*  Teratogens/harmful substances
Many herbs used for these purposes are believed to be teratogens, substances that cause the development of abnormal structures in the embryo. Usually teratogens in a woman's system during the first two weeks of pregnancy (from conception) will cause the pregnancy to terminate. To help you understand why this is, I've added a section on the day to day development of the fertilized egg with pictures ...
  http://www.sisterzeus.com/Teratogens.htm
*  ZFIN Publication: Loucks et al., 2007
BACKGROUND: Exposure of zebrafish embryos to a number of teratogens results in cyclopia, but little is known about the underlying molecular changes. METHODS: Using zebrafish embryos, we compare the effects cyclopamine, forskolin, and ethanol delivered starting just before gastrulation, on gene expression in early axial tissues and forebrain development. RESULTS: Although all three teratogens suppress gli1 expression, they do so with variable kinetics, suggesting that while suppression of Shh signaling is a common outcome of these three teratogens, it is not a common cause of the cyclopia. Instead, all teratogens studied produce a series of changes in the expression of gsc and six3b present in early axial development, as well as a later suppression of neural crest cell marker dlx3b. Ethanol and forskolin, but not cyclopamine, exposure reduced anterior markers, which most likely contributes to the cyclopic phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: These data ...
  https://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-070806-9
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00187799 - Effects of Carcinogens, Mutagens, and Teratogens on Non-human Species (Aquatic...
Studies were conducted of aquatic systems and organisms both under field and laboratory conditions to develop indicator, screening, and modeling capabilities for the detection and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. Emphasis was placed on the development and utilization of critical life stage exposures to minimize the time required to obtain a tumorigenic response. Long term expos
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00187799.html
*  NPWH - Preventing Teratogen Exposure: Facts Every Woman Needs to Know
Marilyn Pierce-Bulger, MN, FNP-BC, CNM. Women's health nurse practitioners are on the front lines of preventing teratogen exposures. As a result of these shared stories and strategies they will think differently about alcohol use in reproductive age women and a poorly recognized disability (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). ...
  https://www.npwh.org/events/sessions/details/840
*  Amobarbital -- Teratogenic Agent Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - RightDiagnosis.com
Amobarbital - Teratogenic Agent information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
  http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/a/amobarbital_teratogenic_agent/intro.htm
*  Sea Legs Girl: Daring to discuss teratogens in the culture of blame and guilt
So where did all the fear come from? First animal studies. And then a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1992. In a study of nearly 24,000 pregnant women, there was no significant association between any single heat exposure (hot tub, sauna, electric blanket or hot tub) and neural tube defect when they were examined together randomly. BUT there was an association between hot tube use and neural tube defect that was significant. This was NOT true for fevers, electric blankets or saunas. From this, somehow it was deduced that any heat exposure (including that from exercise!) was potentially dangerous to the developing fetus. THIS (and animal studies) is where the "don't overheat during exercise while pregnant" comes from. Read the study for yourself and decide what you think (Mulinsky et al JAMA. 1992 Aug 19;268(7):882-5.). My personal interpretation of this is it tends to be women of a lower socioeconomic class that frequent hot tubs in the US while pregnant and that this ...
  http://sealegsgirl.blogspot.com/2011/02/daring-to-discuss-teratogens-in-culture.html?showComment=1296776790475
*  Prenatal development and teratogens
Men who work in occupations that expose them to toxic substances e.g.: radiation, mercury, lead may develop chromosomal abnormalities that may affect their fertility or may increase the risk that their pregnant wives will miscarry or will bear infants with birth defects ...
