of LSS survivors or controls were screened for electrophoretic variants of 30 blood proteins (Table 1); 10,000 of these children were also tested for enzyme-deficient variants (Table 2). The children were classified into two groups according to the combined parental gonadal dose of each child, either 0.01 Gy or greater (exposed group) or below 0.01 Gy (control group). A total of 1,233 electrophoretic variants and 47 enzyme-deficient variants were detected. Studies of parents showed that most variants were pre-existing and that only six electrophoretic variants and one enzyme-deficient variant originated from new mutations in parental germ cells. In the study of electrophoretic variants, two new mutations were detected in the exposed group and four in controls. The only enzyme-deficient mutant found was in the exposed group ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/genetics_e/bloodpro.html
*  Chromosome aberrations - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
Among different types of aberrations, dicentric chromosomes are relatively easy to detect, and their frequency is therefore useful as a biological dosimeter. However, dicentric frequency declines within a few years because the presence of two centromeres in one chromosome interferes with cell division. Thus, the frequency of dicentric chromosomes can be applied to recent exposure cases only. Since A-bomb survivors were exposed to radiation many years ago, dicentric frequency is no longer useful for biodosimetry, and the frequency of translocations (and inversions) is used instead. Such aberrations have a single centromere per chromosome and hence can divide so that the altered chromosome persists for many years. However, they were more difficult to detect by conventional staining methods ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/late_e/chromoab.html
*  The Radiation Effects Research Foundation Website
Dr. Akira Hashizume was appointed as RERF Executive Director on October 1. Dr. Hashizume holds a doctor of medical science and began his career at the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Public Health Bureau Regional Healthcare Division. He recently served as a physician in Fukuoka Prefecture. For a look at his career, click here ...
  http://www.rerf.or.jp/index_e.html
*  Mental disability and growth impairment among survivors exposed in utero - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
By the late 1950s, exposure-related increases in small head size and mental disability were noted in persons exposed to radiation in utero. Severe mental disability has been diagnosed in 21 of 476 in utero survivors (4.4%) whose doses were 0.005 Gy or greater compared with nine of 1,068 (0.8%) whose doses were below 0.005 Gy. The prevalence was strongly associated with radiation dose and gestational age (i.e., particular developmental stages) ATB. Excess mental disability was especially pronounced in persons exposed at 8 to 15 weeks after conception, and to a lesser extent among those exposed at 16-25 weeks, but no excess was seen after exposure at 0-7 weeks or 26-40 weeks after conception (Figure 1). Dose-related decreases in school performance and IQ scores also were observed among the 8-25 week groups of in utero survivors, after excluding severely mentally disabled children (Figure 2), and increased seizure disorders were also evident in those groups ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/uteroexp_e/physment.html
*  Radiation cataract (lens opacity) - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
Radiation cataract causes partial opacity or cloudiness in the crystalline lens and results from damaged cells covering the posterior surface of the lens. Symptoms can appear as early as one or two years following high-dose exposure and many years after exposure to lower doses. It is unclear how frequently radiation cataracts advance to severe visual impairment, although we have documented in a recent study about a 20-30% excess at 1 Gy of cataracts that prompted cataract surgery. A low-dose threshold may exist below which radiation cataract does not arise, although our recent analyses suggest that there may not be a threshold, or if one exists, it is somewhere in the range of 0 to 0.8 Gy. The excess cataracts seen are of the types generally associated with radiation: posterior subcapsular and cortical cataracts. Figure 1 shows the relation between radiation dose and cortical opacity of lens ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/early_e/cataract.html
*  Effects on the immune system - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
The recovery of CD4 helper-T lymphocytes (a major subset of T lymphocytes responsible for antigen-specific immunity) took longer, and studies have shown that CD4 T lymphocytes recovered only incompletely. Even today, the relative number of CD4 T cells is, on average, 2% lower per Gy. More in-depth studies have shown that among those with higher radiation doses a greater proportion of T cells are 'memory' T cells rather than newly formed naïve T cells, indicating reduced ability of the thymus to produce new T cells. In contrast to diminished CD4 T-cell numbers and function, the number of B cells is slightly higher in exposed persons, perhaps as a compensation. Tests show that CD4 T cells from high-dose persons tend to have less reactivity to an infectious agent. Also, as a compensation for decreased T-cell function, cells responsible for innate immunity are activated and produce inflammatory proteins, and our studies have shown that persons with higher radiation exposures have lower numbers of ...
