*  Cell migration domains in the chick telencephalon - CaltechTHESIS
Little is known about the process by which the vertebrate forebrain (the diencephalon and telencephalon) becomes regionalized during development. In studies reported here, DiI injections were used to label the embryonic day 3 (stage-16) chick telencephalon in ovo , and the migration patterns of labelled cells were analyzed in relation to various molecular markers, including the regulatory genes Cash-l and Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Cells generated in the ventral telencephalon (basal ventricular ridge, or BVR) were found to migrate widely, but were restricted from crossing into the more dorsal telencephalon (dorsal ventricular ridge, or DVR), and the more caudal diencephalon. The cell migration boundary between the BVR and DVR correlates with a Cash-l expression boundary, and the cell migration boundary between BVR and diencephalon correlates with a Shh ...
  https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/6491/
*  International Mammalian Genome Society 1999 Abstracts
G4 An Early Block to Telencephalic Development in Flat-Top Mutant Mice. Kathryn Hentges and Andrew Peterson. Duke University Medical Center. The telencephalic vesicles form in the mouse embryo by the expansion of precursor regions in the anterior neural tube. After the vesicles expand they undergo regionalization to form distinct dorsal and ventral territories. Since the processes that control expansion and regionalization are not well understood, we have performed a genetic screen to identify mutations that disrupt these processes. We first injected male mice with ENU, a chemical mutagen. The offspring were then crossed to uncover recessive mutations that affect forebrain development. One mutant isolated in the screen, Flat-top, has defects in the formation of the telencephalic vesicles, their regionalization, and the maintenance of gene expression. The Flat-top telencephalic vesicles do not expand during development due to a failure to increase cell proliferation in the forebrain ...
  http://www.imgs.org/Archive/abstracts/99abstracts/hentges.shtml
*  Stab wound injury of the zebrafish telencephalon: A model for comparative analysis of reactive gliosis - Baumgart - 2011 - Glia...
Reactive glia, including astroglia and oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) are at the core of the reaction to injury in the mammalian brain with initially beneficial and later partially adverse functions such as scar formation. Given the different glial composition in the adult zebrafish brain with radial ependymoglia but no parenchymal astrocytes, we examined the glial response to an invasive stab wound injury model in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. Strikingly, already a few days after injury the wound was closed without any scar tissue. Similar to mammals, microglia cells reacted first and accumulated close to the injury site, while neither GFAP+ radial ependymoglia nor adult OPCs were recruited to the injury site. Moreover, OPCs failed to increase their proliferation after this injury, while the number of proliferating GFAP+ glia was increased until 7 days after injury. Importantly, neurogenesis was also increased after injury, generating additional neurons recruited ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/glia.22269/abstract
*  Slits Are Chemorepellents Endogenous to Hypothalamus and Steer Thalamocortical Axons into Ventral Telencephalon - Semantic...
Thalamocortical axons (TCAs) originate in dorsal thalamus, extend ventrally along the lateral thalamic surface, and as they approach hypothalamus make a lateral turn into ventral telencephalon. In vitro studies show that hypothalamus releases a chemorepellent for TCAs, and analyses of knockout mice indicate that Slit chemorepellents and their receptor Robo2 influence TCA pathfinding. We show that Slit chemorepellents are the hypothalamic chemorepellent and act through Robos to steer TCAs into ventral telencephalon. During TCA pathfinding, Slit1 and Slit2 are expressed in hypothalamus and ventral thalamus and Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in dorsal thalamus. In collagen gel cocultures of dorsal thalamus and Slit2-expressing cells, axon number and length are decreased on the explant side facing Slit2-expressing cells, overall axon outgrowth is diminished, and axons turn away from the Slit2-expressing cells. Thus, Slit2 is an ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Slits-Are-Chemorepellents-Endogenous-to-Hypothalam-Braisted-Ringstedt/49bb3d77dedb106e5730289ad784dcbfc97c35b2
*  Plus it
Olig2 and Mash1 are coexpressed in the VZ and SVZ of the ventral telencephalon at the time when OPCs are specified and a fraction of Olig2+,Mash1+ cells express the early OPC markers, PDGFRα and Olig1. Olig2 and Mash1 are also coexpressed by neuronal precursors, marked by expression of βIII-tubulin, as well as by cells that do not express cell type-specific markers and are presumably multipotent progenitors. Coexpression of Olig2 and Mash1 therefore does not appear to be sufficient to commit progenitors to either a neuronal or an oligodendroglial fate. Overexpression experiments of Mash1 in the dorsal telencephalon (present study; Lu et al., 2001) also indicate that expression of Mash1 alone is not sufficient to induce oligodendrogenesis in the telencephalon, and suggesting that the role of this factor in this lineage is context dependent.. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/16/4233
*  How many words made out of Telencephalon | Anagram Finder
List of words make out of Telencephalon. Anagrams of word Telencephalon. Words made after scrabbling Telencephalon. Word Creation helps in Anagrams and Puzzles.
