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*  PHASE II DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES - PDF
Anzenbacherova 103 PASE II DRUG METABLIZIG EZYMES Petra Jancova a *, Pavel Anzenbacher b, Eva ... GSTs play a major role in the detoxication of epoxides derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAs) and alpha-beta ... There are also individual differences in metabolic response for both Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Further, both external ( ... Phase II drug metabolising enzymes are mainly transferases. This review covers the major phase II enzymes: UDP- ...
  http://docplayer.net/2081735-Phase-ii-drug-metabolizing-enzymes.html
*  MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MYCOTOXINS AND LIVER ENZYMES INVOLVED IN DRUG METABOLISM IN RODENTS AND FARM ANIMALS - pdf...
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MYCOTOXINS AND LIVER ENZYMES INVOLVED IN DRUG METABOLISM IN RODENTS AND FARM ANIMALS. . ... Hepatic phase II enzymes including transferases and hydrolases are involved in the conjugation of such oxidative metabolites. ... The major metabolism of zearalenone consists of reduction leading to estrogenic zearalenols which is characterized by large ... Most of these interactions are consequences of the metabolic processes occurring in the liver. They result generally from the ...
  http://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun7/149805934621-MOLECULAR-INTERACTIONS-BETWEEN-MYCOTOXINS-AND-LIVER-ENZYMES-INVOLVED-IN-DRUG-METABOLISM-IN-RODENTS-AND-FARM-ANIMALS.php
*  Sulphation and Autism: What are the links? | The Autism File
The major enzymes responsible for the sulphation of phenols and catecholamines are called SULT1A1 and 1A3 respectively. ... Their general metabolic profile was very similar to that found for the adult volunteers with a Hepatitis B vaccination. This ... In particular, the phase 2 conjugation reaction of sulphation was severely depressed, only reaching control values about a week ... These, in combination with digestive products, prompt the release of two more hormones: the polypeptide cholecystokinin (which ...
  http://www.autismfile.com/science-research/sulphation-and-autism-what-are-the-links
*  Effects of Glucosinolate-Rich Broccoli Sprouts on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts and Phenanthrene Tetraols in a...
Fahey JW, Talalay P. Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a potent inducer of phase II detoxication enzymes. Food Chem ... A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc Natl Acad ... Oltipraz, by contrast, was administered once daily and lead to enhanced metabolic detoxication of aflatoxin, presumably through ... Adults in good general health without a history of major chronic illnesses were randomized into two intervention arms: placebo ...
  http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/14/11/2605.long
*  Drug metabolism - Wikipedia
Drug metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar ... One of the most important classes of this group is that of the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). After phase II reactions, the ... "The enzymes of detoxication". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (34): 20715-8. PMID 2249981. Mizuno N, Niwa T, Yotsumoto Y, Sugiyama Y ( ... The major challenge faced by xenobiotic detoxification systems is that they must be able to remove the almost-limitless number ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_metabolism
*  Dextroamphetamine - Wikipedia
The known metabolic pathways, detectable metabolites, and metabolizing enzymes in humans include the following: Racemic ... The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... ... In species where aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine is the major metabolic pathway, p-hydroxyamphetamine (POH) and p- ... role in bioactivation and detoxication". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 288 (3): 1251-1260. PMID 10027866. Sjoerdsma A, von Studnitz ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dextroamphetamine
*  Plus it
The major metabolic pathways involved are oxidation of the hexyl side chain to subsequently produce alcohols, ketones, and ... The samples were analyzed using reversed-phase HPLC using a mobile phase with a pH of 2.0 (for further details, see Materials ... in mouse liver are two carboxylated derivatives with chains that are either one or two carbon atoms shorter than they are in ... 1984) Acyl-CoA synthetase and the peroxisomal enzymes of β-oxidation in human liver. Biochem J 224:709-720. ...
  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/28/6/695
*  Plus it
Phase II reactions on the other hand seem to be largely processes of detoxication but again exceptions occur. It is therefore ... Lester D, Greenberg LA, and Carroll RP (1947) The metabolic fate of acetanilid and other aniline derivatives: II. Major ... at the enzyme level and at the molecular level. To relate cause to effect necessitated an estimate of actual drug exposure. In ... It is clear that, from the point of view of detoxication, phase I reactions cannot be considered as detoxication mechanisms ...