  http://tps102.tripod.com/id4.html
*  The Differential Growth Response of Embryonic Chick Limb-bone Rudiments to Triiodothyronine in vitro | Development
The proportionate development of the embryonic chick skeleton can be influenced experimentally by a variety of factors such as nutritional deficiencies (Byerly, Titus, Ellis, & Landauer, 1935; Landauer, 1936; Romanoff & Bauernfeind, 1942; Couch, Cravens, Elvehjem, & Halpin, 1948), teratogens (Ancel & Lallemand, 1942; Zwilling & de Bell, 1950; Landauer, 1952, 1953a, 1954) and excess hormones (Willier, 1924; Landauer & Bliss, 1946; Duraiswami, 1950). The leg bones are generally more severely affected than the wing bones, but a comparison of the action of several teratogens on the character of the malformations and on the relative growth of the leg bones indicated that the response of individual bones varies with the different agents (Landauer & Rhodes, 1952; Landauer, 1953 a, b, 1954).. Cartilaginous limb-bone rudiments also respond differentially when they are isolated from the embryo and exposed in culture to various compounds, such as insulin (Chen, 1954), vitamin A, and ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/9/1/42
*  What the Society Should Do to Prevent Harmful Teratogens from Damaging Prenatal Babies | Kibin
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!
  https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/what-the-society-should-do-to-prevent-harmful-teratogens-from-damaging-prenatal-babies-K3VeKgYT
*  "A model for p53 gene -teratogen interaction in early mouse embryos" by Judith Afedua Wubah
In the United States, approximately 120,000 babies are born each year with a structural birth defect due to abnormal development. Majority of the causes of these defects is unknown although studies suggest that they may be due to a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal environmental exposure. To adequately characterize mechanisms of abnormal development, an understanding of normal development is required. Animal models are useful in the functional analyses of genes that regulate normal development and in experimental teratogenesis. During neurulation, mouse embryos are sensitive to 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (2CdA), a prototypic teratogen that mimics a naturally-occurring metabolic toxin, 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA). Altered sensitivity to teratogens and neural tube defects are associated with inactivation of p53, a gene that controls various cellular changes. Previous studies showed that exposure of gestational day 8 (GD8) mouse embryos to 2CdA and dA induced p53 protein production ...
  http://jdc.jefferson.edu/dissertations/AAI9915379/
*  Chronotropism and blood flow patterns following teratogenic doses of catecholamines in 5-day-old chick embryos.
In vivo heart rates of 5-day-old chick embryos were recorded from electrodes placed in close proximity to the heart. L-epinephrine (4X10(-10) mole), 1-norepinephrine (1X10(-9)mole) and 1-isoproterenol (1.6X10(-10)mole) in 5 microliter of isotonic sal
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Chronotropism-blood-flow-patterns-following/22939.html
*  Increasing Contraception Utilization Among Women Prescribed Teratogenic Medications - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This is a prospective cohort study to evaluate a) the effectiveness of the referral system from Family Medicine to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line, and b) the impact of specialized counseling on contraceptive behavior change among the subset of women who accept the counseling and enroll in the follow-up study.. If a woman of reproductive age is seen by a Family Medicine clinician and she is currently taking or is newly prescribed one of the target medications, an EMR electronic alert will be generated for the clinician. The alert will say 'This patient may benefit from a referral to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line for counseling,' click 'Accept' or 'Decline'. If the Family Medicine clinician clicks 'Decline' then a reason must be given for declining. If the clinician decides a referral is appropriate, he/she clicks 'Accept' and informs the patient that she will be contacted by CTIS. The referral is also included in the patient instructions. Within one week, a CTIS counselor ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01624155?intr=contraception&rank=19
*  Increasing Contraception Utilization Among Women Prescribed Teratogenic Medications - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This is a prospective cohort study to evaluate a) the effectiveness of the referral system from Family Medicine to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line, and b) the impact of specialized counseling on contraceptive behavior change among the subset of women who accept the counseling and enroll in the follow-up study.. If a woman of reproductive age is seen by a Family Medicine clinician and she is currently taking or is newly prescribed one of the target medications, an EMR electronic alert will be generated for the clinician. The alert will say 'This patient may benefit from a referral to the CTIS Pregnancy Health Information Line for counseling,' click 'Accept' or 'Decline'. If the Family Medicine clinician clicks 'Decline' then a reason must be given for declining. If the clinician decides a referral is appropriate, he/she clicks 'Accept' and informs the patient that she will be contacted by CTIS. The referral is also included in the patient instructions. Within one week, a CTIS counselor ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01624155?recr=Open&intr=contraception&rank=9
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00197122 - Origins of behavioral teratology and distinctions between research on...
