*  Krebs cycle facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Krebs cycle
Make research projects and school reports about Krebs cycle easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and pictures about Krebs cycle at Encyclopedia.com. ... providing carbon skeletons for the synthesis of amino acids, ... The Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Krebs cycle is a cycle because, ... or ketogenic amino acids), other biomolecules are metabolized by the cycle. Several amino acids are degraded to become what are ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/krebs-cycle
*  Label-free quantitative proteomics of the lysine acetylome in mitochondria identifies substrates of SIRT3 in metabolic pathways...
... amino acid catabolism, and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles, as well as mitochondrial regulatory proteins. The widespread ... Of the proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, only ACADL was previously reported as a substrate for SIRT3 through ... Elevated levels of SIRT3 in the liver during the fasted state may lead to activation of ketogenic enzymes by SIRT3 to meet ... carbon dioxide (CO2), glutamate (Glu), proline (Pro), valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Iso), cysteine (Cys), adenosine ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/110/16/6601
*  Ketogenic Diets, I: Ways to Make a Diet Ketogenic - Perfect Health Diet | Perfect Health Diet
Amino Acids. The main metabolic process which converts one metabolic substrate into another is called the citric acid cycle, ... except for a little 12-carbon fatty acids). Rather than being transported throughout the body, they are shunted to the liver ... tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, or Krebs cycle.. The TCA cycle looks like this (blue arrows): ... The green boxes show glucogenic amino acids entering the cycle. The white boxes show ketogenic amino acids that are made into ...
  http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/02/ketogenic-diets-i-ways-to-make-a-diet-ketogenic/comment-page-3/
*  Mechanism of Amino Acid-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Humans | Diabetes
... ketogenic AAs can be metabolized to acetyl-CoA and further oxidized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Therefore, substrate ... carbon.uab.es/mrui/) (25). Intracellular pH and ADP concentrations were calculated as previously reported (22,23). ... AA, amino acid; APE, atom percent excess; EGP, endogenous glucose production; FFA, free fatty acid; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; ... Mechanism of Amino Acid-Induced Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Humans. Michael Krebs, Martin Krssak, Elisabeth ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/3/599
*  Citric acid cycle - Wikipedia
These latter amino acids are therefore termed "ketogenic" amino acids, whereas those that enter the citric acid cycle as ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical ... The carbon skeletons of many non-essential amino acids are made from citric acid cycle intermediates. To turn them into amino ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle
*  February 2011 - Perfect Health Diet | Perfect Health Diet
The green boxes show glucogenic amino acids entering the cycle. The white boxes show ketogenic amino acids that are made into ... The main metabolic process which converts one metabolic substrate into another is called the citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic ... except for a little 12-carbon fatty acids). Rather than being transported throughout the body, they are shunted to the liver ... A mix of amino acids that is not "complete," but is biased toward the ketogenic amino acids. ...
  http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/02/
*  Frontiers | Cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury: new discoveries with implications for treatment | Neuroscience
... a Lactate Shuttle mechanism makes substrate available, both directly and indirectly for the body and brain in healthy ... lactate is the central metabolic intermediate in cerebral energy substrate delivery. Our recent studies on healthy controls and ... lactate is the central metabolic intermediate in cerebral energy substrate delivery. Our recent studies on healthy controls and ... Because it is the product of glycolysis and main substrate for mitochondrial respiration, ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2014.00408/full
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043688/00001
... transaminases link amino acid metabolism to ketogenic and glycogenic reactions. Vitamin B 6 is also involved in decarboxylation ... and the ketoglutarate which enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle directly. PLP ketobutyrate from cystathionine that feeds ... The mechanism of PLP as a coenzyme is to enable its carbonyl group to form a Schiff base with the amino group of the substrate ... The cS HMT then catalyzes the reversible 3 carbon transfer from serine to tetrahydrofolate (THF) to form 5, 10 methyleneTHF, ...
  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0043688/00001
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Propionyl-CoA (HMDB0001275)
Competes with BAAT (Bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase) for bile acid-CoA substrate (such as chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA). ... Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2). ... S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion. details. ... Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001275
*  Plus it
Specifically, during long-term starvation, terminal glucose oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory ... whereas prolonged antilipolysis results in increased EGP using amino acid carbon, which is required to cover energy ... Cycling of substrates and the formation of substrate depots may serve to enable prompt responsiveness of substrate metabolism ... indicating that the lipolytic and ketogenic response (see Liver fatty acid oxidation: KB) are more restrained than glucose ...