  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/36/1/1
*  4-Hydroxyphenylacetone - Wikipedia
In species where aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine is the major metabolic pathway, p-hydroxyamphetamine (POH) and p- ... The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... ... a simple method is suggested for measuring the activity of this enzyme and the effect of its inhibitors in man. ... The lack of ... role in bioactivation and detoxication". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 288 (3): 1251-1260. PMID 10027866. Santagati NA, Ferrara G, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-Hydroxyphenylacetone
*  rs1048943 - SNPedia
PMID 19267064] [Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes and DNA damage of ... PMID 20544687] Evidence that genetic variants of metabolic detoxication and cell cycle control are not related to gallbladder ... Gene by smoking interaction in hypertension: identification of a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 15q for systolic ... Phase I metabolic genes and risk of lung cancer: multiple polymorphisms and mRNA expression. ...
  https://snpedia.com/index.php/Rs1048943
*  Phenylacetone - Wikipedia
In species where aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine is the major metabolic pathway, p-hydroxyamphetamine (POH) and p- ... The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. ... ... a simple method is suggested for measuring the activity of this enzyme and the effect of its inhibitors in man. ... The lack of ... role in bioactivation and detoxication". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 288 (3): 1251-1260. PMID 10027866. "Adderall XR Prescribing ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenylacetone
*  940. Safety evaluations of groups of related substances... (WHO Food Additives Series 42)
Glucuronic acid conjugation is a major phase-2 metabolic reaction, and both the liver and intestinal wall have a high capacity ... Williams, R.T. (1938) Studies in detoxication. II. a) The conjugation of isomeric 3-menthanols with glucuronic acid and the ... The results indicate that hydrolysis is the major metabolic pathway for all of the esters evaluated at the present meeting; ... A wide range of enzymes (carboxyesterases and carboxylic acid hydrolases) can hydrolyse esters into their constituent alcohols ...
  http://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v042je14.htm
*  3-methylcholanthrene: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
... levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and ... 11, 217-225]. Thus, P450 1A2 is involved in both the metabolic activation and detoxication of this procarcinogen in humans. ... cumin seed-mixed diets was also examined on carcinogen/xenobiotic metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant ... Among the phase II enzymes, glutathione S-transferase specific activity increased (P < 0.005) by the 5% dose, whereas that of ...
  https://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/0-9/3-methylcholanthrene.html
*  Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1: wider roles in cancer progression and prevention | BMC Cancer | Full Text
... which is responsible for the xenobiotic activating pathway of several phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes, recent ... In addition, it is becoming increasingly evident that CYP1A1 plays an important role in the detoxication of environmental ... carcinogens, as well as in the metabolic activation of dietary compounds with cancer preventative activity. Ultimately the ... contribution of CYP1A1 to cancer progression or prevention may depend on the balance of procarcinogen activation/detoxication ...
  https://0-bmccancer-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-9-187
*  Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 - Wikipedia
The phase 1 metabolism of amphetamine analogs is catalyzed by two systems: cytochrome P450 and flavin monooxygenase. Cashman JR ... is a flavoprotein enzyme (EC 1.14.13.148) that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene. This enzyme catalyzes the following ... 1998). "Mutations of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene (FMO3) cause trimethylaminuria, a defect in detoxication". Hum. ... the major FMO present in adult human liver; the Km is between 90 and 200 μM (Lin & Cashman, 1997b). ... Of particular ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavin-containing_monooxygenase_3
*  912. Aflatoxins (WHO Food Additives Series 40)
The phase II enzymes of primary importance are the GST, which catalyse conjugation of potentially toxic electrophiles to the ... The expression of these P450 isoenzymes and an alpha-class glutathione 1 Phase I enzymes of major importance to carcinogen ... The exclusion of enzymes and cofactors for competing metabolic pathways restricts quantitative comparisons of metabolism ... 1994a) also examined the influence of I3C and BNF on the AFB1 glutathione detoxication pathway and AFB1-DNA induction in rat ...
  http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v040je16.htm
*  Weight loss technology for people with treated type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial | Nutrition & Metabolism | Full...