Behavioral teratology and its applications to research on the effects of exposure to pharmaceutical agents and industrial chemicals were discussed. Behavioral teratology was originally defined as the study of the development and behavior of offspring following prenatal administration of pharmaceutical agents. Half of all research in behavioral teratology has focused on the effects of ethanol (6417
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00197122.html
*  Limb development in mouse embryos: protection against teratogenic effects of 6-diazo-5 oxo-L-norleucine (DON) in vivo and in...
The glutamine analogue, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON), has been shown to inhibit biosynthesis of purines and glycosaminoglycans, presumably by blocking the glutaminedependent steps in the biosynthetic pathways. The teratogenic potential of DON on the developing mouse limb-bud in vivo and in vitro was studied in an attempt to discriminate whether DON is exerting its teratogenic effect by interfering with glycosaminoglycan orpurine metabolism.. A single intramuscular injection of DON (0·5 mg/kg) to ICR/DUB mice on day 10 of gestation resulted in 76% resorption, while fetuses surviving to day 17 exhibited growth retardation, median cleft lip, and limb malformations. Concurrent administration of Lglutamine (250 mg/kg) provided no protection against resorption or malformations, while 5-aminoimidazolecarboxamide (AIC, 250 mg/kg) decreased the resorption rate to 34% without significantly altering the incidence of malformations. Injection of DON alone on day 11 resulted in 87% of fetuses exhibiting ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/33/2/355
*  Mechanisms of teratogenesis | Development
In view of the great number of teratogenic factors known and the vast array of congenital defects, disorders and syndromes, it would probably be a waste of time to search for unifying mechanisms and principles in abnormal development. Instead, therefore, I shall describe a selection of teratogens and their consequences, and try to arrange them in a certain hierarchy based on a simplified model of how they act.. The assumption underlying the model (Figs. 1 and 2) is that the result of a teratogenic insult is determined by its site of action and the stage of development of the target organ. This is supposed to hold for all congenital defects, whether due to genes or caused by exogenous agents. In genetic defects the scheme indicates the site and stage of development at which the mutant gene is expressed; in nongenetic defects the site and stage refer to exposure to an exogenous teratogen.. ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/36/1/1
*  Oh yeah? Thalidomide! Where's your science now? - Science-Based Medicine
Cases like thalidomide provide a good example of why SBM authors argue against regulatory double-standards, and advocate for a single, science-based standard for evaluating all products: drugs as well as supplements. There is no intrinsic reason to think any product, regardless of its source, is safe or effective - we must evaluate it, objectively. Thalidomide's history is a cautionary tale reminding us that assumptions without good evidence can lead to terrible consequences.. And that leads to the logical fallacies that the thalidomide retort represents. Thalidomide is an effective drug for some conditions - but it is a teratogen. It's not alone in this regard - other drugs have been identified as teratogens. The sale of any drug is based on an evaluation of the known benefits and risks.And getting back to the comment I received at the top, those that support alternative medicine will reject the science-based approach: This is the system that gave us ...
  http://sciencebasedmedicine.org/oh-yeah-thalidomide-wheres-your-science-now/
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20030611 - Developmental toxicity of l-phenylalanine in intact drosophila.
In order to further characterize the Drosophila bioassay for screening developmental toxicants, l-phenylalanine (LPA; CAS 63-91-2), a documented human and animal teratogen, was evaluated using our published protocol (Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 11:147-173, 1-91). Drosophila were exposed throughout development (egg through third instar larva) in culture vials to medium containing
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20030611.html
*  Teratology Connection : Blogs : Unified Birth Defects Research Journal Coming January 2017
We want to share with you the exciting news about the formal merger of Birth Defects Research (BDR) into a single journal. Many of you heard about this at the annual business meeting, but for the rest of you, here is the rationale, and some details on the merged journal.. When we formed BDR in 2002, the original intent was to have a single journal with multiple parts that fully covered the broad range of interests of the Teratology Society: genetics, dysmorphology, toxicology, developmental biology, epidemiology, and more. We believe that we have met the goal of providing a publication that fully represents teratology as an interdisciplinary science. However, the three parts of the journal have operated more or less independently, with each having its own production schedule, which means each editor faces regular deadlines without the possibility of help from the others. More importantly, ISI, the indexing service that publishes impact factors, decided early on that these were three separate ...
