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*  Frontiers | Aglycemic HepG2 Cells Switch From Aminotransferase Glutaminolytic Pathway of Pyruvate Utilization to Complete Krebs...
... to the Krebs cycle vs. ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is ... even at unlimited respiratory substrate availability for 72 hours at 5% O2, exhibiting the canonical HIF-mediated adaptation. ... ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is typically inactive in ... evidencing the lack of 2OG-dehydrogenase substrate upon aminotransferase inhibition. Surprisingly, after 72 hours of 5% O2 ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2018.00637/full
*  Plus it
... were initially applied as a correction for the loss of labeled carbon in the exchange with tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle ... Lactate, perhaps the predominant substrate, is not in complete equilibrium even with alanine (3), for example. Moreover, it was ... It follows then, from the chemical and physical equivalence of metabolite and tracer, that Eq. ii can be rewritten as. Equation ... Rates of tricarboxylic acid and pentose cycles.Techniques in Metabolic ResearchKornberg H. L.1979Elsevier/North-Holland ...
  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/277/2/E199
*  18.3.1 - Root respiration and anaerobic metabolism | Plants in Action
Roots in drained soil respire by catabolising carbohydrates in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, with the 'reducing power' ... Anoxia prevents pyruvate from entering the TCA cycle because O2 is unavailable as a terminal electron acceptor. Carbon is ... Some lactate and alanine are also produced, but in contrast to fermentation leading to lactate and alanine, ethanolic ... Carbohydrates are then broken down via fermentative pathways to yield at least some ATP, produced during substrate-level ...
  http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/content/1831-root-respiration-and-anaerobic-metabolism
*  Citric acid cycle - Wikipedia
The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical ... Their carbon skeletons (i.e. the de-aminated amino acids) may either enter the citric acid cycle as intermediates (e.g. alpha- ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ... These are the so-called "glucogenic" amino acids. De-aminated alanine, cysteine, glycine, serine, and threonine are converted ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle
*  Metabolic processes of Methanococcus maripaludis and potential applications
Tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. TCA cycle plays an important role in generating electron carriers such as NADH & FAD for ... This suggests that both H2 and formate can act as electron donors, while CO2 is the sole carbon substrate. Between H2 and ... the latter is essential for converting d-alanine to l-alanine [47-49], because alanine dehydrogenase is specific for l-alanine ... 4, pyruvate is the entry metabolite in M. maripaludis for TCA cycle. In the absence of phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), M ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4902934/
*  Simulating a Tour de France champion | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and...
... the tricarboxylic acid cycle and transamination of carbon skeletons to amino acids), a model of flux distribution often ... Amino acid synthesis of alanine and glutamate/gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) cycling were included. Reactions are taken from ... b) Steady-state metabolite concentrations at the end of a 600 s simulation compared with data from cycling exercise experiments ... Substrate uptake is from Quistorff et al. [44]. Flux values are in mmol min−1 for the whole brain. PPP, pentose phosphate ...
  http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1954/4295
*  metabolism | Definition, Process, & Biology - The study of metabolic pathways | Britannica.com
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle*Formation of coenzyme A, carbon dioxide, and reducing equivalent ... Thus, in the case of alanine, only the amino group must be removed to yield pyruvate; the amino acid threonine, on the other ... The loss of the two molecules of carbon dioxide in steps [41] and [42] does not yield biologically useful energy. The substrate ... Second, the administration of metabolic poisons may lead to the accumulation of specific metabolites. If fluoroacetic acid or ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/metabolism/The-study-of-metabolic-pathways
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Marco Oldiges
Although the isocitrate dehydrogenase as an NADPH source within the tricarboxylic acid cycle only enables an L-valine yield of ... These findings can be used to redirect the carbon flux from glycolysis via pyruvate to the TCA cycle towards the desired ... Aerobic, substrate-limited stirred tank and non-aerated, substrate-excess plug flow compartments were applied for oscillation. ... L-alanine and organic acids in the presence of low pantothenate concentrations. ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Marco_Oldiges
*  Metabolomics/Metabolites/Nucleotides - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
New Terms: Tricarboxylic acid = organic acid containing three carboxyl groups Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) = cyclic ... and the citric acid cycle. It was mentioned that the co-substrate referred to as PRPP plays a role in the purine salvage ... system of enzymatic reactions for the oxidation of acetyl residues to carbon dioxide (also known as citric acid cycle or Krebs ... Possible mechanisms include the purine nucleotide cycle and reactions catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase, pyruvate ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Metabolomics/Metabolites/Nucleotides
*  Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene...
