*  Immunolocalization of aquaporins 1, 3, and 5 in the nasal respiratory mucosa of a panting species, the sheep (Ovis aries) :...
The nasal respiratory mucosa is the primary site for evaporative water loss in panting species, necessitating the movement of water across the nasal epithelium. Aquaporins (AQP) are protein channels that facilitate water movement in various fluid transporting tissues of non-panting species. Whether the requirement for enhanced capacity for transepithelial water movement in the nasal respiratory mucosa of panting species has led to differences in AQP localization is unknown. Using immunohistochemistry, we report the localization of AQP1, 3, and 5 in the nasal respiratory mucosa of sheep being exposed to ambient temperatures of ~21°C or ~38°C for 4.5h before death (n=3/treatment). Exposure to either treatment resulted in panting. While exposure to ~38°C resulted in a higher respiratory frequency (mean difference: 82 breaths min-1; P,0.001) than exposure to ~21 °C, there was no difference in the localization of AQPs. Connective tissue and ...
  http://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/immunolocalization-of-aquaporins-1-3-and-5-in-the-nasal-respiratory-mucosa-of-a-panting-species-the-sheep-ovis-aries
*  Ciliated nasal epithelial cell, SEM - Stock Image C032/0674 - Science Photo Library
Nasopharynx surface, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Seen here are: a ciliated nasal epithelial cell surrounded by other squamous nasal epithelial cells. The nasopharynx lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate. Ciliated nasal epithelial cells occur throughout the nasal lining. They have hair-like structures known as cilia. Coordinated, wave-like beating of the cilia propels the mucus to the back of the pharynx, where it is swallowed, thus removing foreign debris. Interspersed amongst the cilia are microvilli. Stratified squamous nasal epithelial cells line the surface of the nasopharynx and surround the ciliated nasal epithelial cell. The epithelial cell surfaces are covered with tiny microvilli that increase the cell surface area. Mucus, secreted by cells in the epithelial lining (not seen), traps foreign objects, such as bacteria, preventing them from entering the lungs. ...
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/797497/view
*  YUHSpace: 배양된 사람 정상 코점막 상피세포에서 Interleukin-13이 MUC5AC 유전자 발현 및 점액분비에 미치는 영향
Background and Objectives:It is not clear which mucins are responsible for the mucus hypersecretion in allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Recently, it was found that IL-13 is closely related to allergic inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in in vivo animal models. However, the role of IL-13 in in vitro cellular models has yet to be determined. This study aimed to investigate the direct effect of IL-13 on mucin gene expression and mucin secretion in cultured normal human nasal epithelial cells. Materials and Method:Cells were cultured with passage-2 normal human nasal epithelial cells using the air-liquid interface culture method. After treatment with IL-13, the total mucin and MUC5AC mucin levels were measured using the immuno-blotting assay. The MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC8 mRNA expressions were measured using RT-PCR. Immunostaining was also performed using a MUC5AC antibody on histologic and cytospin slides. Results:After treatment with 5 ng/ml or more of IL-13, the level ...
  https://ir.ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/handle/22282913/142236
*  Clonally Related CD8+ T Cells Responsible for Rapid Population of Both Diffuse Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue and Lung After...
The immune system has evolved to use sophisticated mechanisms to recruit lymphocytes to sites of pathogen exposure. Trafficking pathways are precise. For example, lymphocytes that are primed by gut pathogens can, in some cases, be imprinted with CCR9 membrane receptors, which can influence migration to the small intestine. Currently, little is known about T cell trafficking to the upper respiratory tract or the relationship between effectors that migrate to the diffuse nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (d-NALT), the lower airways, and the lung. To determine whether a T cell primed by Ag from a respiratory pathogen is imprinted for exclusive trafficking to the upper or lower respiratory tract or whether descendents from that cell have the capacity to migrate to both sites, we inoculated mice by the intranasal route with Sendai virus and conducted single-cell-sequencing analyses of CD8+ T lymphocytes responsive to a Kb-restricted immunodominant peptide, FAPGNYPAL (Tet+). Cells ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2011/06/19/jimmunol.1100125
*  Itchy Nasal Mucosa and Worsening Sinus and Nasal Congestion: 6 Causes
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 6 conditions that can cause Itchy Nasal Mucosa and Worsening Sinus and Nasal Congestion. There are 5 common conditions that can cause Itchy Nasal Mucosa and Worsening Sinus and Nasal Congestion. There is 1 somewhat common condition that can cause Itchy Nasal Mucosa and Worsening Sinus and Nasal Congestion.