  http://wordcreation.info/how-many-words-made-out-of-telencephalon.html
*  Neuroscience - Wiley Online Library
A most exciting aspect of several recent studies on the comparative biology of the telencephalon is that neurobiologists may be on the verge of providing a unifying formulation of the organization of the forebrain of all vertebrates. JCN is proud to feature a pair of groundbreaking companion articles 'A global view of the functional molecular organization of the avian cerebrum: Mirror images and functional columns' and 'Molecular profiling of the developing avian telencephalon: regional timing and brain subdivision continuities' on the avian telencephalon that hypothesize that the mesopallium and adjoining divisions of the hyperpallium have a common developmental origin. The studies demonstrate that these structures initially exhibit common gene expression domains but with subsequent development, fold to form mirror images within subdivisions of the dorsal and ventral pallium. The ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/subject/code/000087
*  British Library EThOS: The role of Apc in cortical development
This thesis is devoted to examining the role of Apc protein in the development of the mouse telencephalon. As Apc-/- embryos die at gastrulation, a conditional knock-out approach was used to examine Apc's role in cortical development. Mutant mice with conditional (flowed) alleles of Apc were crossed to a strain in which Cre expression is driven by the Emx1 promoter (Emx1Cre), allowing specific deletion of Apc in the dorsal telencephalon. The current work presents a detailed description and possible explanations of Apc's functions in the developing cerebral cortex. Conditional knock-out of Apc in the cortex led to severe developmental defects in this region, showing that Apc is required for normal development of the cerebral cortex. The deletion of Apc leads to over-activation of the canonical Wnt pathway and disregulation of PCP Wnt pathway. I examined the expression of regional markers in ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.652868
*  Molecular profiling of the developing avian telencephalon: regional timing and brain subdivision continuities.
In our companion study (Jarvis et al. [2013] J Comp Neurol. doi: 10.1002/cne.23404) we used quantitative brain molecular profiling to discover that distinct subdivisions in the avian pallium above and below the ventricle and the associated mesopallium lamina have similar molecular profiles, leading to a hypothesis that they may form as continuous subdivisions around the lateral ventricle. To explore this hypothesis, here we profiled the expression of 16 genes at eight developmental stages. The genes included those that define brain subdivisions in the adult and some that are also involved in brain development. We found that phyletic hierarchical cluster and linear regression network analyses of gene expression profiles implicated single and mixed ancestry of these brain regions at early embryonic stages. Most gene expression-defined pallial subdivisions began as one ventral or dorsal domain that later formed specific folds around the lateral ventricle. ...
  https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/11202
*  A new role for LRP2 in forebrain development
LRP2 is mainly expressed in the yolk sac and in the neuroepithelium of the early embryo. Deficiency for this 600 kDa protein in mice results in holoprosencephaly, indicating a role for LRP2 in forebrain development. Mice with a complete or a conditional loss of lrp2 function were used to elucidate the consequences of the lack of LRP2 expression. The presence of LRP2 in the neuroepithelium but not in the yolk sac is crucial for early forebrain development. Lack of the receptor resulted in an increase of Bmp4 signaling in the rostral telencephalon at E9.5. As a consequence, shh expression at E10.5 was lost completely in a ventral region of the telencephalon termed anterior entopeduncular area (AEP). The absence of Shh activity in this area led to the loss of ventrally induced oligodendroglial and interneuronal cell populations in lrp2-deficient mice. Similar dorsalizing effects have also been observed in mice ...
  https://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/16217
*  Proliferation zones in the axolotl brain and regeneration of the telencephalon | Neural Development | Full Text
During vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development, cells of the pseudostratified epithelium undergo cytokinesis at the ventricular surface. One daughter cell migrates peripherally along radial glial cells, whose processes extend from the ventricular to the pial surface, to differentiate in the mantle layer while the other daughter cell is retained to continue proliferating at the ventricular surface, eventually forming the ventricular zone (VZ). In mammals, this VZ separates into two layers: the ependymal cells forming a single layer in contact with the lumen, and the subventricular zone.. Although cytokinesis persists throughout the adult mammalian neuraxis [1, 2], neuronal differentiation occurs only in two restricted regions of the telencephalon. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) resident in the subventricular zone chain migrate as neuroblasts over long distances along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulbs, where they terminally differentiate into ...
