*  Epidemiology of African swine fever virus
African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/27692
*  African swine fever virus, illustration - Stock Image F016/8841 - Science Photo Library
African swine fever virus, illustration. This virus is a member of the iridovirus group that causes African swine fever. Unlike other DNA- containing vertebrate viruses (except the poxviruses), the iridovirus replicates in the host cell's cytoplasm (most others replicate in the nucleus). - Stock Image F016/8841
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/782691/view
*  The role of the bushpigs in the epidemiology of African swine fever at the wildlife-livestock interfaces in Uganda | RUFORUM...
African swine fever is a devastating hemorrhagic fever of pigs, caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). In Africa, the presence of a sylvatic cycle involving warthogs and soft ticks means that the risk of introduction of ASFV into domestic swine is always present. Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) are nocturnal, susceptible to ASFV and share a natural interface with both warthogs and domestic pigs. The role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of ASFV if any is not understood, yet control strategies of the disease in areas with probable contact between bushpigs and domestic pigs would depend on such information. This study used a molecular and ecological approach to investigate the role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of African ...
  http://repository.ruforum.org/documents/role-bushpigs-epidemiology-african-swine-fever-wildlife-livestock-interfaces-uganda
*  African swine fever | ari.info
African swine fever. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs that produces a wide range of clinical signs and lesions that closely resemble those of classical swine fever. Infection, with a highly variable virulence, causes, typically 3-15 days later, high fever, reddening of the skin (visible only in pale-skinned pigs), decreased appetite, listlessness, loss of coordination, vomiting, diarrhoea (sometimes bloody) and eye discharges. Mortality rates can be as high as 100% in domestic pigs and wild boar, with death occurring in less than a week. In some cases, sudden death may be the only clinical sign.. The disease was first described after European settlers brought pigs into areas endemic with ASFV and, as such, is an example of an 'emerging infection'. ...
  http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/veterinary-medicine/african-swine-fever/
*  Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central...
We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya. A free range/tethering, low input production system in Ndhiwa District of South-western Kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in Kiambu District of Central Kenya. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding sows and number of weaner pigs were a significant factor in classifying farms in Nhiwa and Kiambu. Analysis of blood and serum samples using a PCR assay demonstrated an average animal level positivity to ASFV of 28% in two independent samplings in South-western Kenya and 0% PCR positivity in Central Kenya. No animals were sero-positive in either study site using the OIE indirect-ELISA and none of the ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/32847
*  Detection of African swine fever virus in asymptomatic pigs using FTA cards in Mbeya region, Tanzania - DTU Orbit
TY - ABST. T1 - Detection of African swine fever virus in asymptomatic pigs using FTA cards in Mbeya region, Tanzania. AU - Uttenthal,Åse. AU - Braae,Uffe Christian. AU - Ngowi,Helena Aminel. AU - Rasmussen,Thomas Bruun. AU - Nielsen,Jens. AU - Johansen,Maria Vang. N1 - Oral presentation.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings. SP - 83. EP - 84. BT - IX International Congress of Veterinary Virology. PB - European Society for Veterinary Virology (ESVV). ER - ...
  http://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-asymptomatic-pigs-using-fta-cards-in-mbeya-region-tanzania
*  Estimating the basic reproductive number (R0) for African swine fever virus (ASFV) transmission between pig herds in Uganda
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious, lethal and economically devastating haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. Insights into the dynamics and scale of virus transmission can be obtained from estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0). We estimate R0 for ASF virus in small holder, free-range pig production system in Gulu, Uganda. The estimation was based on data collected from outbreaks that affected 43 villages (out of the 289 villages with an overall pig population of 26,570) between April 2010 and November 2011. A total of 211 outbreaks met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Three methods were used, specifically; (i) GIS- based identification of the nearest infectious neighbour based on the Euclidean distance between outbreaks, (ii) epidemic doubling time, and (iii) a compartmental susceptible-infectious (SI) model. For implementation of the SI model, three approaches were used ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/65978
*  Pig traders' networks on the Kenya-Uganda border highlight potential for mitigation of African swine fever virus transmission...
