*  Cloning and characterization of mouse extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase 3 as a unique gene product of 100 kDa |...
MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have a pivotal role in signal transduction. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a mouse homologue of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)3. The mouse Erk3 cDNA encodes a predicted protein of 720 residues, which displays 94% identity with human ERK3. Transcription and translation of this cDNA in vitro generates a 100 kDa protein similar to the human gene product ERK3. Immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against a unique sequence of ERK3 also recognizes a 100 kDa protein in mouse tissues. A single transcript of Erk3 was detected in every adult mouse tissue examined, with the highest expression being found in the brain. Interestingly, expression of Erk3 mRNA is acutely regulated during mouse development, with a peak of expression observed ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/346/1/169
*  Fra-2-positive Autoregulatory Loop Triggered by Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Fra-2 Phosphorylation Sites by MAPK...
We reported previously that activation of endogenous activator protein 1 (AP-1) in chicken embryo fibroblasts is essential for the cellular transformation induced by v-src, and we further showed that the activation of AP-1 is accompanied by elevation of Fra-2 and c-Jun expression and also high-level phosphorylation of Fra-2 by activated endogenous extracellular signal-regulated kinase [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)]. Here, we report that the transcriptional activity of Fra-2/c-Jun heterodimer was greatly enhanced by cotransfecting a constitutively active mutant of MEK1 gene (MEK-DD) into F9 cells, indicating that Fra-2 was converted into an active transactivator after phosphorylation by MAPK. High-level expression of MEK-DD alone was sufficient to induce clear cellular transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts, which caused constitutive activation of endogenous MAPK, hyperphosphorylation of Fra-2, and elevation ...
  http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/10/5/333
*  Irisin Stimulates Browning of White Adipocytes Through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 MAP Kinase and ERK MAP Kinase...
PGC-1α-dependent irisin, a novel myokine, is derived from cleaving Fndc5 protein. Irisin promotes brown fat-like development and thermogenesis in WAT both in vitro and in vivo. The discovery of irisin has created an opportunity to further understand the role of adipocytes in obesity, diabetes, and other associated metabolic disorders (12,13,26,27). However, the molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways responsible for the browning effect of irisin have not been elucidated.. In this study, we successfully constructed the yeast expression plasmid containing a synthesized optimal codon usage, human irisin-coding sequence and generated pure human recombinant irisin protein in P. pastoris with high yield that is fully biologically functional. The P. pastoris system is widely used for heterogenic protein expression, with the capacity to generate posttranslational modified proteins (28). The human recombinant irisin ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/2/514.full
*  Phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in platelets is mediated by multiple stress-activated protein kinase pathways -...
Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00722.x/abstract?globalMessage=0
*  "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module wit" by Nyaya Kelkar, Shashi Gupta et al.
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is activated in response to the treatment of cells with inflammatory cytokines and by exposure to environmental stress. JNK activation is mediated by a protein kinase cascade composed of a MAPK kinase and a MAPK kinase kinase. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a putative molecular scaffold protein, JIP3, that binds the protein kinase components of a JNK signaling module and facilitates JNK activation in cultured cells. JIP3 is expressed in the brain and at lower levels in the heart and other tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that JIP3 was present in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the growth cones of developing neurites. JIP3 is a member of a novel class of putative MAPK scaffold proteins that may regulate signal transduction by the JNK pathway.
  http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1439/
*  Sustained activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase during recovery from simulated ischaemia mediates adaptive...
Delayed cytoprotection (preconditioning) occurs 24h after sublethal simulated ischaemia and reperfusion (SI/R) in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. SI/R was used to investigate the role of activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in cytoprotection. SI resulted in transient dual (Thr/Tyr) phosphorylation of p42/p44-MAPK and p38-MAPK, weak phosphorylation of p46/p54-SAPK, but no phosphorylation of PKB. 'Reperfusion' caused further transient phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, but sustained phosphorylation of p42/p44-MAPK (lasting 4h) and of Ser473 of PKB (lasting 2h). Furthermore, SI/R (24h) induced delayed protection against lethal SI, as determined by an increase in cell viability {bioreduction of MTT ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/350/3/891
*  HOG1 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) - HOG1...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in a signal transduction pathway that is activated by changes in the osmolarity of the extracellular environment. Controls osmotic regulation of transcription via the stress response element (STRE) in promoters of target genes. Upon osmotic shock, associates with the SKO1-SSN6-TUP1 complex, phosphorylates SKO1, and converts it into an activator that subsequently recruits Swi/Snf and SAGA complexes. Activates the SMP1 transcription factor and the RCK2 kinase, both also involved in the regulation of the expression of a subset of osmotic stress-related genes. Phosphorylation of HSL1 by HOG1 leads to a G2 arrest essential for cell survival at high osmolarity. Mediates also cell-cycle arrest in G1 phase by the dual targeting of SIC1. Regulates MFA2 ARE-mediated translation in response to carbon source. Targets RDP3 histone deacetylase to osmoresponsive promoters to induce gene expression on stress. Plays ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P32485
*  Specificity of Linear Motifs That Bind to a Common Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Docking Groove | Science Signaling
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a docking groove that interacts with linear "docking" motifs in binding partners. To determine the structural basis of binding specificity between MAPKs and docking motifs, we quantitatively analyzed the ability of 15 docking motifs from diverse MAPK partners to bind to c-Jun amino-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), p38α, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). Classical docking motifs mediated highly specific binding only to JNK1, and only those motifs with a sequence pattern distinct from the classical MAPK binding docking motif consensus differentiated between the topographically similar docking grooves of ERK and p38α. Crystal structures of four complexes of MAPKs with docking peptides, representing JNK-specific, ERK-specific, or ERK- and p38-selective binding modes, revealed that the regions located between consensus positions in the docking motifs showed conformational diversity. ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/5/245/ra74?rss=1
*  British Library EThOS: Investigation of T-helper type 2 cytokines and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the...