  https://neuraldevelopment.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-8104-8-1
*  Neuronal regeneration in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury | Disease Models & Mechanisms
Under normal conditions, the adult zebrafish telencephalic VZ continuously supplies new neurons to the OB (Byrd and Brunjes, 2001; Grandel et al., 2006; Adolf et al., 2006; Kishimoto et al., 2011). We next performed a BrdU pulse-chase experiment to trace the migrating newly born progeny of ventricular proliferative cells from the telencephalic VZ to the injury site (Zupanc et al., 2005; Grandel et al., 2006; Adolf et al., 2006; Kishimoto et al., 2011). We followed the BrdU-labeled cells in three telencephalic regions - the VZ, the subpallium and the mdlPa (the region surrounding the injury site) - on 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 dpl (Fig. 4A). At 0 dpl, a large number of BrdU-labeled cells was detected in the telencephalic VZ (n=5; Fig. 4B,B′,F). At 3 dpl, BrdU-labeled cells appeared in the subpallium and pallium along the pathway connecting the telencephalic VZ and the injury site in the injured hemisphere (n=5; Fig. 4C,C′,G). From 3 dpl onwards, the number of BrdU-labeled cells decreased in the ...
  http://dmm.biologists.org/content/5/2/200
*  Neuronal regeneration in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury | Disease Models & Mechanisms
Under normal conditions, the adult zebrafish telencephalic VZ continuously supplies new neurons to the OB (Byrd and Brunjes, 2001; Grandel et al., 2006; Adolf et al., 2006; Kishimoto et al., 2011). We next performed a BrdU pulse-chase experiment to trace the migrating newly born progeny of ventricular proliferative cells from the telencephalic VZ to the injury site (Zupanc et al., 2005; Grandel et al., 2006; Adolf et al., 2006; Kishimoto et al., 2011). We followed the BrdU-labeled cells in three telencephalic regions - the VZ, the subpallium and the mdlPa (the region surrounding the injury site) - on 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 dpl (Fig. 4A). At 0 dpl, a large number of BrdU-labeled cells was detected in the telencephalic VZ (n=5; Fig. 4B,B′,F). At 3 dpl, BrdU-labeled cells appeared in the subpallium and pallium along the pathway connecting the telencephalic VZ and the injury site in the injured hemisphere (n=5; Fig. 4C,C′,G). From 3 dpl onwards, the number of BrdU-labeled cells decreased in the ...
  http://dmm.biologists.org/content/5/2/200.long
*  "The avian visual telencephalon: Organization and possible function" by T. Shimizu
Shimizu, T., "The avian visual telencephalon: Organization and possible function" (1996). Psychology Faculty Publications. 442 ...
  http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/psy_facpub/442/
*  Directed migration of cortical interneurons depends on the cell-autonomous action of Sip1
article{3127253, abstract = {GABAergic interneurons mainly originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the embryonic ventral telencephalon (VT) and migrate tangentially to the cortex, guided by membrane-bound and secreted factors. We found that Sip1 (Zfhx1b, Zeb2), a transcription factor enriched in migrating cortical interneurons, is required for their proper differentiation and correct guidance. The majority of Sip1 knockout interneurons fail to migrate to the neocortex and stall in the VT. RNA sequencing reveals that Sip1 knockout interneurons do not acquire a fully mature cortical interneuron identity and contain increased levels of the repulsive receptor Unc5b. Focal electroporation of Unc5b-encoding vectors in the MGE of wild-type brain slices disturbs migration to the neocortex, whereas reducing Unc5b levels in Sip1 knockout slices and brains rescues the migration defect. Our results reveal that Sip1, through ...
  https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/3127253
*  Plus it
The miR-9-2/3 double mutants demonstrate that miR-9 orchestrates neurogenesis in the pallium and subpallium by regulating the expression of multiple genes that function in progenitor proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we propose that these miR-9 functions are modulated by the RNA-binding proteins. Increase in Foxg1 expression in miR-9-2/3 double mutant at early neurogenic stages is consistent with the reduction in Cajal-Retzius cells and early-born neurons (Dou et al., 1999; Hanashima et al., 2002, 2004; Martynoga et al., 2005; Muzio and Mallamaci, 2005). Nr2e1 and Pax6 reduction is also consistent with the decrease in later progenitor proliferation in pallium (Stenman et al., 2003b; Roy et al., 2004; Schuurmans et al., 2004) and the increase in Gsh2 and Foxg1 expression with the increase in progenitor proliferation in subpallium (Toresson et al., 2000; Yun et al., 2001) in this study. However, the Foxg1 increase was at a twofold level, and it ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/9/3407
*  ZFIN Anatomy Ontology: postcommissural nucleus of ventral telencephalon
We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
  http://zfin.org/action/ontology/term-detail/ZFA:0000819
*  Lateral Thalamic Eminence: A Novel Origin for mGluR1/Lot Cells - CSHL Scientific Digital Repository
A unique population of cells, called "lot cells," circumscribes the path of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) in the rodent brain and acts to restrict its position at the lateral margin of the telencephalon. Lot cells were believed to originate in the dorsal pallium (DP). We show that Lhx2 null mice that lack a DP show a significant increase in the number of mGluR1/lot cells in the piriform cortex, indicating a non-DP origin of these cells. Since lot cells present common developmental features with Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells, we analyzed Wnt3a- and Dbx1-reporter mouse lines and found that mGluR1/lot cells are not generated in the cortical hem, ventral pallium, or septum, the best characterized sources of CR cells. Finally, we identified a novel origin for the lot cells by combining in utero electroporation assays and histochemical characterization. We show that mGluR1/lot cells are specifically generated in the lateral thalamic eminence and that they express ...