  http://www.freemd.com/s2/0001/itchy-nasal-mucosa-worsening-sinus-and-nasal-congestion.htm
*  F/colour SEM of nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis - Stock Image M320/0091 - Science Photo Library
False-colour scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of human nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis. Caused by an allergy to pollen, this inflamed mucosa shows its ciliated (hairy) surface overgrown in patches. Cilia are common on the epithelium of the respira- tory tract, where their beating serves to remove particles of dust, pollen, and other foreign material. Here, an allergy to pollen has resulted in the cilia lengthening. Symptoms may include nasal congestion; itching of nose, throat & eyes; and hay fever. Allergic rhinitis can be treated with anti-histamine drugs, and pollen desensiti- zation. Magnification: x4,000 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image M320/0091
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/263547/view
*  Squamous nasal epithelial cells, SEM - Stock Image C031/9871 - Science Photo Library
Nasopharynx surface that contains squamous nasal epithelial cells, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate. Stratified squamous nasal epithelial cells line the surface of the nasopharynx. A prominent triangular shaped nasal epithelial cell is seen in this image. The epithelial cell surfaces are covered with tiny microvilli that increase the cell surface area. The microvilli likely aid in localization of foreign debris (coming from the nose) and detection by immune cells. Mucus, secreted by cells in the epithelial lining (not seen), traps foreign objects, such as bacteria, preventing them from entering the lungs. Other sensory cells and features (not seen) also occur in the nasal epithelial layer. Magnification: x2,200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C031/9871
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/796798/view
*  Rhinovirus infection-induced alteration of tight junction and adherens junction components in human nasal epithelial cells -...
RV infection decreased mRNA levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1, and E-cadherin to 64.2%, 51.8%, 56.2%, and 56.3%, respectively, of those in controls (P , .05). Decreases in ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1, and E-cadherin protein levels in RV-infected cells were evident in immunofluorescent confocal microscopic images. Expression levels of these proteins were also lower in the RV-infected group in Western blot analyses. RV infection reduced the mean TER from 143.1 Ω/cm2 (controls) to 122.6 Ω/cm2. ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lary.20764/full
*  Nasal epithelial cell microvilli, SEM - Stock Image C031/9874 - Science Photo Library
Nasopharynx surface, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Shown hear are tiny microvilli on the surface of a squamous nasal epithelial cell. The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate. Stratified squamous nasal epithelial cells line the surface of the nasopharynx. The epithelial cell surfaces are covered with tiny microvilli that increase the cell surface area. The microvilli likely aid in localization of foreign debris (coming from the nose) and detection by immune cells. Mucus, secreted by cells in the epithelial lining (not seen), traps foreign objects, such as bacteria, preventing them from entering the lungs. Other sensory cells and features (not seen) also occur in the nasal epithelial layer. Magnification: x8,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C031/9874
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/796801/view
*  What is the Nasal Mucosa? (with pictures)
The nasal mucosa is the tissue that lines the nasal cavity, which is made up of four layers. The main purpose of the nasal mucosa...
  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-nasal-mucosa.htm
*  Nasal Physiology
The nose is a natural pathway for breathing. During respiration the nose acts as an air conditioning unit by performing humidification, heat transfer, and filtration. The nasal mucosa can help adjust the humidity and temperature of the air before it reaches the lungs. The large surface area of the nasal mucosa helps regulate the temperature and humidity of inspired air. The nasal cycle is a rhythmic cycle of growth of venous sinusoids that alters between the left and right nasal passages. The activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (part of the autonomic, i.e. automatic, nervous system) controls blood flow to the nasal cavity and nasal mucosa. Alternating the volume of blood between the left and right nasal passages varies between individuals but on average occurs every 4 hours. Nasal secretions and mucus production is controlled by parasympathetic autonomic innervation and ...
  http://care.american-rhinologic.org/nasal_physiology
*  Plus it
Rat nasal cavity is one of the target organs for carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The present work investigated the metabolism of these nitrosamines by rat nasal microsomes, as well as the possible modulating factors. Microsomes prepared from rat nasal mucosa were efficient in metabolizing these nitrosamines. In general, the metabolism of the nitrosamines was slightly higher in 9-week-old rats than in 4-week-old animals, and there was no sex-related difference. Fasting of rats for 48 h, which is known to induce hepatic cytochrome P450IIE1 and NDMA metabolism, did not increase the nasal metabolism of NDMA, NDEA, or NNK. Pretreatment of rats with acetone, another inducer of hepatic P450IIE1, did not increase the metabolism of NDMA. Furthermore, it decreased the nasal metabolism of NDEA and NNK. Immunoinhibition ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/5/1509
*  Cocaine absorption from the nasal mucosa.
