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*  List of honey bee pheromones - Wikipedia
The pheromones of the honey bee are mixtures of chemical substances released by individual bees into the hive or environment ... The pheromones may either be single chemicals or a complex mixture of numerous chemicals in different percentages. Two main ... This inhibits ovarian development in worker bees and helps nurse bees distinguish worker larvae from drone larvae and pupae. ... These chemical compounds have low molecular weights, are highly volatile, and appear to be the least specific of all pheromones ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_honey_bee_pheromones
*  Defense in insects - Wikipedia
"Alarm pheromones and sociality in pre-social insects." Chemical Ecology of Insects. Ed. Bell, W. J., and R. T. Cardé. London: ... This is the case in caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) which encase their abdomen with a mixture of natural materials like ... These ants release a complex venom mixture that can include histamine. Within the Formicinae subfamily, the stinger has been ... Phenotypic plasticity is important because it allows an individual to adapt to a changing environment and can ultimately alter ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_in_insects
*  Lasioglossum malachurum - Wikipedia
The chemical distinctions between the pheromones released by virginal and mated queens are significant in terms of proportions ... Larvae from the earliest eggs are full grown and start pupation by the end of May in Central Europe (or much earlier in warmer ... An egg is laid on each pollen mass and the individual cell sealed by the female. Each egg takes 22 days to develop from an egg ... Immediately following construction, each brood cell is mass-provisioned with a mixture of pollen and nectar in the form of a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lasioglossum_malachurum
*  The Identification of Sea Lamprey Pheromones Using Bioassay-Guided Fractionation | Protocol
Sorensen, P. W., et al. Mixture of new sulfated steroids functions as a migratory pheromone in the sea lamprey. Nature Chemical ... Additive or synergistic effects of complex formulations of specific mixtures are more likely to be detected with metabolomics ... guided by the migratory pheromones released by stream-resident larvae15,16,17,18,19. Mature males ascend to the spawning ... Collect the eluent in individual vials (each 10 ml).. CAUTION: The chloroform used in this step is a poisonous reagent. ...
  https://www.jove.com/video/58059/the-identification-sea-lamprey-pheromones-using-bioassay-guided
*  Communication And Pheromones - Insect Species
... many pheromones appear to be complex mixtures of many chemical compounds.. Pheromones can be effective in minute quantities; it ... In such cases, individual ants do not directly compare the lengths of the two paths, but the colony is able to choose the ... Slave-making ants circumvent the recognition cues of their slaves by capturing them as larvae and pupae-these captives are not ... All the ants lay attractive trail pheromones, and such pheromones are reinforced more rapidly on the shorter path simply ...
  https://www.phrygane.tk/insect-species/communication-and-pheromones.html
*  Western honey bee - Wikipedia
Pheromones (substances involved in chemical communication) are essential to honey-bee survival. Honey bees rely on pheromones ... Individual colonies can house tens of thousands of bees. Colony activities are organized by complex communication between ... For the first ten days of their lives, worker bees clean the hive and feed the larvae. After this, they begin building comb ... Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flows or other botanical sources, which is used as a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_honey_bee
*  Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
The lipid layer on the insect cuticle comprises a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids and fatty ... Ali MF, Morgan ED: Chemical communication in insect communities: a guide to insect pheromones with special emphasis in social ... Esterified fatty acids from honeybee larvae were reported to act as pheromones for honeybee workers and also as kairomones for ... infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual ...
  https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-2-8
*  Phenols - Wikipedia
... use 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol for chemical signaling (pheromones). Other simple and complex phenols can be found in eusocial ants ... Natural phenols are reactive species toward oxidation, notably the complex mixture of phenolics, found in food for example, can ... In vivo models Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant effect ... and may lead to isolation of individual compounds. The recovery of natural phenols from biomass residue is part of biorefining ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenols
*  Frontiers | A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles ...
Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic ... Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic ... Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific ... Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00143/full
*  Rumen metabolites serve ticks to exploit large mammals | Journal of Experimental Biology
... variegatum to entrained rumen odour and to individual chemostimulants of the rumen fluid odour and their mixtures ... Apps, P. J., Viljoen, H. W. and Pretorius, V. (1988). Aggregation pheromones of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum: ... Rumen fluid odour is the product of a stable bioreactor whose major chemical constituents do not vary greatly between ruminant ... It is generally true that complex multi-host life histories arise in parasites when encounters with the final host (where ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/207/24/4283
*  Insect - Wikipedia
Types of semiochemicals include pheromones and kairomones. One example is the butterfly Phengaris arion which uses chemical ... The mixture of saliva and food then travels through the salivary tubes into the mouth, where it begins to break down. Some ... As larvae, many insects have gills that can extract oxygen dissolved in water, while others need to rise to the water surface ... Some insects perform complex ecological roles; blow-flies, for example, help consume carrion but also spread diseases. Insect ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect
*  Development of a Novel Management Method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus Using Semiochemical-Baited Traps
... a complex mixture and ratio of chemicals may be required. In the current study, mixtures of the activating compounds were ... 39 Schreck 1981). Individual ticks were evaluated with mult iple chemicals, but never re exposed to the same chemical. Y tube O ... Larvae emerge from the eggs after an incubation period of six to 23 days. The larvae locate a host, attach, and blood feed for ... These include pheromones and allelochemicals, with pheromones referring to chemicals that organisms use for intraspecific ...
