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*  Oalib search
Abstract: Heritablities and correlations were estimated between lamb body weight at different ages and reproductive traits in the Lori-Bakhtiari sheep breed. Data and pedigree information for Lori-Bakhtiari sheep used in this study were 5826 records of body weight of lambs from 240 sires and 1627 dams, and 5741 records of reproductive traits from 1797 ewes collected from 1989 to 2006 from a Lori-Bakhtiari flock at the Shooli station in Shahrekord. The lamb traits investigated were weights at birth (BWT), weaning (WWT) and at six months of age (WT6). The reproductive traits were conception rate (CR), litter size at birth per ewe lambing (LSB/EL), litter size at weaning per ewe lambing (LSW/EL), litter size at birth per ewe exposed to a ram (LSB/EE), litter size at weaning per ewe exposed (LSW/EE), total litter weight at birth per ewe lambing (TLWB/EL), total ...
Pannon White nulliparous and multiparous does were divided into two groups and inseminated at 8:00 a.m. (n = 587) or at 8:00 p.m. (n = 548). On the basis of 390 and 346 kindlings respectively, it was established that the 12-hour time difference between inseminations had no effect on the length of gestation (31.73 and 31.67 days, respectively). The time of parturition was also influenced by the time of day. Does most often kindled between 22:00 and 04:00 and least often during the day (between 10:00 and 16:00). Parity significantly influenced gestation length (first parity: 31.42 days, 8th -10th parities: 32.15 days, P , 0.05). Litter size at insemination had no effect but litter size at birth exerted a significant effect on gestation length: with the increase of litter size the gestation length shortened (litters of 1 and 2 young: 32.42 - 32.46 days, litters of 9 -14 young: ...
*  Small Litter Sizes and Relative Clutch Mass of Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) in Southwestern Ohio
Relative clutch mass (RCM), the ratio of total mass of a clutch to the postpartum body mass of the female, is considered by many a life history trait that indirectly quantifies reproductive effort in snakes. e Northern Watersnake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) is one of the most abundant and widespread species of snake within Ohio. Litter sizes of N. s. sipedon have been reported to range between four and 99 and RCM values typically fall between 0.20 and 0.38. Two gravid N. s. sipedon were hand collected from Collins Creek (Butler County, Ohio) and maintained in the laboratory until parturition. Females gave birth to three and six neonates with RCM values of 0.108 and 0.120, respectively. The extremely small litter sizes and RCM values are, by far, the lowest ever recorded for this species in Ohio and throughout their entire North American range. This local population should be investigated further to determine if and how ...
*  The effect of lysine and valine fed during lactation on sow and litter lactation performance
Two hundred two sows (98 parity 1 and 104 parity 2 sows) were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of dietary valine and lysine on sow lactation performance. Treatments included two levels of lysine (.8 or 1.2%) and three valine to lysine ratios (80, 100, 120% of lysine). This experiment was conducted at a research farm of a production facility in New South Wales, Australia from January to March, 1994. For all sows, increasing dietary lysine increased litter weaning weight and litter weight gain and reduced sow weight loss. Increasing dietary valine tended to increase litter weight gain. Parity 1 sows had a greater response in litter weight gain to dietary lysine than parity 2 sows. Parity 1 sows also exhibited a linear increase in litter weight gain as dietary valine increased. Parity 2 sows had an increase in litter weight gain at the low lysine level but a decrease ...
*  "Responses in Ovulation Rate, Embryonal Survival, and Litter Traits in " by Rodger K. Johnson, Merlyn K. Nielsen et al.
Eleven generations of selection for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonal survival rate, followed by three generations of selection for litter size, were practiced. Laparotomy was used to count corpora lutea and fetuses at 50 d of gestation. High-indexing gilts, approximately 30%, were farrowed. Sons of dams in the upper 10% of the distribution were selected. Selection from Generations 12 to 14 was for increased number of fully formed pigs; replacements were from the largest 25% of the litters. A randomly selected control line was maintained. Responses at Generation 11 were approximately 7.4 ova and 3.8 fetuses at 50 d of gestation (P | .01) and 2.3 fully formed pigs (P | .01) and 1.1 live pigs at birth (P | .05). Responses at Generation 14 were three fully formed pigs (P | .01) and 1.4 live pigs (P | .05) per litter. Number of pigs weaned declined (P | .05) in the index line. Total litter weight weaned did not ...