The absorption of cocaine from the nasal mucosa was measured by serial plasma analysis in patients who received nasal cocaine for routine nasal surgery using the modified Moffett's method. Two groups were compared: one received cocaine alone and one
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cocaine-absorption-from-nasal-mucosa/3400843.html
*  Nasopharynx epithelial surface, SEM - Video kaufen - Science Photo Library
Nasopharynx surface, animated coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Seen here are: squamous nasal epithelial cells, a ciliated nasal epithelial cell and an M cell (lymphoepithelium). The nasopharynx lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate. Stratified squamous nasal epithelial cells line the surface of the nasopharynx (tightly packed together in this image). The epithelial cell surfaces are covered with microvilli that increase the cell surface area. Mucus, secreted by cells in the epithelial lining (not seen), traps foreign objects, preventing them from entering the lungs. Near the centre of the image is a ciliated nasal epithelial cell. They have hair-like structures known as cilia. Coordinated, beating of the cilia propels the mucus to the back of the pharynx, where it is swallowed. The M-cell is part of the lymphoepithelium and aids in transporting foreign antigens to the underlying lymphoid follicles. ...
  http://www.science-photo.de/film-clips/12329562/Nasopharynx-epithelial-surface-SEM
*  Evaluating Gene Transfer Products for Gene Expression in Mouse Nasal Epithelium. | UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium
As part of the UK Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium, we are aiming to identify gene transfer agents (GTA) that are candidates for delivery of CFTR to human airways. Typically, products identified from the literature or developed by members of the Consortium, including targeting peptides (e.g. HIV-TAT), lipids/liposomes (e.g. GL67) and polymers (e.g. JetPEITM), are tested in a series of assays, through which products can be evaluated systematically. The GTA are screened first in the mouse nose using a luciferase reporter gene to identify promising formulations; these are then taken through to our nPD (nasal potential difference) core facility where changes in conductance of nasal airway are measured in CF mice after treatment with a CFTR-encoding plasmid in the chosen formulation. The next stage is aerosolisation of the GTA in sheep lungs, which models the physical delivery of our chosen GTA, in anticipation of human clinical trials. The initial testing in the mouse ...
  http://www.cfgenetherapy.org.uk/publications/abstract/71
*  Nasal epithelium, 3D animation - Stock Video Clip K004/5619 - Science Photo Library
Nasal epithelium. 3D animation of some of the cells forming the nasal epithelium, detecting chemicals and pheromones as part of the sense of smell. This epithelium consists of olfactory cells, supporting cells, basal cells, and brush cells. The microvilli of the brush cells are seen here. - Stock Video Clip K004/5619
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/638305/view
*  Illustration of nose & nasal mucosa - Stock Image P414/0007 - Science Photo Library
Illustration of the human nasal passage with an enlarged section showing its histology. The nasal cavity forms part of the system of airways that conducts air to and from the lungs. The walls of the conducting airways are supported by cartilage and bone which prevents their collapse during ventilation. The inner lining consists of pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated epithelium (with oval, purple nuclei) interspersed with mucous- & hormone-secreting goblet cells (blue). The underlying lamina propria is rich in blood vessels & houses serous & mucous glands; some appear circular in transverse section, with one large central gland shown in longitudinal section. - Stock Image P414/0007
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/308073/view
*  Stuffed Nose
A stuffed nose can be the result of swelling of the nasal mucosa, secretion in the nose, polyps or other outgrowths, rarely foreign bodies or other conditions (for instance, in case of diseases of the nerve fibres of the nasal mucosa, the nose may feel stuffed although the breathing space is sufficient).. Stuffing (obstruction) may exist in the nose, but also in the nasal part of the pharynx, so that during examination not only the nose, but also the nasal part of the throat has to be examined.. In this case also the ear has to be examined, as the function of the nose canal so affect the middle ear.. Further, the examination includes the oral cavity and oral and lower part of the throat. In this way it is possible to detect a suspect laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, which canal so cause changes of the nasal mucosa.. Endoscopic examination may also be necessary.. ...
  http://mkm.rs/en/stuffed-nose/
*  Lipids Including Cholesteryl Linoleate and Cholesteryl Arachidonate Contribute to the Inherent Antibacterial Activity of Human...
