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*  Frontiers | Involvement of Inositol Biosynthesis and Nitric Oxide in the Mediation of UV-B Induced Oxidative Stress | Plant...
... and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2) and used ... and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2) and used ... Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This ... Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00430/full
*  Metabolism - Wikipedia
In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy released from passing ... active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a ... The electrons then flow to the cytochrome b6f complex, which uses their energy to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane in ... The electrons needed to drive this electron transport chain come from light-gathering proteins called photosynthetic reaction ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolism
*  RNA-Seq analysis and targeted mutagenesis for improved free fatty acid production in an engineered cyanobacterium |...
Stress response, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, and protein folding genes were up-regulated during FFA production while ... Gene knockout of two porins and the overexpression of ROS-degrading proteins and hypothetical proteins reduced the toxic ... genes involved in carbon and hydrogen metabolisms were down-regulated. Select genes were targeted for mutagenesis to confirm ... Cyanobacterial FFA production was shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lead to increased cell membrane ...
  https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1754-6834-6-113
*  Oxidative Protein-Folding Systems in Plant Cells
PSII repair requires disassembly and reassembly of a thylakoid membrane protein complex composed of dozens of proteins ( ... Mitochondria play critical roles in numerous cellular processes, including energy metabolism and PCD. Mitochondria are derived ... including the reaction center proteins and oxygen-evolving proteins of PSII) and hundreds of cofactors and the breakage and ... PSII requires the rapid reassembly of a thylakoid membrane protein complex composed of dozens of proteins [15], which is ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcb/2013/585431/
*  Nucleoside triphosphate - Wikipedia
... cellular respiration) or the thylakoid membrane (photosynthesis). This electrochemical gradient is necessary because the ... G proteins are coupled with a cell membrane bound receptor. This whole complex is called a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). G ... This reaction is energetically favourable and releases 30.5 kJ/mol of energy. In the cell, this reaction is often coupled with ... "Pyrimidine Metabolism". www.cliffsnotes.com. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Lane AN, Fan TW (February 2015). "Regulation of mammalian ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleoside_triphosphate
*  Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase
... and protein phosphorylation on the rate of the deoxy Ngb-nitrite reaction [415, 416]. The reaction rate constant increased to ... A class I truncated Hb localizes along chloroplasts thylakoid membranes in algae [406]. Other examples of Hbs with membrane ... an outstanding natural antibiotic and antitumor agent and why NO metabolism by NODs or NORs provide a direct path for cellular ... These reactive species would be expected to cause damage to the heme and/or protein.. ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2012/683729/
*  Chloroplasts in plant immunity | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
This led to the isolation of EXECUTERS 1 and 2, two chloroplast-targeted and thylakoid-bound proteins, which control 1O2 ... Photosynthesis is a key modulator of cellular redox metabolism and has far-reaching effects on the metabolic status and stress ... by plasma membrane receptor kinases launches the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, formation of ... 1993 Direct detection of singlet oxygen from isolated photosystem II reaction centres. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1143, 301-309. ( ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1640/20130235
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Mitochondria have roles in many cellular processes, from energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis to control of cellular ... Detergent solubilized thylakoid membranes are loaded on sucrose density gradients at equal chlorophyll concentration. After ... Single cell codetection of a gene, its RNA product and cellular regulatory proteins is critical to study gene expression ... The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of those innovations that changed the course of molecular science ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/21887287/the-gc-rich-mitochondrial-plastid-genomes-green-alga-coccomyxa-give
*  High-value biomass from microalgae production platforms: strategies and progress based on carbon metabolism and energy...