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Insulin endometrium | Read by QxMD
Litter size is among the most important traits in swine breeding. However, information on the genetics of litter size in pigs is lacking. In this study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and 3 (IGFBP2 and IGFBP3) genes in Berkshire pigs and analyzed their association with litter size traits. The IGFBP2 SNP was located on chromosome 15 intron 2 (455, A , T) and the IGFBP3 SNP was on chromosome 18 intron 2 (53, A , G). The AT type of IGFBP2 and the GG type of IGFBP3 had the highest values for all litter size traits including total number born (TNB), number of pigs born alive, and breeding value according to TNB ...
*  Performance of young boars depending on the litter size - Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Zootechnica - Tom 12, Numer 3 (2013) -...
The material consisted of 60 hybrid boars, from line 990 (female) and Pietrain breeds (male), divided into two groups depending on the litter size in which they were born and reared - group: 7-10 piglets (average 8.8) per litter; group: 11-17 piglets (average 12.5) per litter. The mean body weight of 21 day of live piglets born and reared in larger litters was significantly (P , 0.05) lower than among boars reared in smaller litters. This difference gradually diminished and at day 63 of life both groups had the same average body weight. In the period from 63 to 180 day of life, the boars from smaller litters had a slightly lower rate of growth (statistically insignificant). Boars reared in larger litters at 180 day of life were on average 3 kg heavier. There were no significant differences in fat thickness, lean meat and testicular volume between the assessed groups of young ...
*  MPD: Donahue13: project protocol
DOB: Date of birth. Breeder ID: The pedigree numbers of the breeding female(s) and male Breeder Unit: Mice were either pair-mated (1 female and 1 male) or trio-mated (2 females and 1 male). All matings were between siblings.. Dam Age at Mating (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day she was mated: = Mating Date - Breeders DOB/7. Dam Age at Birth of First Litter (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day her first litter was born, in weeks: = Litter DOB - Breeders DOB/7. Dam Age at Retirement (wks): The age of the female(s) on the day she was retired: = Date Retired - Breeders DOB/7. Litter Number: This number indicates the birth order of all the litters from a given breeding unit.. Latency to 1st litter/Days to First Litter (wks): The amount of time that elapsed between the mating date of a breeder unit and the birth of the first litter: = Mating Date - ...
*  Adding fat to sow lactation diets: effect on sow and litter performance
An on-farm experiment was conducted utilizing 189 sows to evaluate the effect of adding 396 soybean oil to the lactational diet on subsequent pig performance and sow weight loss. Feeding sows a diet containing 3% soybean oil during lactation did not significantly decrease sow weight loss or improve litter performance. However, the oil addition tended to increase individual pig weaning weight (.5 Ib), litter weaning weight (3 lb), and sow feed intake (.5 lb/day) compared to feeding a 14% crude protein milo-soybean meal diet. Also, sow lactational weight loss was slightly reduced wit h the diet containing oil. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was increased (P,.01) for sows fed the diet with soybean oil compared to sows fed the control diet. We postulate that the increased calorie intake from adding soybean oil to sow lactation diets during the summer months may increase litter weaning weight ...
*  Mitochondria as promising targets for nutritional interventions aiming to improve performance and longevity of sows. -...
Genetic selection and management changes during the last decades have significantly increased the average litter size of sows. However, this recent success has not correlated with an extension of longevity and reduction in replacement rate. Longevity or lifetime production of sows is determined by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Nutrition is an environmental factor of importance, and it has long been appreciated that animals fed with specific diets may perform differently. The advent of modern science revealed that this is partly due to the ability of nutrients to act as signalling molecules that, through appropriate intracellular sensing mechanisms, can control gene expression and modulate cell functions. Based on this concept, nutrigenomics studies now aim to show that not only are certain nutrients essential for general health, but also that specific quantities of precise nutrients are necessary during critical periods of energy deficiency and ...