... whereas those of most of the genes in the tricarboxylic cycle decreased. The increased expression of AHAS isoenzymes, which are ... 36) consisting of 979 metabolic reactions and 814 metabolites (144 extracellular metabolites and 670 intermediates), which is a ... branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (ilvE), and dihydroxy acid dehydratase (ilvD) involved in the l-valine biosynthetic ... Pyruvate is used as a common substrate for biosynthesis of l-valine, l-leucine, and l-isoleucine. To eliminate the formation of ...
  https://www.pnas.org/content/104/19/7797?ijkey=4f99f12beac3964304590e50eb2182d001ef2f03&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  YEAST CELL WITH INCREASED PYRUVATE POOL IN CYTOSOL AND METHOD OF PRODUCING PYRUVATE-BASED METABOLITE USING THE SAME -...
Pyruvate is a major substrate used in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria and is converted into a variety of ... alanine, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and a combination thereof. When the pyruvate-based metabolite is an organic acid, the ... and used to produce metabolites or energy via a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. When the activity of MPC is reduced in a cell ... The pyruvate-based metabolite may be at least one selected from lactate, ethanol, glycerol, acetate, formate, alanine, carbon ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20150087032
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... as well as in metabolites indicative of flux through glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ... Based on these results, Old biochar would not be appropriate for use as a soil amendment for carbon sequestration, substrate ... fructose and alanine but not glucose. Using immunofluorescent and immuno-EM, we confirm that SmAQP is localized in the tegument ... Methods are described for profiling whole worm free amino acids, labeled carbon dioxide, labeled organic acids, and labeled ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/20454673/the-tegument-human-parasitic-worm-schistosoma-mansoni-as-an-excretory
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043688/00001
... and the ketoglutarate which enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle directly. PLP ketobutyrate from cystathionine that feeds ... Identification of 5 pyridoxic acid and 5 pyridoxic acid lactone as metabolites of vitamin B6 in humans. J Nutr Biochem 1991;2:4 ... Prostaglandin production is directly modulated by the substrate availability of arachidonic acids and EPA in cellular membrane ... For i nstance, red cell aminotransferases for aspartate and alanine are commonly measured before and after adding PLP in vitro ...
  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043688/00001
*  Mechanism of Amino Acid-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Humans | Diabetes
... ketogenic AAs can be metabolized to acetyl-CoA and further oxidized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Therefore, substrate ... Plasma concentrations of alanine and particularly branched-chain amino acids (AAs) are elevated in insulin-resistant states ... Metabolites and hormones.. Fasting plasma glucose (AA, 5.34 ± 0.11; control, 5.65 ± 0.15 mmol/l), insulin (AA, 48 ± 6; control ... carbon.uab.es/mrui/) (25). Intracellular pH and ADP concentrations were calculated as previously reported (22,23). ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/3/599
*  Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase - Wikipedia
Most part of this metabolite is transformed into succinyl-CoA, which is the precursor of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The ... Its main function is to catalyze the conversion of malonyl-CoA into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide. It is involved in fatty acid ... comprises the first 39 amino acids (beginning with a methionine and ending with an alanine). The polypeptide chain in the ... in which the substrate is united; and U conformation (unbound), where the substrate union isn't allowed. According to this, the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malonyl-CoA_decarboxylase
*  Phosphorus and C metabolism in diatoms | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
... tricarboxylic acid.. (b) The central carbon metabolism-CCMs, Calvin cycle, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and OPPP. ... This compartmentation enables the cell to adjust the carbon flux through regulation of transport of metabolites between the ... G6P can also be converted to UDP-glucose, which is a substrate for the biosynthesis of chrysolaminarin, sulfolipids and ... N-trimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA) as major lipids in the extraplastidic membranes [33]. P limitation of P. tricornutum resulted in ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1728/20160406
*  Transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic changes in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves after the onset of illumination | BMC Plant...
