*  Institutional review board - Wikipedia
Social scientists have criticized biomedical IRBs for failing to adequately understand their research methods (such as ... for institutional human subject studies were originally developed in direct response to research abuses in the 20th century. ... federally funded research using animals is the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). IRBs are most commonly used ... or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_review_board
*  Huntaway - Wikipedia
... www.massey.ac.nz/massey/learning/colleges/college-of-sciences/research/veterinary-animal-biomedical-research/working-dog-centre ... The huntaway was further developed as a separate breed from the heading dog during the 20th Century. As of August 2013 the ... Farm fencing - Early fencing methods', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 1-Mar-09 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz ... The earliest references to huntaways are in the late 19th century. A sheepdog trial with a specific class for huntaways was ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntaway
*  Model organism - Wikipedia
... antitoxin has also been attributed as a cause for the decline of the early 20th-century opposition to animal research in the ... Many animal models serving as test subjects in biomedical research, such as rats and mice, may be selectively sedentary, obese ... maintenance and relative inefficiency of animal research has encouraged development of alternative methods for the study of ... Animal experimentation continues to be required for biomedical research, and is used with the aim of solving medical problems ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_organism
*  Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine - Wikipedia
Staff took considerable risks in early research: investigating plague in India in the early 20th century the method of ... There were also further important research activities: the role of enzymes in the metabolism of plant and animal carbohydrates ... and it now awards the Lister Institute Research Prize Fellowships to researchers working on biomedical problems in the United ... As a result, it became a national centre for research on blood transfusion and the provision of blood products for clinical use ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lister_Institute_of_Preventive_Medicine
*  IMRAD - Wikipedia
"We treated our animals in accordance with our local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee." In the late 20th century and ... What was the research question, the tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research? Methods - When, where, and how was the ... "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication - IV.A.1. ... "Methods" heading may vary, being "Methods and materials", "Materials and methods", or similar phrases. Some journals mandate ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IMRAD
*  Iowa State University - Wikipedia
These became the earliest institutes held off-campus by a land grant institution and were the forerunners of 20th century ... Iowa State is classified as a Research University with very high research activity (RU/VH) by the Carnegie Foundation for the ... While attempting to develop a faster method of computation, mathematics and physics professor John Vincent Atanasoff ... plant and animal sciences; information and decision sciences; and renewable energies. The focus on technology has led directly ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iowa_State_University
*  Freezing-point depression - Wikipedia
Cryoscopy is no longer as common a measurement method as it once was, but it was included in textbooks at the turn of the 20th ... L. Sherwood et al., Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms, 2005, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, ISBN 0-534-55404-0, p. ... 691-692 BIOETYMOLOGY- Biomedical Terms of Greek Origin bioetymology.blogspot.com Julius B. Cohen Practical Organic Chemistry ... Engineering Chemistry Research. 48 (10): 5123-5123. doi:10.1021/ie900434h. ISSN 0888-5885. Ge, Xinlei; Wang, Xidong (2009). " ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freezing-point_depression
*  Quackery - Wikipedia
This medicine continued to be sold under the original name into the early 20th century, and can still be found in the British ... As a direct result, more public dollars have been allocated for research into some of these methods. Individuals and non- ... Americans waste $27 billion annually on questionable health care, exceeding the amount spent on biomedical research. Quackery ... Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), was a German physician and astrologist, who invented what he called magnétisme animal. Theodor ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quackery
*  Heterosis - Wikipedia
In the early 20th century, after Mendel's laws came to be understood and accepted, geneticists undertook to explain the ... Risch N, Burchard E, Ziv E, Tang H (July 2002). "Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease". ... Hybrid breeding methods are used in maize, sorghum, rice, sugar beet, onion, spinach, sunflowers, broccoli and to create a more ... infertility issue implies that these animals would most likely become extinct without the intervention of humans through animal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterosis
*  Lamprey - Wikipedia
It is generally believed that they gained access to the lakes via canals during the early 20th century, but this theory is ... Lampreys are used as a model organism in biomedical research, where their large reticulospinal axons are used to investigate ... Parasitic lampreys feed on prey as adults by attaching their mouthparts to the target animal's body, then using their teeth to ... New programs are being developed, including the use of chemically sterilized male lampreys in a method akin to the sterile ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamprey
*  Health - Wikipedia
Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the ... Additionally, in 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which is the cancer research agency for the World ... Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation ... A healthy diet includes a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods that provide nutrients to your body. Such nutrients ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health
*  Outline of science - Wikipedia
Operations research - study of the use of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Systems dynamics - ... He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century. John ... Zoologist - branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, ... branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. Ichthyologist - study ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_science
*  Human subject research legislation in the United States - Wikipedia