  http://rerf.or.jp/radefx/late_e/immunity.html
*  Download Status Of The Dosimetry For The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Ds86)
The Commission were the download status of the dosimetry for's relevance. following that that Convention should appear caught in the broader street of a undisclosed case-law under Article 6? 1, it made that, for the alcohol of arising his or her discretion, a Convention allowed with a sexual contrary is applied to use ruled now first of the system people on which the s. is accused but properly of the national free rea introduced to these grounds.
  http://susani.com/admin/ebook/download-status-of-the-dosimetry-for-the-radiation-effects-research-foundation-%28ds86%29.html
*  Acute radiation syndrome - Radiation Effects Research Foundation
Illnesses collectively called 'acute radiation syndrome' occur within a few hours to months after exposure to high-dose radiation (from approximately 1-2 Gy to 10 Gy). The principal signs and symptoms include vomiting within a few hours, followed within days to weeks by diarrhea, reduced blood cell counts, bleeding, hair loss (epilation), and temporary male sterility. Diarrhea results from damage to cells lining the intestines, reduction in blood cells from death of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow, and bleeding from declining blood platelets generated from such stem cells. Hair is lost due to damage to hair-root cells. Hairs do not fall out but rather become thinner and eventually break off. Sterility occurs in men from damage to sperm-generating stem cells ...
  http://rerf.jp/radefx/early_e/acute.html
*  Incidence of benign gastrointestinal tumors among atomic bomb survivors. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Using the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor and tissue registries, benign tumors of the stomach, colon, and rectum were identified among members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors. During the period 1958-1989, a total of 470 cases with histologically confirmed benign gastrointestinal tumors 163 stomach, 215 colon, and 92 rectum...
  http://www.bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/106712/
*  The History Girls: August 2015
The American decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki resonates in other ways today as well. From a historian's perspective, earlier this year the USA took the decision to digitise the records generated by their Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, to make them readily available to researchers internationally. The ABCC was the US body established in 1947 to carry out a medical assessment of the effect of radiation on survivors from the bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The documents show that many of the US commission's doctors were deeply affected by what they witnessed, although, as The Japan Times noted while I was visiting Hiroshima, many of the A-bomb survivors later criticised the commission for treating them like research guinea-pigs. Pity, without empathy or respect, is of little value. Preserved images in this collection include many taken to show the 'atomic bomb radiation effects on the human body', with some of the survivors photographed holding nameplates. Clearly issues around ...
  http://the-history-girls.blogspot.ie/2015/08/
*  The History Girls: August 2015
The American decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki resonates in other ways today as well. From a historian's perspective, earlier this year the USA took the decision to digitise the records generated by their Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, to make them readily available to researchers internationally. The ABCC was the US body established in 1947 to carry out a medical assessment of the effect of radiation on survivors from the bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The documents show that many of the US commission's doctors were deeply affected by what they witnessed, although, as The Japan Times noted while I was visiting Hiroshima, many of the A-bomb survivors later criticised the commission for treating them like research guinea-pigs. Pity, without empathy or respect, is of little value. Preserved images in this collection include many taken to show the 'atomic bomb radiation effects on the human body', with some of the survivors photographed holding nameplates. Clearly issues around ...
  http://the-history-girls.blogspot.it/2015/08/
*  P1-357 Statistical analysis of spatial survival data and its application to the cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors...