Investigation of T-helper type 2 cytokines and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the modulation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and remodelling ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.417857
*  KEGG PATHWAY: hsa00561
Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of DL-glycerol-3-phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of the corresponding GPP1 and GPP2 genes and evidence for osmotic regulation of Gpp2p expression by the osmosensing mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway ...
  http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?pathway+hsa00561
*  Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs): ERKs, JNKs, and p38s - CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
  http://schoolbag.info/chemistry/chemical_biology/101.html
*  Active Humain Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protéine, Recombinant | ABIN593493
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protéine. Origine: Humain. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Commandez ABIN593493.
  http://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/protein/593493/Mitogen-Activated+Protein+Kinase+8+MAPK8+Active+protein/
*  Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) (Active) Protein</span...
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protein. Species: Human. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Order product ABIN593493.
  http://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/593493/Mitogen-Activated+Protein+Kinase+8+MAPK8+Active+protein/
*  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 | JNK subfamily | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 - JNK subfamily. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
  http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=1496
*  MAPK12 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 - Homo sapiens (Human) - MAPK12 gene & protein
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK12 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors such as ELK1 and ATF2. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases such as MAPKAPK2, which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. Plays a role in myoblast differentiation and also in the down-regulation of cyclin D1 in response to hypoxia in adrenal cells suggesting MAPK12 may inhibit cell proliferation while promoting differentiation. Phosphorylates DLG1. Following osmotic shock, MAPK12 in the cell nucleus increases its ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P53778
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Scaffolding Proteins: A Recount
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Downstream of the receptors, this pathway involves the activation of a kinase cascade that culminates in a transcriptional response and affects processes, such as cell migration and adhesion. In addition, the strength and duration of the upstream signal also influence the mode of the cellular response that is switched on. Thus, the same components can in principle coordinate opposite responses, such as proliferation and differentiation. In recent years, it has become evident that MAPK signaling is regulated and fine-tuned by proteins that can bind to several MAPK signaling proteins simultaneously and, thereby, affect their function. These so-called MAPK scaffolding proteins are, thus, important coordinators ...
  http://mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/3/4854
*  The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade MKK3-MPK6 is an important part of the jasmonate signal transduction pathway in...
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  http://ura.sec.tsukuba.ac.jp/archives/3087
*  Mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 (Q6CJA8) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
  https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/Q6CJA8
*  "Membrane localization of scaffold proteins promotes graded signaling i" by Satoe Takahashi and Peter M. Pryciak
BACKGROUND: Signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade pathways can show various input-output behaviors, including either switch-like or graded responses to increasing levels of stimulus. Prior studies suggest that switch-like behavior is promoted by positive feedback loops and nonprocessive phosphorylation reactions, but it is unclear whether graded signaling is a default behavior or whether it must be enforced by separate mechanisms. It has been hypothesized that scaffold proteins promote graded behavior.
  http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/2044/
*  Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Decreases Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Improves Cardiac Function After...
The present studies provide crucial information in clarifying the role of stress-response MAPK in response to ischemic injury. Our results demonstrated that ischemia alone resulted in a transient, moderate (3.5-fold) increase in p38 MAPK activation. On reperfusion, however, marked activation of p38 MAPK was observed, with a 6.3-fold activation achieved ≈10 minutes after reperfusion. These results demonstrate for the first time in a quantitative manner that, although ischemia alone can activate p38 MAPK, ischemia followed by reperfusion results in a more profound p38 MAPK activation. These results also lead us to hypothesize that the strong activation of p38 MAPK by reperfusion may play a more significant role in subsequent myocardial injury than previously realized.. A novel finding in our study is that administration of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB 203580, markedly reduced postischemic myocardial apoptosis. Although previous studies have demonstrated that p38 MAPK plays a key role in apoptosis in ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/99/13/1685
*  Mapk14 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Mapk14 gene & protein
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q56A33
*  Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 15 (MAPK15) ELISA Kits
Reaktivität: Human, Maus, Ratte. 12 verschiedene MAPK15 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
  http://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/MitogenActivated+Protein+Kinase+15+
*  Dynamic Signaling in the Hog1 MAPK Pathway Relies on High Basal Signal Transduction | Science Signaling
Appropriate regulation of the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is essential for cells to survive osmotic stress. Here, we show that the two sensing mechanisms upstream of Hog1 display different signaling properties. The Sho1 branch is an inducible nonbasal system, whereas the Sln1 branch shows high basal signaling that is restricted by a MAPK-mediated feedback mechanism. A two-dimensional mathematical model of the Snl1 branch, including high basal signaling and a Hog1-regulated negative feedback, shows that a system with basal signaling exhibits higher efficiency, with faster response times and higher sensitivity to variations in external signals, than would systems without basal signaling. Analysis of two other yeast MAPK pathways, the Fus3 and Kss1 signaling pathways, indicates that high intrinsic basal signaling may be a general property of MAPK pathways allowing rapid and sensitive responses to environmental changes.. ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2/63/ra13
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20021846 - MAP kinase activation in macrophages.
Stimulation of macrophages by a variety of agents causes activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Activation of MAPKs by lipopolysaccharide involves CD14 and Toll receptors. Subsequent steps still remain to be explored. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced activation of MAPKs has been shown to involve the death domain proteins (TRADD, FADD, MADD) and TRAFs. Other molecul
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20021846.html