Fasting serum cortisol was determined using solid-phase chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (Cortisol-IFA-Best kit, Russia) on ... In Main group there was an inverse relationship between Fat mass percentage and Metabolic age/Basal metabolic rate (r = − 0.58 ... Obesity/overweight is a major risk factor for T2D [5, 6]. For instance, just 5% weight reduction improves glycemic control in ... For weight loss in Main group we used the "Analimentary detoxication" (ANADET) weight loss method [12], including calorie ...
  https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12986-017-0163-9
*  Molecular Mechanisms of Multistage Carcinogenesis
g1 phase*s phase*pulmonary alveoli*biotransformation*up regulation*lung neoplasms*bronchoalveolar lavage fluid*equilenin* ... The Program consists of three interactive Projects and two Cores. Each project will use common human cell lines which are ... These data suggest that AKR enzymes may effectively compete with P450 1A1/1B1 for PAH trans-dihydrodiol activation in human ... Competing roles of cytochrome P450 1A1/1B1 and aldo-keto reductase 1A1 in the metabolic activation of (+/-)-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8- ...
  http://www.labome.org/grant/p01/ca/molecular/mechanisms/molecular-mechanisms-of-multistage-carcinogenesis-7101871.html
*  Mining the Unknown: A Systems Approach to Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information
... we retrieved functional annotations from two independent sources: (i) GO-Terms from the Gene Ontology [48] and (ii) enzyme ... Briefly, metabolic profiling was done using ultrahigh-performance liquid-phase chromatography and gas-chromatography separation ... 2012) UGT1A1 is a major locus influencing bilirubin levels in African Americans. Eur J Hum Genet 20: 463-468. [PMC free article ... Implications for the catechol-O-methyl transferase-mediated detoxication of catechol estrogens. Drug Metab Dispos 24: 588-594. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3475673/
*  Plus it
Overall, CYP3A and CYP2D6 were identified as major enzymes involved in the principal TAM sequential metabolic routes (Figs. 1 ... Poon GK, Chui YC, McCague R, Llnning PE, Feng R, Rowlands MG, and Jarman M (1993) Analysis of phase I and phase II metabolites ... White IN (2003) Tamoxifen: is it safe? Comparison of activation and detoxication mechanisms in rodents and in humans. Curr Drug ... Three major and two minor (M-II and M-III) metabolite peaks whose formation depended on the P450 system were observed in the ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/310/3/1062
*  Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 - Wikipedia
CYP1A1 is one of the main extra-hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes; it is not regarded as being a major contributor to forming the ... detoxication by inducible cytochrome P450 is more important than metabolic activation". Molecular Pharmacology. 65 (5): 1225-37 ... The protein is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. CYP1A1 is involved in phase I xenobiotic and drug ... He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (Dec 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_P450,_family_1,_member_A1
*  MBBS 1st Year Syllabus Check Complete Subject Wise Syllabus
Metabolic derangements and adaptations in diabetes mellitus.. Food assimilation and nutrition *Digestive enzymes, their action ... in the First Two Semesters there will be a total of 3 Subjects that will be covered and this phase is called Pre Clinical Phase ... Location of the major groups of the lymphnodes of the body and their drainage areas. Gross anatomy of the major lymphatics ... General reactions, transamination, its metabolic and diagnostic significance. *Disposal of amino acid nitrogen and detoxication ...
  https://nextincareer.com/mbbs-1st-year-syllabus/
*  What's hot today: Current papers in developmental biology and gene function
Summary: Topoisomerase II is a major component of mitotic chromosomes but its role in the assembly and structural maintenance ... Drosophila and yeasts have a single Topo II enzyme. In addition, fly chromosomes, unlike those of yeast, are morphologically ... Cold adaptation shapes the robustness of metabolic networks in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ... Summary: Unlike histone H3, which is present only in S phase, the variant histone H3.3 (see Drosophila Histone H3.3A) is ...
  http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/aimain/model-organisms-november2014.htm
*  PPT - BIOTRANSFORMATION PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1137530
Contents:-. Introduction Phase I reaction Phase II reaction Slideshow 1137530 by zayit ... major phase i and phase ii enzymesreaction mechanisms, substratesenzyme inhibitors and inducersgenetic ... DETOXICATION ROLE OF THE PLACENTA: EFFECT OF EFFLUX TRANSPORTERS AND BIOTRANSFORMATION ENZYMES -František Štaud katedra ... Toxicity and Biological half life of drug depends on metabolic rate and the factor that influence metabolic rate are: * ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/zayit/biotransformation
*  D-Tox Phase V - Blood Detective
... known as phase I and phase II. In phase I, composed mainly of cytochrome P450 enzymes, non-reactive compounds undergo specific ... Major Phase II pathways. Glutathione. Sulphate. Glycine. Glucuronide conjugations. Through conjugation, the liver is able to ... increases phase II detoxification, and enhances the normal breakdown of toxins and other metabolic by-products of the body. ... The neuroprotective antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid induces detoxication enzymes in cultured astro glial cells. Free Radic Res ...
  http://www.blooddetective.com/d-tox-phase-v