  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0046009/00001
*  Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles [PeerJ]
The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a ... We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus ( ... in which chemical signature becomes enriched as the individual is developing to adult, with the increase of long-chain ... The epicuticle of insects is covered with complex mixtures of nonpolar and polar compounds (Gołębiowski et al., 2008), being ...
  https://peerj.com/articles/3562/
*  pheromones in bumble bees | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
... where they serve as an identification tag of the individual. Many chemical signals consist of mixtures of long chain ... because the chemical communication systems of social insects have been found to be intricate and complex. Honeybee queens, for ... Eggs hatch to larvae approximately 5 days after they are laid [36,41]. Thus, the latency to egg laying affected not only the ... 2010 Pheromones and signature mixtures: defining species-wide signals and variable cues for identity in both invertebrates and ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1817/20151800
*  Integrated orchard management guide for commercial apples in the Southeast. :: State Publications
However, second- generation larvae often feed within the calyx end of fruit. Unless an individual orchard has a history of ... Rotation, and in some cases mixtures, are the bulwarks of pesticide- use strategies since an individual pest is less likely to ... Check lab el for specific thinning chem ical( s) to be used. See Che mical Fruit T hinning Spray and Ap ple Thinning ... Mating disruption of Pheromones (# dispensers) If insecticides are used for first generation OFM and co dling moth. Isomate ...
  http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/p249901coll22/id/17397/rec/19
*  Phenols - Wikipedia
... use 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol for chemical signaling (pheromones).[81] Other simple and complex phenols can be found in eusocial ... Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant effect of individual ... Natural phenols are reactive species toward oxidation, notably the complex mixture of phenolics, found in food for example, can ... Phenols are reactive species toward oxidation, notably the complex mixture of phenolics, found in food for example, can undergo ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenols
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on ... chemical communication, pheromones, adult ... larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for ... The data may be exported to an excel file in batch mode (more than 100 images at one time) or exported as individual images. ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24587088/regulatory-specialization-xyloglucan-xg-glucuronoarabinoxylan-gax
*  Integrated orchard management guide for commercial apples in the Southeast :: State Publications
However, second-generation larvae often feed within the calyx end of fruit. Unless an individual orchard has a history of ... Rotation, and in some cases mixtures, are the bulwarks of pesticide- use strategies since an individual pest is less likely to ... Most dispensers emit pheromones specific to a single insect, but Isolate CM/ OFM TT contains pheromones of both codling moth ... Check label for specific thinning chemical( s) to be used. See Chemical Fruit Thinning Spray and Apple Thinning recommendations ...
  http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p249901coll22/id/17399/show/17398/rec/14
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical ... G. mellonella larvae present several technical advantages: they are relatively large (last instar larvae before pupation are ... Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones7 but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23593338/nutrigenomics-arma-chinensis-transcriptome-analysis-arma-chinensis
*  Aedes triseriatus females transovarially-infected with La Crosse virus mate more efficiently than uninfected mosquitoes
... eggs were hatched and larvae were fed a 1:1 mixture of ground fish-food/mouse food. Pupae were separated by sex and allowed to ... A few chemical words exchanged by Drosophila during courtship and mating. Behav Genet. 1984;14:112-121. [PubMed] ... Genetic feminization of pheromones and its behavioral consequences in Drosophila males. Science. 1997;276:1555-1558. [PubMed] ... Differences in individual mosquito virus titers could have an effect on behavior and therefore were investigated by qRT-PCR to ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2881639/
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical ... The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is complex and poorly understood. One way to investigate the CNS is to ... The individual lipids are scraped from the TLC plate and converted to fatty acyl methylesters (FAMEs), which are analyzed by ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23874457/targeted-lipidomics-drosophila-melanogaster-identifies-novel-2
*  Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest | PNAS
... the parasite larvae must cooperate, emphasizing the adaptive value of cooperation between larvae. The aggressive chemical ... The phoretic first-instar larvae of M. franciscanus, known as triungulins, have evolved a complex four-step mechanism for ... After cooling, the mixtures were worked up by addition of 50 μl of 5% aqueous Na2S2O3 and pentane (100 μl) with vortexing until ... Individual male and female H. pallida bees were collected with a sweep net, held in 20-ml glass vials, and transported to the ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/103/38/14039
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... Pheromones are volatile or non-volatile short-lived molecules2 secreted and/or contained in biological fluids3,4, such as urine ... The mature sperm, now in a milk mixture, are placed in the female's reproductive tract at the time of ovulation. Fertilization ... To understand how pheromone information is encoded by the VNO, it is critical to analyze the response profiles of individual ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24587340/complex-chemosensory-control-of-female-reproductive-behaviors
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is complex and poorly understood. One way to investigate the CNS is to ... chemical communication, pheromones, adult ... Individual aging is manifest at the population level as an ... Drosophila melanogaster embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23696853/the-drosophila-melanogaster-methuselah-gene-novel-gene-with-ancient
*  agrotis ipsilon hufnagel: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
In a preliminary bioassay, the spore-crystal mixture of 78 B. thuringiensis isolates was tested against L1 larvae of A. segetum ... Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with ... By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone ... In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the ...
  https://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/a/agrotis+ipsilon+hufnagel.html