This study provides evidence that lipids are secreted to mucosal surfaces and contribute to the inherent antimicrobial activity of mucosal secretions. To examine the potential role of lipids in innate mucosal host defense, we used nasal mucosal secretions. Nasal mucosa is a primary microbial exposure site; nasal mucosa is not exposed to alimentary lipids, its secretions are easily accessible and its antibacterial activity has been previously established in respect to antimicrobial polypeptides (27).. We found all major lipid classes in nasal fluid collected from healthy adults and, to our knowledge, this study is the first quantification of lipids in human nasal fluid. Glycerophospholipids and cholesterol, as well as to a lesser extent triglycerides and free fatty acids, have already been described in bronchioalveolar and nasal lavages, whereby the lipids were mainly thought to originate from lung surfactant ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/6/4177.long
*  Endocytosis inhibitors abolish the active transport of polypeptides in the mucosa of the nasal upper concha of the rabbit |...
An active absorption of polypeptides (elcatonin = CCT; adrenocorticotropic hormone) had been previously observed in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the rabbit. Its saturation kinetics and the parallel absence of a net transfer of other non-polypeptidic organic markers excluded the involvement of a simple pinocytosis. This absorption has been now better localized and further characterized. Unidirectional CCT fluxes (determined with radioimmunoassay) have been concomitantly monitored with transepithelial electric potential difference (Vms). Although the mucosae covering the ectoturbinal A and the lower and upper conchae displayed similar Vms, the active CCT transport was only evidenced in the upper concha. In this region cytochalasin B (which by disassembling actin microfilaments prevents the apical formation of vesicles in epithelial cells) and monensin (which prevents the split of the ligand-receptor complex in the endosomes) both eliminated the net CCT absorption, however, also permanently ...
  https://air.unimi.it/handle/2434/34340
*  instrumentsfordcr
Kerrison ronguers. This instrument is used to enlarge the osteotomy and it comes in different sizes and can be up-biting (as shown here) or down-biting. The blunt tip of the rongeur is placed against the nasal mucosa and rotated, dissecting the nasal mucosa from the underlying bone. In so doing, it allows the cutting edge to slip behind the bone without damaging the nasal mucosa. ...
  http://www.mrcophth.com/ophthalmicinstruments/lacrimalset/instrumentsfordcr.html
*  Nasal Epithelium Gene Expression Profiling in Child Respiratory Allergic Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Context: Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in childhood. Allergic rhinitis has been described as a risk factor to develop asthma. The objective of the study was to evaluate the contribution of the respiratory epithelium to development of allergic rhinitis and asthma and to identify the molecular mechanisms driving rhinitis toward asthma.. Methods: Using a human pangenomic microarray, we established expression profiles of nasal epithelial cells, collected by brushing of patients belonging to one of four distinct children 2 to 18 years of age groups:. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00569361
*  The Potential of the Nasal Mucosa Route: RESULTS
Figure 2. Hemodynamic changes in the study group are shown by percent (preinjection value = 100). Heart rate (HR) at 30 seconds only demonstrated significant increase. Systolic blood pressure (Sys P), diastolic blood pressure (Dia P), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) demonstrated significant increase at all measurement points except MAP at 15 seconds (Wilcoxon test, P , .05, n = 10). Marked points represent mean ± SD.. In the study group, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure started increasing 15 seconds after administration and reached a plateau exceeding 200% of the control value. This plateau continued for 2 minutes. There was almost no change in the pulse rate during the entire measurement period (Figure 2). In the control group, there was almost no change in the circulatory parameters except for a small increase (not statistically significant) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 15 seconds after injection (Figure 3). The increased rate of plasma concentration of epinephrine ...
  http://www.anesthesiaprogress.com/the-potential-of-the-nasal-mucosa-route-results.html
*  Conditions for inflammation, nasal mucosa | Complementary and Alternative Medicine | St. Luke's Hospital
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  https://www.stlukes-stl.com/health-content/medicine/33/001860.htm
*  Detection of DNA damage in gastric, colonic and nasal mucosa cells derived from the rat and from human biopsie specimens
In: 5th L.H. Gray Trust Workshop, The single cell microgel assay (COMET), technical aspects and applications, Sutton, England 1994. London : Inst. of Cancer Res. 1994 ...
  https://publikationen.bibliothek.kit.edu/236794