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*  PPT - Endocrine Physiology lecture 2 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:163946
Each of these second messenger systems activates a specific protein kinase enzyme. ... Protein kinase C activity is further increased by calcium which is released by the action of inositol phosphates. ... Adenylate cyclase which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP; *Guanylate cyclase which catalyzes the conversion of GMP ... Receptors for the water soluble hormones are found on the surface of the target cell, on the plasma membrane. These types of ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/Thomas/endocrine-physiology-lecture-2
*  Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise
... and in particular the adenylate kinase reaction, is the production of AMP. AMP is a potent allosteric activator of two enzymes ... 5] found that following a 30 seconds sprint on a cycle ergometer CrP was depleted to % of resting levels immediately following ... Second, AMP activates phosphofructokinase (PFK) within phase 1 of glycolysis, thereby allowing increased flux of G6P through ... Phase 1 involves six carbon phosphorylated carbohydrate intermediates called hexose phosphates. Phase 1 is also ATP costly, ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2010/905612/
*  US20080008694A1 - Methods to prevent and treat diseases - Google Patents
The lethal factor is a matrix metalloproteinase enzyme while the edema factor is an adenylate cyclase enzyme. ... Such enzymes require ATP to function. The creatine kinase pathway has a critical role in the efficient mobilization and use of ... N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is an amino acid found in all living cells. It is a derivative of the amino acid methionine. It is a ... Nourin also activates leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells to release a number of chemokines and cytokines including ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US20080008694A1/en
*  Protein kinase A - Wikipedia
... using adenylate cyclase. Protein kinase A acts to phosphorylate many enzymes important in metabolism. For example, protein ... The catalytic subunit contains the active site, a series of canonical residues found in protein kinases that bind and hydrolyse ... The activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, catalyzes the ... The liberated catalytic subunits can then catalyze the transfer of ATP terminal phosphates to protein substrates at serine, or ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_A
*  C-Raf - Wikipedia
... are activated by MEKK-related kinases (e.g. Ste11 in yeast) instead of Raf enzymes. Raf kinases found in retroviruses (such as ... Kyriakis JM, App H, Zhang XF, Banerjee P, Brautigan DL, Rapp UR, Avruch J (July 1992). "Raf-1 activates MAP kinase-kinase". ... and the enzymes dedicated for removal of these phosphates are the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A ... BAD (Bcl2-atagonist of cell death) is directly phosphorylated by c-Raf, along with several types of adenylate cyclases, myosin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Raf
*  Angiotensin II-induced inotropism requires an endocardial endothelium-nitric oxide mechanism in the in-vitro heart of Anguilla...
angiotensin-converting enzyme. ANG II. angiotensin II. EE. endocardial endothelium. GC. guanylate cyclase. ISO. isoproterenol. ... Endoluminal ANG II activates AT1-like receptors in the EE that stimulate NO release, eliciting in the subjacent myocardium the ... NO, nitric oxide; Gi/o, Gi/o proteins; MR, muscarinic receptor; PKG, cGMP-activated protein kinase; GC, guanylate cyclase; eNOS ... mediate the inhibitory effect of ANG II on l-type Ca2+ currents and on the adenylate cyclase system (Ai et al., 1998). Whether ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/206/15/2675
*  Patent US6492130 - Modulation of the sulfonylurea receptor and calcium in adipocytes for ... - Google Patents
... and the supernatants were used for enzyme assays. Assays were started by the addition of malonyl CoA, and enzyme activities ... Since we found glibenclamide to stimulate adipocyte intracellular Ca2+ despite there having been no previous report of ... These effects were attributed to sulfonylurea-induced inhibition of cAMP level and protein kinase A activity. Thus, rodent ... an adenylate cyclase activator, induced a 48% increase in lipolysis in human adipocytes (p,0.05); this effect was reversed by ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6492130?dq=6,123,819
*  Antioxidants
Adenylate kinases (AKs) represent a set of enzymes that catalyze a reversible high-energy phosphoryl transfer reaction between ... Lately, we found out two groups of Src particular kinase by collection of a 13,824-membered DNA-templated macrocyclic peptide ... which activates downstream ATP-sensing mechanisms C such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) C to regulate cellular ... and the buy 131189-57-6 non-oxidative PPP that recycles pentose phosphates to glycolytic intermediates or generates de novo ...