In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in carbon and energy fluxes of light-dependent reaction, Calvin- ... which is mainly ascribed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of carbon metabolism and energy conversion. ... For example, uncoupling proteins located in inner mitochondrial membrane are related to maintain the redox poise of ... which affects the cellular redox state, and finally leads to the increase of ROS [19]. The mitochondrial oxidative metabolism ...
  https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-018-1225-6
*  Chapter 6 Flashcards by Randi Brabender | Brainscape
cellular respiration also provides precursors to many biosynthesis reactions. - intermediate molecules can go on to cellular ... acetyl group from Acetyl-CoA attaches to a transport protein. - 2-carbon units are added to this to make long chains of fatty ... 1. Model to study eukaryote metabolism (E.coli). 2. Food from fermentation. 3. Method to ID bacteria. 4. Designing and ... molecules that speed up chemical reactions but are not altered by the reaction ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/chapter-6-2475484/packs/4299096
*  Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia
The inner membrane contains an antiporter, the ADP/ATP translocase, which is an integral membrane protein used to exchange ... In plants, ATP is synthesized in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. The process is called photophosphorylation. The " ... The coupling reaction proceeds in two steps: aa + ATP --> aa-AMP + PPi aa-AMP + tRNA --> aa-tRNA + AMP The amino acid is ... The majority of cellular ATP is generated by this process. Although the citric acid cycle itself does not involve molecular ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate
*  Dioxygen in biological reactions - Wikipedia
O2 The reaction occurs in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, and algal and plant chloroplasts and requires the energy of ... Dioxygen (O 2) plays an important role in the energy metabolism of living organisms. Free oxygen is produced in the biosphere ... Molecular oxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. Oxygen is used as an electron acceptor in ... the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DIANE Publishing. p. 147. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioxygen_in_biological_reactions
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Christoph Benning (Translated to Portuguese)
Genes encoding proteins involved in membrane biogenesis were predicted on the basis of similarity to proteins with confirmed ... Photosynthetic complexes are embedded into the thylakoid membrane which forms an intricate system of membrane lamellae and ... The first reaction is catalyzed by the SQD1 protein in Arabidopsis. Here we describe the identification of the SQD2 gene of ... Feb, 2012 , Pubmed ID: 22337920 Membrane transporters play a central role in many cellular processes that rely on the movement ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Christoph_Benning?language=Portuguese
*  Acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) desaturase - Wikipedia
Oleic acid is formed from this reaction is transported to either the thylakoid or cytoplasm to complete desaturation. As of ... Jacobson, BS; Jaworski J; Stumpf PF (1974). "Fat Metabolism in Higher Plants LXII. Stearl-acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase from ... The histidine rich desaturases tend to be integral membrane proteins. Structural studies strongly suggest that the animal form ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Other names in common use include stearyl acyl carrier protein ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein)_desaturase
*  Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. Plants ... Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction. In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration; ... an exothermic reaction) to drive the organism's metabolism. The two processes, reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate and ... The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis
*  Chlorophyllase - Wikipedia
Chlorophyllase (klawr-uh-fil-eys) is the key enzyme in chlorophyll metabolism. It is a membrane protein that is commonly known ... Chlorophyllase can be found in the chloroplast, thylakoid membrane and etioplast of at least higher plants such as ferns, ... The addition of water to the reaction cleaves the phytol off the enzyme. Next, through the reverse reaction, the oxygen on the ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... This data suggests that the mature protein comes in contact ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorophyllase
*  Celluar Metabolism Research Paper - 780 Words
My Cellular Metabolism Paper By Carter St.John Energy is needed for all living systems to survive. Most of this energy is ... Light reactions occur the thylakoid membrane, which are in first and second stages, which are light-dependent. The pigments ... Metabolism Research Paper ...Reference Page Donald, Rizzo C. 'Cellular Metabolism.' Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. 3rd ... Aerobic metabolism proceeds with the overall net reaction of C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + approximately... 2080 Words , 7 ...
  http://www.studymode.com/essays/Celluar-Metabolism-1297459.html
*  Frontiers | Potential for increased photosynthetic performance and crop productivity in response to climate change: role of...