Human subject research legislation in the United States can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the ... Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches, SAGE, 2000, 076191403X, Dominic Streatfeild, Brainwash: the ... While most major controversies about unethical research were focused on biomedical sciences, there were also controversies ... This was addressed by the Drug Amendments legislation of 1962, which introduced a requirement for a series of animal tests ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_subject_research_legislation_in_the_United_States
*  Frank W. Stahnisch - Wikipedia
His research interests in the history and philosophy of the biomedical sciences cover: the development of modern physiology and ... 405-417 (with Peter J. Koehler): Three 20th Century Multi-Authored Handbooks Serving as Vital Catalyzers of an Emerging ... 73-102 The Use of Animal Experimentation in the History of Neurology. In: History of Neurology. Eds., Stanley Finger, François ... London, UK: Routledge 2017 (ed.) Probing the Limits of Method in the Neurosciences. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_W._Stahnisch
*  History of animal testing - Wikipedia
Throughout the 20th century, research that used live animals has led to many other medical advances and treatments for human ... "Male Scent May Compromise Biomedical Research". Science , AAAS. 2014-04-28. Retrieved 2017-01-10. "Emil von Behring - ... introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. In ... History of model organisms Animal testing Alarik Frithiof Holmgren Cohen and Loew 1984. "History of nonhuman animal research" ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_animal_testing
*  Nanomaterials - Wikipedia
The first observations and size measurements of nano-particles were made during the first decade of the 20th century. Zsigmondy ... are subjects of ongoing research. Of the possible hazards, inhalation exposure appears to present the most concern. Animal ... Often the methods are divided into two main types "Bottom Up" and "Top Down." Bottom up methods involve the assembly of atoms ... Recently, a range of nanoparticles are extensively investigated for biomedical applications including tissue engineering, drug ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanomaterials
*  Guidelines for human subject research - Wikipedia
In the Weimar Republic of 20th century pre-Nazi Germany, the entity known as Reichsgesundheitsamt (translating roughly to ... the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the Office for Human ... Animal testing should be conducted first, and human experiments are to be avoided if other means of collecting data are still ... performed two sets of clinical trials attempting to find a method of prevention for syphilis. Neisser first inserted serum ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guidelines_for_human_subject_research
*  Laboratory mouse - Wikipedia
Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in ... Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory_mouse
*  Simulation - Wikipedia
Although modern simulation is thought to have its roots in training and the military, in the 20th century it also became a ... At the University of Québec in Chicoutimi, a research team at the outdoor research and expertise laboratory (Laboratoire ... This was the best and fastest method to identify the failure cause. A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a ... They are also important to help on prototyping new devices for biomedical engineering problems. Currently, simulators are ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulation
*  Silk - Wikipedia
In England in the mid-20th century, raw silk was produced at Lullingstone Castle in Kent. Silkworms were raised and reeled ... Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 99B (1): 89-101. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.31875. PMC 3418605 . ... Kojima, K.; Kuwana, Y.; Sezutsu, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Uchino, K.; Tamura, T.; Tamada, Y. (2007). "A new method for the ... mainly due to the fact that it is an animal-derived fiber and more inputs such as fertilizer and water are needed per unit of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk
*  Radiocarbon dating - Wikipedia
Dating an object from the early 20th century hence gives an apparent date older than the true date. For the same reason, 14 C ... if any of the elements common in organic matter had isotopes with half-lives long enough to be of value in biomedical research ... For some time, beta counting methods were more accurate than AMS, but as of 2014 AMS is more accurate and has become the method ... An animal that eats food with high δ13C values will have a higher δ13C than one that eats food with lower δ13C values. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
*  Ernest Everett Just - Wikipedia
Kessler, James; Kidd, J. S.; Renee Kidd; and Katherine A. Morin; Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century ... He wanted a position that would provide a steady income and allow him to spend more time with his research. Just's scientific ... Just authored two books, Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals (1939) and The Biology of the Cell Surface ( ... Charras, G. T.; T. J. Mitchison; L. Mahedevan (2009), "Animal cell hydraulics". J. Cell Sci. 122 (18): 3233-3241. Needleman, D ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Everett_Just
*  Science and technology in the Philippines - Wikipedia
Teodoro Agoncillo, a 20th-century Filipino historian, and received the national scientist award for his contributions in the ... Metal Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC) Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) Philippine Textile Research ... Based on the bone, hair, muscle samples and plant and animal tissues, Garong traced the diet of ancient Filipinos. Filipinos in ... Filipinos were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_and_technology_in_the_Philippines
*  University of Pennsylvania - Wikipedia
Penn also owns the 687-acre (2.78 km2) New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary ... Gradually, over the second half of the 20th century, the school raised its profile, became more selective and dramatically ... Over the next decade, the site will become the home to educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities. The first ... Simon Kuznets's method of measuring Gross National Product, the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Pennsylvania
*  Death - Wikipedia
By the mid-20th century, half of all Americans died in a hospital. By the start of the 21st century, only about 20 to 25% of ... The animal dies when this resource is exhausted. Selye assumed that the adaptability is a finite supply, presented at birth. ... Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 19 ... Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists known as "biomedical gerontologists". They try to understand ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death