  http://www.brain-tumor-cancer-information.com/category/antioxidants/
*  CALM2 calmodulin 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
... organism-specific biosystemCa2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase ... CaM kinase) cascade includes three kinases: CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK); and the CaM kinases CaMKI and CaMKIV, which are ... The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in ... PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystemThe phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/805
*  Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator | Microbial Cell Factories | Full Text
Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality ... roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the ... These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. ... no structural similarities between Ec PPK1 and other histidine kinases has been found. Some structural similarities were found ...
  https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2859-10-63
*  Frontiers | Computational Modeling of the Metabolic States Regulated by the Kinase Akt | Physiology
Not surprisingly considering its relevance for cellular metabolism, Akt/PKB is often found hyperactive in cancer cells. In the ... Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis ... Not surprisingly considering its relevance for cellular metabolism, Akt/PKB is often found hyperactive in cancer cells. In the ... Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2012.00418/full
*  Optogenetic Reporters: Fluorescent Protein-Based Genetically-Encoded Indicators of Signaling and Metabolism in the Brain
... enzyme activities (e.g., protein kinase A, caspases), and reactive species. We focus on examples where these genetically- ... The imaging data suggest that glutamate activates both Gαs and Gαq, but Gd3+ only activates Gαq (Tateyama et al., 2004). ... To this end, the Tubby domain, a PIP2-binding motif of a mammalian transcription factor, was found to be selective for PIP2 and ... Phosphoinositides can be hydrolyzed to inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol (DAG) in a receptor-mediated manner, and these ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3494096/?lang=en-ca
*  Cell Communication. Chapter 11. Key Concepts in Chapter 11. Cellular Messaging. Cell-to-cell communication is essential for...
Protein kinase Protein kinases are enzymes that add a phosphate group to proteins according to the following equation: 2 ATP + ... Receptor osine Kinases Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines A receptor ... and protein kinases cam usually activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates various other proteins Further regulation of ... target effector enzyme is Phospholipase C A. target protein adenylate cyclase camp-, PKA B. target protein phospholipase C two ...
  http://healthdocbox.com/Cholesterol/75002059-Cell-communication-chapter-11-key-concepts-in-chapter-11-cellular-messaging-cell-to-cell-communication-is-essential-for-multicellular-organisms.html
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor - Wikipedia
... though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Also, different mGluR subtypes are found predominantly in ... The lipophilic diacylglycerol remains in the membrane, acting as a cofactor for the activation of protein kinase C. These ... Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the ... activates only group III mGluRs. Several subtype-selective positive allosteric modulators that activate only the mGlu2 subtype ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabotropic_glutamate_receptor
*  The E-NTPDase family of ectonucleotidases: Structure function relationships and pathophysiological significance | SpringerLink
Within the past decade, ectonucleotidases belonging to several enzyme families have been... ... adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and potentially ecto-F1-Fo ATP synthases [21, 22, 23, 24, 25] that may ... Thevananther S, Sun H, Li D et al (2004) Extracellular ATP activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase signalling and cell cycle ... NTPDase1 to NTPDase3 were found as dimers to tetramers [29, 64, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78]. In contrast to the P2X receptors that ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-006-9003-5
*  BIOCHEMISTRY OF MAGNESIUM - PDF
Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is: Lecture 4 Catalytic proteins Are ... Magnesium ions activating adenylate cyclase control cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) synthesis. Adenylate cyclase ... One metal ion activates the attacking hydroxyl group, and the other stabilizes the negative charge of the oxygen atom of the ... Another metal ion (B) facilitates the leaving of the â- and ã-phosphates as well as phosphodiester bond formation (HARTWIG 2001 ...
  http://docplayer.net/1925075-Biochemistry-of-magnesium.html
*  Direct Detection of Diverse Metabolic Changes in Virally Transformed and Tax-Expressing Cells by Mass Spectrometry
Recently, it was shown that the enzymes related to creatine and arginine metabolism were found to be significantly upregulated ... cAMP is a second messenger and activates several protein kinases that are involved in significant biochemical processes. The ... Energy charge of the adenylate pool as a regulatory parameter. Interaction with feedback modifiers. Biochemistry. 1968;7:4030- ... interactions between the positively charged ammonium groups of the polyamines and the negatively charged phosphates of nucleic ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2935367/
*  Regulation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II by Phosphatidylinositol-Linked...