*  British Library EThOS: Genetics of litter size and prenatal survival in pigs
pigs ; litter size ; prenatal survival ; ovulation rate ; single nucleotide polymorphisms ; SNPs ; teat number ; Secreted Phosphoprotein 1 ; SPP1 ; QTL ; quantitative trait loci ; placenta ; endometrium
*  Patent US6138609 - Litter box - Google Patents
A litter box including a housing for disposing therein litter for use by a pet, and a grinder for grinding excreta found in the litter box. The litter box preferably includes litter substantially impervious to grinding by the grinder. The litter box includes a filtering assembly for filtering the excreta, ground by the grinder, from the litter. The litter box preferably includes a cleansing liquid which is in fluid communication with the litter, Wherein the grinder agitates the litter and the cleansing liquid so as to cause cleansing of the litter.
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Iron-deficiency anemia is a public health concern that frequently occurs in pregnant mammals and neonatal offspring. Ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate (Fe-CGly) is a newly designed iron fortifier with proven effects in iron-deficient rats and weanling piglets. However, the effects of this new compound on pregnant mammals are unknown. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe-CGly on sow reproductive performance and iron status of both sows and neonatal piglets. A total of 40 large-white sows after second parity were randomly assigned to two groups (n=20). They were receiving a diet including 80 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 or Fe-CGly, respectively, from day 85 of gestation to parturition. The serum (day 110 of pregnancy) and placentas of sows were sampled. Litter size, mean weight of live born piglets, birth (live) litter weight, number of live born piglets, and the number of still-born piglets, mummies, and weak-born piglets were ...
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Iron-deficiency anemia is a public health concern that frequently occurs in pregnant mammals and neonatal offspring. Ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate (Fe-CGly) is a newly designed iron fortifier with proven effects in iron-deficient rats and weanling piglets. However, the effects of this new compound on pregnant mammals are unknown. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe-CGly on sow reproductive performance and iron status of both sows and neonatal piglets. A total of 40 large-white sows after second parity were randomly assigned to two groups (n=20). They were receiving a diet including 80 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4 or Fe-CGly, respectively, from day 85 of gestation to parturition. The serum (day 110 of pregnancy) and placentas of sows were sampled. Litter size, mean weight of live born piglets, birth (live) litter weight, number of live born piglets, and the number of still-born piglets, mummies, and weak-born piglets were ...
*  Litter box - Wikipedia
Biodegradable litters are made from various plant resources, including pine wood pellets, recycled newspaper, clumping sawdust, Brazilian cassava, corn, wheat, walnuts, barley, okara[8] and dried orange peel.. Each year, over 2 million tons of cat litter, or approximately 100,000 truckloads, ends up in landfills in the U.S. alone. Primarily this is not biodegradable or renewable and adds unnecessarily to the waste burden.[9] Some pet owners prefer biodegradable litters due to its friendliness to the environment. Biodegradable cat litter can also be eliminated completely by safely composting the used litter at home. Other cat owners can be attracted to the biodegradable litters because of their flushability or deodorizing properties.[10] Asthmatic cats may sometimes benefit from the reduced dust in some forms of biodegradable litter.. Biodegradable litter packaged ...
*  Gene mutations lead to increase in ewe litter size - Farmers Weekly
30 August 2002 Gene mutations lead to increase in ewe litter sizeHIGHER ovulation rates in ewes inheriting certain genes can lead to increased litter sizes
*  Nutritional and immunological interrelationships in response to nematode infections in periparturient ewes
ay for 2.5 weeks before parturition. Litter size was recorded at parturition. The worm burden was determined and mucosal tissue samples for local immune cells collected at weeks +1 and +3 relative to parturition, with five animals slaughtered at each time from each group. The animals in the high protein group had a lower faecal egg count (FEC), lower worm burdens of T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis, more intestinal mucosal mast cells and globule leukocytes than their low protein counterparts. Single bearing ewes lost less bodyweight after lambing, had a lower FEC and more intestinal globule leukocytes than multiple bearing ewes. A significant interaction of protein treatment x litter size on FEC showed that single bearing ewes fed the high protein level markedly suppressed FEC. Vaccination induced a higher parasite specific antibody response (in serum total antibody, IgE and IgA, and saliva total antibody and IgA) in the vaccination ...