  http://connection.teratology.org/p/bl/et/blogaid=754
*  Talk:Developmental toxicity - Wikipedia
On third thought, I again oppose a merge. Looking at Congenital_abnormalities#Causes, there are so many more causes of congenital abdormalities than toxins. As for infections, a direct teratogenic effect must be the case in viral infections rather than by producing toxins. The only reason I see for keeping this article of Developmental toxicity is because its scope includes teratogenic effects after birth, but in order to keep being included by that justification I think it needs to provide some actual examples of teratogenicity after birth. Mikael Häggström (talk) 21:31, 21 November 2013 (UTC ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Developmental_toxicity
*  A Review Of case study help
5 throughout pregnancy of two.three vs. 1.seven, respectively). The ninety five% CIs were not notably larger In this particular analysis, suggesting that collinearity was not an important difficulty. Also, through pregnancy we discovered the Affiliation to become especially with the third-trimester exposure in products that involved exposure in all trimesters alongside one another. The specificity from the Affiliation for the prenatal period is in line with a number of other lines of proof that propose a prenatal origin of ASD, like data on variances in brain cytoarchitecture in brains of youngsters with ASD (McFadden and Minshew 2013; Stoner et al. 2014) and associations among maternal exposure to teratogens for the duration of pregnancy and ASD (Rodier 1995). Our effects also advise an association predominantly in boys, but this locating ought to be interpreted with warning, given the little number of ladies with ASD inside our sample ...
  http://casestudysolutionofhbr53837.total-blog.com/a-review-of-case-study-help-9006848
*  Unsafe drinking water causes disability among children worldwide - My Bright Water
Daily Times - Pakistan KARACHI: Toxically germ-infested unsafe drinking water is causing different form of disability among children globally, mainly caused by teratogens. The excessive use of medication and consuming polluted water results in the development of abnormal cell tissue in unborn as well as newly born babies particularly during foetal growth, yielding a multiplex…
  https://mybrightwater.wordpress.com/2014/04/10/unsafe-drinking-water-causes-disability-among-children-worldwide/
*  "A model in comparative teratogenesis, dose response to 5-fluoro-2- -de" by K Degenhardt, J Franz et al.
Degenhardt, K; Franz, J; and Yamamura, H, "A model in comparative teratogenesis, dose response to 5-fluoro-2- -deoxycytidine (fcdr, ro 5-1090) in organogenesis of mice of strains c57bl/6jhanffm and c57bl/10jffm." (1968). Subject Strain Bibliography 1968. 1436 ...
  https://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1968/1436/
*  The Hospital for Sick Children - Motherisk - HIV Treatment in Pregnancy
Animal studies can, but do not always, predict whether a drug will be teratogenic in humans. The main role of animal studies is to help researchers understand the mechanisms of teratogenicity. Unfortunately, animal studies were poor predictors in the case of thalidomide; the drug was tested on rats and mice, but did not originally produce birth defects.1 On the other hand, some drugs have been found teratogenic in animals and not in humans.2,3 Today, when new drugs are screened for teratogenicity, three different animal models are required for testing. Quite frequently, when certain drugs are tested on different animal species, birth defects occur, as happened in the DM study.4 Interspecies differences regarding the teratogenicity of drugs can result from differing pharmacokinetic processes that determine the crucial concentration-time relationships in an embryo. Protein binding in the mother is also an important determinant of placental transfer because only free concentrates in maternal plasma ...
  http://motherisk.org/women/updatesDetail.jsp?content_id=321
*  PPT - Chapter 24 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6579380
Chapter 24. Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding. Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding. Teratogenesis From the Greek (producing a monster) Difficult to identify drugs that are teratogenic Teratogenic effects may not be evident for many years after birth Timing and exposure varies from drug to drug. 2. Slideshow 6579380 by rogan-mercado
  http://www.slideserve.com/rogan-mercado/chapter-24