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV. Most said they avoided buying pigs from ASF outbreak villages or sick pigs but their experiences also indicated that inadvertent purchase was relatively common. Traders had early knowledge of outbreaks since they were contacted by farmers who had heard rumours and wanted to sell their pigs ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/80427
*  Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread,...
FASINA, Folorunso O. et al. Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread, Limpopo province, South Africa. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2015, vol.82, n.1, pp.01-11. ISSN 2219-0635. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v82i1.795.. Infectious and zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to increasing volumes of legal and illegal trade. Spatio-temporal and trade network analyses have been used to evaluate the risks associated with these challenges elsewhere, but few details are available for the pig sector in South Africa. Regarding pig diseases, Limpopo province is important as the greater part of the province falls within the African swine fever control area. Emerging small-scale pig farmers in Limpopo perceived pig production as an important means of improving their livelihood and an alternative investment. ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0030-24652015000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  "Molecular monitoring of African swine fever control areas: adult-tick " by L. F. Arnot, J. T. du Toit et al.
The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR), in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF) controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2% and 0.06%, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV) prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2%) were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27% increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 ...
  http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/wild_facpub/2018/
*  The trans Golgi network is lost from cells infected with African Swine Fever : Sussex Research Online
The cellular secretory pathway is important during the assembly and envelopment of viruses and also controls the transport of host proteins, such as cytokines and major histocompatibility proteins, that function during the elimination of viruses by the immune system. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes at least 26 proteins with stretches of hydrophobic amino acids suggesting entry into the secretory pathway (R. J. Yanez, J. M. Rodriguez, M. L. Nogal, L. Yuste, C. Enriquez, J. F. Rodriguez, and E. Vinuela, Virology 208:249-278, 1995). To predict how and where these potential membrane proteins function, we have studied the integrity of the secretory pathway in cells infected with ASFV. Remarkably, ASFV caused complete loss of immunofluorescence signal for the trans Golgi network (TGN) marker protein TGN46 and dispersed the AP1 TGN adapter complex. Loss of TGN46 signal was not due to degradation of TGN46, ...
  http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/17428/
*  Surveillance for African Swine fever in Nigeria, 2006-2009
African swine fever (ASF) has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997. However, there has been no effective national response to bring it under control. In this report, we confirm that ASF is still prevalent and widespread in Nigeria. Results from both serosurveillance and virological analyses indicated that ASF is present in most of the agro-ecological zones of the country. Nine per cent (9%) of serum samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF virus antibody and genome, respectively. Areas with high pig-related activities (marketing, consumption and farming) have higher prevalences compared with areas with less pig activities. Farm-gate buyers, marketing systems and transport of untested pigs within the country assist with the circulation of the virus. Only by putting in place a comprehensive routine surveillance and testing system, reorganizing the market and ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/3420
*  African swine fever detected in domestic pigs in Saaremaa | News | ERR
The Food and Veterinary Board has diagnosed African swine fever (ASF) in pigs on a farm with 3,200 animals in the territory of the Orissaare rural municipality in Saaremaa.
  http://news.err.ee/606910/african-swine-fever-detected-in-domestic-pigs-in-saaremaa
*  African swine fever
Since entering the eastern EU at the start of 2014, African swine fever (ASF) has spread locally in the wild boar population, independently of outbreaks in domestic pigs. No correlation between the density of the wild boar population and the case notification in an area has been observed. The source of virus introduction appeared to be the low biosecurity level in backyard farms; yet, direct contact between pigs and wild boar has not been reported. Potential wild boar management strategies aimed at controlling ASF were evaluated. First, the published literature was searched for evidence of changes in wild boar demography after implementing different management strategies. A reduction in a wild boar population of more than 60 % as a result of conventional hunting has not been documented in Europe. Secondly, during a consultation meeting, 30 experts identified different wild boar management tools to indirectly ...