*  Seasonality in oestrus and litter size in an assistance dog breeding colony in the United Kingdom | Veterinary Record
Knowledge of seasonality in oestrus and litter size of bitches in assistance dog breeding colonies may support colony management through the efficient allocation throughout the year of resources required for the breeding programme. However, while it is generally accepted that day length is the main factor regulating seasonal variations in breeding in most species,1 experimental and observational studies of seasonality in oestrus, and its regulatory factors, are limited and somewhat conflicting for domesticated dogs.2-5 This may reflect the diversity of the study populations, which include free-roaming, predominately mixed breed dogs in less developed communities, and purebreed or first crossbreed pet and laboratory dogs in developed communities.. Studies from less developed communities include one from Jaipur, in the temperate region of northern India, where oestrus was more commonly observed in free-roaming bitches during late autumn and winter.3 By contrast, there was no ...
*  Ultrasound in the prediction of canine litter size and gestational age
Many private owners and breeders want to use this service: sonographic diagnosis of the litter size and the gestational age. This survey determines the accuracy of this technique and gives information about the optimal time of the examination
*  Brevet US4263873 - Animal litter and method of preparation - Google Brevets
The animal litter comprises a cellulose litter material that contains a pheromone-like attractant substance which makes the litter attractive to animals seeking a place to defecate and/or urinate. The litter material is pelletized to give the litter a consistency comparable to that of fine gravel. The pellets formed from the litter material hydrate slowly but positively and are disposable in water. The density of the pellets is such that they retain their structural integrity on hydration. The pellets are formed from ground paper which has been moistened with sufficient water to hold the particles together but not so much as to cause the pellets to feel moist. An acid salt may either be added in the water or as a dry powder to the ground paper. This salt carried by the water in the pellets neutralizes the animal urine (and the ammonia-like compounds formed from it) while maintaining the pH of the ...
*  Litter box - Wikipedia
A litter box, sometimes called a sandbox, litter tray, litter pan, or catbox, is an indoor feces and urine collection box for cats (as well as rabbits, ferrets, micro pigs; small dogs, such as Beagles and Chihuahuas; and other pets that instinctively or through training will make use of such a repository) that are permitted free roam of a home but who cannot or do not always go outside to relieve themselves. Many owners of these animals prefer not to let them roam outside for fear that they might succumb to outdoor dangers, such as weather, wildlife or traffic (it has been claimed indoor cats, on average, live ten years longer than outdoor cats). A litter box makes it possible to shelter pets from these risks. In the wild, cats naturally excrete in soft or sandy soil for easy burial. They use their paws in a backward sweeping motion to cover their feces. To stimulate this instinctive desire, a litter box's bottom is filled ...
*  Improvement of Rabbit Production | SpringerLink
In this chapter, I will introduce some of the techniques for efficient colony management and production of rabbits. The artificial insemination (AI) can be a useful technique which shows a better performance rather than natural mating. The pregnancy rate and mean litter size after AI are not different from those found after natural mating. Moreover, judging from our result, one ejaculate from one male rabbit can be sufficient to fertilize about 25 female rabbits with AI. In addition to AI, sperm freezing is also an important technique for a stable maintenance of rabbit strains for long time at low cost. These techniques can contribute to an enhancement of productivity and stability of maintenance of rabbit colonies. ...
Feed cost represents 70 % - 80% of the total cost of producing swine. Feeds are given to all categories of pigs should be balanced in nutrient, i.e. it should contain all nutrients required for growth and production. Breeder's mash (15% protein) should be feed to breeders to prevent body fat deposition but keep them thrifty. Flushing of the breeders should be done 7- 10 days before breeding and maintained until the animals are bred. Flushing is the process by which two feed intake of the gilt or sow is increased so that it can produce more eggs or ova and consequently more number of fertilized egg or ova and large litter or piglet. Pregnant or in sow should not be overfed during gestation period to prevent fat deposition which leads to small litter size and difficulty in parturition. Laxative diet, rich in high fiber (grasses) should be given to in sows to aid easy parturition and lactation. The young piglet should be given creep feed (22% protein) as from ...
*  PigProgress - Topigs finds SNPs for litter birth weight, uniformity
Topigs has found several SNPs which explain genetic variation in litter birthweight and litter uniformity and can be used to breed sows that farrow large, heavy and uniform litters.
*  The Secret Of Litter Circles
A litter circle is a sizable pattern created by the flattening of litter such as clay-based (clumping/non-clumping), crystal or natural and biodegradable cat litter. Litter circles are also referred to as litter formations, because they are not always circular in shape. Litter circles have become the subject of speculation by various paranormal and anomalistic investigators…