  http://repository.cshl.edu/32813/
*  Plus it
Our results demonstrate that miR-9-3p is critically involved in hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. The miR-9-5p/3p gene is ancient in evolution and well conserved. Drosophila has five genes corresponding to miR-9-5p/3p and most vertebrate species have several copies of this gene, which implies the functional importance of miR-9-5p/3p (Wheeler et al., 2009). So far, most of functional studies on miR-9 have highlighted their roles in neuronal development (Leucht et al., 2008; Otaegi et al., 2011; Shibata et al., 2011; Dajas-Bailador et al., 2012). For example, miR-9-2/miR-9-3 double knock-out mice in which both miR-9-5p and miR-9-3p are reduced showed defects in neurogenesis and abnormal telencephalic structures (Shibata et al., 2011). However, miR-9-5p and miR-9-3p are abundantly expressed, not only in neural progenitors, but also in postmitotic neurons (Yuva-Aydemir et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012). Interestingly, the miR-9 level was shown to be decreased in the postmortem brains of ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/36/33/8641
*  ZFIN Publication: Viktorin et al., 2009: Genes / Markers
Viktorin et al., 2009 - Emx3 is required for the differentiation of dorsal telencephalic neurons. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 238(8):1984-1998 Full text @ Dev. Dyn. ...
  http://zfin.org/action/publication/ZDB-PUB-090807-11/genes
*  Things Change: How Comparative Transcriptomics Suggest the Pallium Has Evolved at Multiple Levels of Organization - FullText -...
The key finding of our study is not that similarities between avian and mammalian pallium do not exist outside of the hippocampus, but that they are relatively weak. That is why we suggest that supposed marker genes in adults cannot be used with confidence to support one claim of homology over another. In particular, we note that Dugas-Ford et al. [2012] and Suzuki et al. [2012] compared expression patterns for a relatively small number of genes and drew conclusions that differ from one another. Indeed, our data suggest there are genes that could be used to support many different patterns of interest.. Based on our analyses, we speculate that, in the highly diverged portions of the pallium, the adult patterning of molecules might better reflect function than homology. In some respects, this is unsurprising. The function of the brain is ultimately imparted by its connectivity and physiological properties, even if these are guided by development. In particular, we know that pallial ...
  https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/354969
*  Plus it
The FORSE-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was generated using a strategy designed to produce mAbs against neuronal cell surface antigens that might be regulated by regionally restricted transcription factors in the developing CNS. To determine whether FORSE-1 has a labeling pattern similar to that of known transcription factors, the expression of BF-1 and Dlx-2 was examined by in situ hybridization on sections serial to those labeled with FORSE-1. We find a striking overlap between BF-1 and FORSE-1 in the telencephalon; both are expressed in the lateral but not the medial walls of the telencephalon, and the boundaries of expression are apparently identical. FORSE-1 staining is detected prior to BF-1 expression in the neural tube, however. FORSE-1 and Dlx-2 have very different patterns of expression in the forebrain, suggesting that regulation by Dlx-2 cannot by ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/15/2/970
*  Gene Expression Literature Detail
J:142535 Sargeant TJ, Day DJ, Miller JH, Steel RW, Acute in utero morphine exposure slows G2/M phase transition in radial glial and basal progenitor cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the E15.5 embryonic mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Sep;28(6):1060-7 ...
  http://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/key/84018
*  Gene Expression Literature Detail
J:59923 Tole S, Ragsdale CW, Grove EA, Dorsoventral patterning of the telencephalon is disrupted in the mouse mutant extra-toes(J). Dev Biol. 2000 Jan 15;217(2):254-65 ...
  http://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/key/16480
*  Results - Biology Online
The authors show that the transcription factor Sp8 has an essential role in the molecular and functional patterning of the developing telencephalon along the anteroposterior axis by modulating the expression
  http://www.biology-online.org/articles/genetic_interplay_transcription_factors/results.html