  http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/print/efsajournal/pub/4163
*  Regional Strategy to Control of African Swine Fever in Africa - The Pig Site
AFRICA - The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has joined with two African organisations to develop a regional strategy for the control of African swine fever (ASF) for the continent.
  http://www.thepigsite.com/swinenews/37915/regional-strategy-to-control-of-african-swine-fever-in-africa/
*  African Swine Fever Transmission Dynamics | Molecular Epidemiology
Uganda is a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa. Pig keeping has a large potential, commercially and as a tool for poverty reduction, but African swine fever (ASF) is a major hurdle for development of the sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and... ...
  http://asf.mak.ac.ug
*  New Strategy for the Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever in China - The Pig Site
CHINA - As the African swine fever (ASF) situation worsens in many parts of the world, China has become increasingly concerned about the potential introduction of the disease.
  http://www.thepigsite.com/swinenews/37932/new-strategy-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-african-swine-fever-in-china/
*  African swine fever advance through Europe | The Pirbright Institute
The continued advance of African swine fever (ASF) through Eastern European countries has triggered concern amongst pig farmers and governing bodies. Defra has upgraded the threat to the UK from 'very low' to 'low' - meaning the risk is
  http://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2017/08/african-swine-fever-advance-through-europe
*  Poster highlights danger of farm staff importing African swine fever - Farmers Weekly
Keeping African swine fever (ASF) out of Britain is a top priority for the pig sector and a Bpex poster is aimed at helping farmers remind their eastern Eu
  http://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/poster-highlights-danger-of-farm-staff-importing-african-swine-fever.htm
*  Scientists join forces to halt the spread of African swine fever in Europe | The Pirbright Institute
Leading researchers from The Pirbright Institute have joined with other European scientists to share knowledge and expertise as part of an international collaboration to prevent the spread of African swine fever (ASF).
  http://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2017/03/scientists-join-forces-halt-spread-african-swine-fever-europe
*  PigProgress - African Swine Fever in Krasnodar: Russians cull over 3,000 pigs
One of the recent outbreaks of African Swine Fever in Russia's Krasnodar region has been reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). In the village of Novonickolayevskaya, over 3,000 pigs had to be culled early August.
  http://www.pigprogress.net/Home/General/2012/9/African-Swine-Fever-in-Krasnodar-Russians-cull-over-3000-pigs-PP009301W/
*  Value chain actors' practices associated with the spread of African swine fever disease in smallholder pig systems in Uganda
Dione, M.M., Ouma, E.A., Opio, F., Lule, P., Kawuma, B. and Pezo, D.A. 2016. Value chain actors' practices associated with the spread of African swine fever disease in smallholder pig systems in Uganda. Presented at the Joint International Conference of the Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and the Society of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Berlin, 4-8 September 2016. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/76945
*  African swine fever detected on 4,000-animal pig farm | Business | ERR
The Veterinary and Food Board (VFB) confirmed that African swine fever had been diagnosed in pigs on a farm in Kallukse in Lääne-Viru county. The farm has around 4,000 animals, all of which have to be put down. The pigpens will be disinfected.
  http://news.err.ee/118608/african-swine-fever-detected-on-4-000-animal-pig-farm
*  PigProgress - African swine fever culls in Russian province
116 pigs have died of African swine fever in the Prigorodniy and Alagisrkiy districts of North Ossetia prompting farmers to call on authorities to help them fight the epidemic.
  http://www.pigprogress.net/Home/General/2008/7/African-swine-fever-culls-in-Russian-province-PP001774W/
*  Truck Washing System to Protect Denmark from African Swine Fever - The Meat Site
DENMARK - The Danish pig industry is operating a strict security screening to ensure that African Swine Fever is not carried into the country from Russia, writes Chris Harris.
  http://www.themeatsite.com/meatnews/22879/truck-washing-system-to-protect-denmark-from-african-swine-fever/