... indicating that the activations of the kinases are independent of each other. We also found that SKF83959 induces the ... SKF83959 Activates CaMK II Activity in a Time- and Dose-Dependent Manner. Calcium has been shown to play an important role in ... Undie AS and Friedman E (1990) Stimulation of a dopamine D1 receptor enhances inositol phosphates formation in rat brain. J ... Two minutes later, the incubation was terminated, tissue was homogenized, and enzyme activity was conducted as described under ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/66/6/1500
*  B14. Advances in plant biochemistry. Lectures L27.1 L27.2. Mechanisms of chlorophyllase regulation - PDF
ENZYMES. reflect. collagen: a group of proteins found in connective tissues of the body reflect Have you ever been told to take ... Biochemical and immunochemical properties of the purified enzyme strongly suggested that it is a member of an acyl-adenylate/ ... In contrast to polyisoprenoid phosphates serving as cofactors in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, glucosyl phosphatidyl ... chlorophyllide a activates chlorophyllase while phytol acts as the inhibitor. This indicates the existence of effector ( ...
  http://docplayer.net/739799-B14-advances-in-plant-biochemistry-lectures-l27-1-l27-2-mechanisms-of-chlorophyllase-regulation.html
*  Plus it
... with creatine kinase (CK) linking ATP generation to KATP channel closure and adenylate kinase (AK) regulating KATP channel ... Gribble FM, Tucker SJ, Haug T, Ashcroft FM: MgATP activates the beta cell KATP channel by interaction with its SUR1 subunit. ... Zingman LV, Alekseev AE, Bienengraeber M, Hodgson D, Karger AB, Dzeja PP, Terzic A: Signaling in channel/enzyme multimers: ... Subsequently, many other mutations within both SUR1 and Kir6.2 have been found to reduce MgADP activation and simultaneously ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/suppl_3/S113
*  James Ferrell | Stanford Medicine Profiles
One of the kinases, a 42-kilodalton serine(threonine) kinase (PK42), was found to possess two- to fourfold-higher in vitro ... The stimulus/response curve of the MAPK was found to be as steep as that of a cooperative enzyme with a Hill coefficient of 4-5 ... Progesterone brings about inhibition of adenylate cyclase and activation of the Mos/MEK1/p42 MAP kinase cascade, which ... the identity of the kinase that activates MEK1 is unknown. Here we have partially purified a Cdc2-cyclin B-induced MEK- ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/james-ferrell
*  Bupivacaine Inhibits Activation of Neuronal Spinal Extracellular Receptor-activated Kinase through Selective Effects on...
The activation of these postsynaptic receptors activates protein kinases such as PKA and PKC, and ERK pathway. AC = adenylate ... Nivarthi RN, Grant GJ, Turndorf H, Bansinath M: Spinal anesthesia by local anesthetics stimulates the enzyme protein kinase C ... On the other hand, AMPA and NMDA receptors are classically located on postsynaptic sites but also can be found on presynaptic ... Chen C-C, Chang J, Chen WC: Potentiation of bradykinin-induced inositol phosphates production by cyclic AMP elevating agents ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1923305
*  glycolysis is the major metabolic route responsible for the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate - PDF
... and pyruvate kinase (PK) 2. PFK is the key inflow control enzyme and therefore catalyzes the committed step for glycolysis why ... enzymes heat stable = cofactors and coenzymes ATP ADP NAD Meyerhoff found that minced muscle was capable of promoting the ... 7 Note Set 11 7 enol phosphates (like PEP) have a high Phosphate Group-Transfer Potential PGTP of PEP is 14.8 kcal/mol G ' = ... is high activates phosphoglycerolmutase (as well as stabilizing the deoxy (T) form of Hb), which converts 3-PG to 2-PG ...
  http://docplayer.net/400415-Glycolysis-is-the-major-metabolic-route-responsible-for-the-breakdown-of-glucose-to-pyruvate.html
*  Frontiers | Depotentiation from Potentiated Synaptic Strength in a Tristable System of Coupled Phosphatase and Kinase |...
A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high ... further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase ... further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase ... A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2016.00104/full
*  The GAPs, GEFs, and GDIs of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits
GTPase activity of the stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein of adenylate cyclase, Gs. Accumulation and turnover of enzyme ... immunoglobulin-like fold found in plexins, Met and Ron tyrosine kinase receptors, and intracellular transcription factors; PSI ... Galpha 12 activates Rho GTPase through tyrosine-phosphorylated leukemia-associated RhoGEF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 ;100( ... and β-phosphates of GDP (Fig. 5B). Loss of GDI activity results from mutation of this arginine [92, 93], or of the preceding ...
  http://www.ijbs.com/v01p0051.htm