Introduction While there are considerable studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has been ignored. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilised estimated radiation dose but it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for indirect radiation exposure as well as direct exposure, we developed a statistical method that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. ...
  http://jech.bmj.com/content/65/Suppl_1/A166.1
*  Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of...
The Hiroshima A-bomb was a unique uranium gun-type device ("Little Boy") with a 16-kiloton (kT) yield (ie, a yield equivalent to 16 kT of TNT) and the height of burst was 600 m above the ground. The hypocenter was near the city center and the time of detonation was 8:15 AM. The Nagasaki A-bomb was a plutonium implosive device ("Fat Man") with a 21-kT yield detonated at 503 m above ground at 11:02 AM. The hypocenter was in Urakami Valley, about 1.5 km north of the city center.13 Although radiation doses were not directly measured during the bombings, various special methods have been devised to make retrospective estimates of the radiation doses and fluencies by measuring materials that were present in the city at relatively unshielded locations. Additional information useful for retrospective estimation of radiation doses has been obtained from measurements made at nuclear weapons tests and from simulations using other sources.131415. The availability of reliable and well-characterized ...
  https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness/article/long-term-radiation-related-health-effects-in-a-unique-human-population-lessons-learned-from-the-atomic-bomb-survivors-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki/61689AD5A1AA4A684B84DFA4F9E5D1D3/core-reader
*  KAKEN - Researchers | SUYAMA Akihiko (10144651)
Affiliation:Radiation Effects Research Foundation,Department of Epidemiology,Chief, Research Field:Public health/Health science,Medical sociology,Public health/Health science,公衆衛生学,Hygiene, Keywords:インターネット,MMR,予防接種,コホート研究,血清脂質,Internet,e-Learning,風疹,データベース,感染症, # of Research Projects:13, # of Research Products:20
  https://nrid.nii.ac.jp/nrid/1000010144651/
*  Medical Consequences of a Nuclear War - A Pointless Tragedy for Humanity - The Review of Religions
The world is aware that there would be no winners in a nuclear war. "[F]or the World War III memorial I designed a futile, almost terrifying passage that ends nowhere." Maya Lin, an American architectural designer and artist, well-known for excellence and depth in her work, has summed up the impact of WWIII on the human race. To emphasise the destructive nature of the Third World War, she came up with the tomb-like design, stating, "I came up with a political statement that was meant as a deterrent."11. It is within the last few years that scientists have been able to forecast with a degree of confidence about a state of utter devastation that is planned, designed and can be inflicted by humans to their own race. The scientific evidence supports that nuclear war can potentially destroy life as we know it on earth within a short space of time. Its devastating effects will be seen on climate and those forms of life that survive the nuclear holocaust for ...
  http://www.reviewofreligions.org/9866/medical-consequences-of-a-nuclear-war-a-pointless-tragedy-for-humanity/
*  Analysis of the Atomic Bomb
The thermal radiation produced by an atomic bomb explosion will account for thirty-five percent of the atomic bomb s damage. Thermal radiation can come in either one of three forms; ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, or infrared radiation. The ultraviolet radiation is absorbed so rapidly by air particles that it has no substantial effect on people (World Book, 1990). However, the visible and infrared radiation creates an enormous amount of heat to be produced, approximately ten million degrees Celsius at the hypocenter (Physicians and Scientists on Nuclear War, 1981). This heat has two main effects. The first is known as flash burns. These flash burns are produced by the flash of thermal radiation right after the explosion. Flash burns can be either first degree burns (bad sun burns), second degree burns ( blisters, infections, and scars), or third degree burns (destroyed skin tissue). The second type is known as flame burns. These are burns that come from one of two different types ...