... freezing tolerance but also the activation of nuclear encoded photosynthetic genes associated with thylakoid membrane protein ... Guy, C. L. (1990). Cold acclimation and freezing tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. ... Knight, H., and Knight, M. R. (2000). Imaging spatial and cellular characteristics of low temperature calcium signature after ... of PSII reaction centers (Figure 3), and the latter as the apparent number of photons required to induce one unit of NPQ (Dahal ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fchem.2014.00018/full
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
In vivo, these proteins are folded with pigments to form complexes which are inserted in the thylakoid membrane of the ... All cellular processes depend on the functionality of proteins. Although the functionality of a given protein is the direct ... The reaction uses the principle of C-H functionalization via Intermediate PeroxideS (CHIPS). In the first step, a hydroperoxide ... Metabolite profiling has been a valuable asset in the study of metabolism in health and disease. However, current platforms ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/25216353/diosgenin-from-dioscorea-bulbifera-novel-hit-for-treatment-type-ii
*  Frontiers | Sub-high Temperature and High Light Intensity Induced Irreversible Inhibition on Photosynthesis System of Tomato...
... metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco ... metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco ... Effects on Activated Oxygen Metabolism. ROS Generation, Lipid Peroxidation and Thylakoid Membrane Damage. In our study, ... Among more than 25 kinds of subunits in PSII protein complex, D1 protein is located in the PSII reaction center and is encoded ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.00365/full
*  GLN2 - Glutamine synthetase, chloroplastic precursor - Oryza sativa subsp. japonica (Rice) - GLN2 gene & protein
chloroplast thylakoid membrane Source: EnsemblPlants. *. Cytosol. *cytosolic ribosome Source: EnsemblPlants. *. Extracellular ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Viridiplantae › Streptophyta › Streptophytina › Embryophyta › Tracheophyta › Euphyllophyta › ... R-OSA-210455. Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism. R-OSA-70614. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion ( ... the chemical reaction it catalyzes. This information usually correlates with the presence of an EC (Enzyme Commission) number ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P14655
*  Mechanism of enzyme action of dna polymerase - Medical Association of the USA
... this Maya animation depicts the process by which HIV's gp41 protein mediates the fusion of viral and cellular membranes during ... Motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Hydrophilic ... To find the maximum speed of an enzymatic reaction, i was considering running the EtOH precip. I just want to ask, i work with ... This provides a mechanism for regulating the overall metabolism of the organism. 3 weeks of quiet home activities, i ...
  http://russky.me/mechanism-of-enzyme-action-of-dna-polymerase/
*  Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase - Wikipedia
The binding of the FNR to the integral membrane proteins on the thylakoid membrane is enhanced under acidic conditions, so ... This reaction can also operate in reverse to generate reduced ferredoxin, which can then be used in a variety of biosynthetic ... Media related to Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase at Wikimedia Commons Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... These pathways include nitrogen fixation, terpenoid biosynthesis, steroid metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferredoxin%E2%80%94NADP(+)_reductase
*  Light-dependent regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants
... and accumulate in the thy-lakoid membranes (Cunningham and Gantt, 1998), specifically near the reaction center of photosystem ... Cryptochrome and PHY bind and inactivate COPl through direct protein-protein contact (Wang et al., 2001; Seo et al., 2004, ... Metabolism of cyclic carotenoids: a model for the alteration of this biosynthetic pathway in Capsicum annuum chromoplast. Plant ... visión and cellular differentiation, respectively (Krinsky et al., 1994; Fraser and Bramley, 2004; Tapiero et al., 2004). ...
  http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202009000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Thylakoid - Wikipedia
... in the thylakoid membrane directly affects the transcription of chloroplast genes encoding proteins of the reaction centers of ... in metabolism, and 7% redox carriers and defense. Chloroplasts have their own genome, which encodes a number of thylakoid ... It is interesting to note that this oxidation of water conveniently produces the waste product O2 that is vital for cellular ... and properly target proteins to the correct membrane system. The outer membrane, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes each ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thylakoid