... the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain, thereby provides a more complete picture to the changes in plant physiology ... proteomes and key metabolites upon illumination and to determine whether there are any correlations between changes in ... The integration of data of the organelles and the photosystems, Calvin-Benson cycle, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, ... The changes in the levels of ADP, ATP, NADP+, NADPH and 41 metabolites upon illumination were also quantified. Upon ...
  https://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-016-0726-3
*  Frontiers | Changes in primary metabolism under light and dark conditions in response to overproduction of a response regulator...
... and increased amino acids under dark conditions. The current results demonstrate that in this cyanobacterium, RpaA is a ... and increased amino acids under dark conditions. The current results demonstrate that in this cyanobacterium, RpaA is a ... Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic ... Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00888/full
*  Metabolism of halophilic archaea | SpringerLink
Pyruvate metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Pyruvate metabolism. The central metabolite pyruvate is converted to acetyl- ... Branched-chain amino acid degradation. For amino acids with a more complex carbon scaffold, i.e. branched-chain and aromatic ... Aspartate family (aspartate, alanine, asparagine, threonine, methionine, lysine). Aspartate is derived from the TCA cycle ... 1988; Rajagopalan and Altekar 1994). The CO2 acceptor and substrate of RuBisCO, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate is not directly ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00792-008-0138-x
*  Pathogenesis of A−β+ Ketosis-Prone Diabetes | Diabetes
Rate of acetate oxidation (µmol · kg−1 · h−1) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle:. Eq. (3). where is the CO2 excretion rate ... The Fisher exact test was used to assess deviations from the order of metabolites as an indicator of substrate preference due ... and blunted glucose carbon anaplerosis in the TCA cycle as manifested by an unchanged rate of glutamate carbon oxidation. A ... Physiological hypercortisolemia increases proteolysis, glutamine, and alanine production. Am J Physiol 1988;255:E366-E373pmid: ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/3/912.full
*  Eating at the Table of Another: Metabolomics of Host/Parasite Interactions
One such example is deciphering the actual function of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of blood stage malaria, as it is ... Several metabolites changed significantly in abundance following a switch in carbon source from glucose to proline, including ... The increased utilization of the glutamate/glutamine cycle preceded the increases in lactate and alanine suggesting that ... metabolite transport, as well as substrate, product, and cofactor abundance. Global transcriptional and proteomic analyses have ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2825149/?lang=en-ca
*  Targeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text
... both products of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as oxygen consumption, a measure of electron transport ... Through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, carbons deriving from pyruvate can be incorporated into several metabolites associated ... increased cytoplasmic NADH may promote conversion of pyruvate to lactate by LDH and thus reduce available substrate for alanine ... carbon dioxide at 37°C using a variable carbon dioxide tension incubator (Heraeus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Asheville, NC). ...
  https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr2154
*  Plus it
... the first intermediate product produced in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, was increased by 1.4-fold compared with that in ... 2-HPCL catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 3-methyl-branched fatty acids and 2-hydroxy straight-chain fatty acids, ... An analysis of amino acids and metabolites suggested that O7 might affect amino acid biosynthesis, although the exact function ... l-ascorbic acid was also reported to function as a substrate for oxalate synthesis (Horner et al., 2000), although the enzymes ...
  http://www.plantcell.org/content/30/10/2447
*  The Cardiac Acetyl-Lysine Proteome
... oxidative phosphorylation or the TCA cycle. Within the cytosolic fraction, the enzymes of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and ... In summary, cardiac lysine acetylation may play a role in cardiac substrate selection, bioenergetic performance, and ... The majority of the acetyl-proteins are enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, ... Enzymes of the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle garner 12% of sites. As noted in Figure 4A, muscle contraction, as a process, is ...
  https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067513
*  Targeting Cancer Metabolism | Clinical Cancer Research
Amino acids, glutathione metabolites, choline derivatives, and TCA cycle intermediates were altered in mutant IDH1- and IDH2- ... Lactate, alanine, succinate, glutamate, aspartate, and citrate in tumors were 13C-enriched, suggesting glycolysis and TCA cycle ... provides both the acetyl coenzyme A for lipid synthesis and the 4-carbon intermediates needed to produce TCA cycle metabolites ... oxidative and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway and routing of glucose to anaerobic glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid ...
  http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/18/20/5537.full