  http://referaty-seminarky.sk/analysis-of-the-atomic-bomb/
*  BfS - Atomic bombings: radiation protection
Peace memorial in Hiroshima: monument for the first military use of the atomic bomb During the Pacific War between Japan and China, the American government decided to restrict exports of petroleum and steel to Japan in order to prevent the war from spreading to South East Asia. This economic embargo resulted in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and the spreading of the Pacific War to America. After that in 1942, the USA began to develop and build the atomic bomb ("Manhattan Project") which was then successfully tested ("Trinity Test") in Los Alamos in July 1945.. Following almost four years of continuous warfare and after Japan had rejected the ultimatum to surrender, the US military leadership requested permission to use the atomic bomb. Although many scientists involved in its development had advised against its use, the decision to employ the atomic bomb was taken in 1945. Hiroshima was selected as target for the bombing of 6 August. It was the seat of the General ...
  http://www.bfs.de/EN/topics/ion/radiation-protection/introduction/atomic-bombs/atomic-bombing_node.html
*  Ascension: There Will Be No Nuclear War by Marguerite dar Boggia
Some of these people also work in vast underground facilities. Pete was aware of approximately 250 different underground bases that were built around the world. Each of these facilities is built to hold a maximum of 65,000 people. There are trees, roads, and buildings inside, as well as a domed roof with artificial light. Injections would be given to people that would make it lethal for them to return to the surface. There is one underground facility under Fort Huachuca that is gigantic. Our military, our SHADOW GOVERNMENT is deeply involved with extraterrestrial operations." The Cabal's plan was to have a full scale nuclear war, in which nuclear submarines fired off all their ordnance. The Cabal would make sure that all their friends, colleagues and family members were taken underground before the war started. They planned on living down there until the Earth became habitable again. Modern nuclear weapons were not designed to create any lasting radiation, ...
  http://www.wisdom-magazine.com/Article.aspx/4380/
*  The Nuclear War You Didn't Know About - TruePublica
In intensive warfare conditions the up-to-date tactical nuclear weapons can create an illusion of their absence but it is still a nuclear war if used
  http://truepublica.org.uk/global/nuclear-war-didnt-know/
*  Only A Few Americans Oppose Nuclear Warfare - Irregular Times
I'm afraid I have to take issue with your reporting here. You report that 22% said the bombings were wrong; you didn't mention that only 61% said they were right. Also, your headline is misleading: it is entirely possible for someone to oppose nuclear warfare, while simultaneously believing bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the right thing-or at least the least wrong alternative.. The problem is that the morality of the atomic bombings isn't so cut-and-dried. The US expected that invading Japan's Home Islands would mean about 100,000 deaths-most of them civilians, since Japan had been training its people to go to the beaches and fight off the Americans with bamboo spears. The atomic bombings killed more than that, about 220,000. That's worse, but there are some mitigating points.. First, I don't think the US leaders expected the bombs to kill that many. The bombs were more destructive than they'd expected, and about half the deaths were due to radiation poisoning, which was ...
  http://irregulartimes.com/2009/08/07/only-a-few-americans-oppose-nuclear-warfare/
*  Radioactive radiation is the true cause of most cancer
Not many people realize how many atomic bombs have been exploded in the air. Many think this number is only two: 'Fat man' on Hiroshima and 'Little Boy' on Nagasaki. The reality is different. 512 (five hundred and twelve) nuclear bombs have been exploded into the air. Most of them were much larger than the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There was one such bomb, the 'Tsar Bomba', that was three thousand times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. The equivalent of more than ten thousand Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombs were exploded in the air in Russia, the US, China and all around the Pacific and other areas of the world, and wind and rain spread the fallout far and wide, in many cases several times around the Earth, as is well-documented. The people alive since 1945, the year that atmospheric nuclear explosions started - with 1951 being the date that one was detonated every three weeks on average, exactly when global cancer rates started to rise sharply - are ...
  http://owndoc.com/cancer/radiation-true-cause-of-cancer/
*  new illuminati: The Nuclear War You Didn't Know About
The use of such lethal weapons by US military, which is a gross violation of the Geneva Convention, has been sanctioned by both US presidents Bush and Obama; thus they should be prosecuted for war crimes, as it is a nuclear war...
  http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/2015/11/the-nuclear-war-you-didnt-know-about.html