  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/303/12/E1397
*  Acetyl-CoA - Wikipedia
Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ... thus increasing the amount of citrate produced from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This citrate is then exported to other ... Acetyl-CoA can be carboxylated in the cytosol by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, giving rise to malonyl-CoA, a substrate required for ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetyl_coa
*  Acetyl-CoA - Wikipedia
Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ... thus increasing the amount of citrate produced from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This citrate is then exported to other ... a substrate required for synthesis of flavonoids and related polyketides, for elongation of fatty acids to produce waxes, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetyl-CoA
*  Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism | Extreme Physiology & Medicine | Full Text
... as working muscle becomes increasingly reliant on glycolysis to provide acetyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle ... Randle and colleagues described the glucose-free fatty acid (FFA) cycle in 1963, suggesting an overall substrate hierarchy ... Splanchnic and leg metabolism of glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids. J Clin Invest. 1974, 53 (4): 1080-1090. 10.1172/ ... Ketone bodies could provide a logical alternative for the delivery of carbon units to the TCA cycle, free of the limitations in ...
  https://extremephysiolmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2046-7648-3-17
*  Metabolic pathways and cancer growth--2008 review
... cycle. Cells can also oxidize other substrates like amino acids and fatty acids obtained from either the environment or the ... several nonessential amino acids, and the cellular one-carbon pool. ... activities and the replenishment of intermediates for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis) during proliferation. We ... For a lecture to physician on the ketogenic diet given in a university by a professor click on link. This is an example of the ...
  http://healthfully.org/rcdm/id6.html
*  Hyperlipid: 06/01/2013 - 07/01/2013
... the metabolic phenotype of the cell adapts and functions in the absence of a dependence on the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ... AGE the surface... Glycate those amino acids over glowing charcoal.. Two is more than enough, for me anyway. I don't care how ... These are the cancers which might well respond reliably to a ketogenic diet.. This is rather important as it explains why some ... as ADP gets converted by substrate level phosphorylation to ATP and needs replacing. The complexities of AMP, inorganic ...
  http://high-fat-nutrition.blogspot.nl/2013/06/
*  Ketone body metabolism - Metabolism, insulin and other hormones - Diapedia, The Living Textbook of Diabetes
The acetyl CoA is then further metabolized to two molecules of CO2 by the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) which comprises ... HMG CoA is also produced from ketogenic amino acids such as leucine, lysine, and tryptophan via a separate enzymatic process ... This thereby reduces the amount of substrate that is available to generate acetyl CoA (via fatty acid oxidation) for ... Acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate are short-chain (4-carbon) organic acids (Figure 1) that can freely diffuse across cell ...
  https://www.diapedia.org/metabolism-insulin-and-other-hormones/51040851169/ketone-body-metabolism
*  Metabolic Energy Control - Ketopia
... also known as the tricarboxylic acid or citric acid cycle). In the eight reactions of the Krebs cycle, acetyl CoA is oxidized ... The nonessential amino acids, depending on structure, are converted to a biochemical component of glycolysis or the Krebs cycle ... For example, palmitic acid (16 carbons) yields about 25 percent more energy than glucose (6 carbons) on a carbon-for-carbon ... We suggest that people on a ketogenic diet up their vitamin C (ascorbic acid) level 2000-3000 mg/day is a good level. Vit. C is ...
  http://ketopia.com/metabolic-energy-control/
*  The multifaceted role of mTORC1 in the control of lipid metabolism | EMBO Reports
... derived from glucose or amino acid catabolism, is used to form the hydrophobic carbon backbone of lipids. Acetyl‐CoA is either ... tricarboxylic/citric acid. TSC1/2. tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2. VLDL. very low density lipoprotein. ... mTORC1 seems to suppress the expression of ketogenic enzymes through its regulation of N‐CoR1 and PPARα [73], by a mechanism ... The acetyl‐CoA released from β‐oxidation can either enter the TCA cycle or, under fasting conditions in the liver, be converted ...
  http://embor.embopress.org/content/14/3/242
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... organic acids (tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), amino acids, and acyl CoAs. In contrast to insulin monotherapy, however ... use of glucose and the likely use of amino acids for fuel within muscle depleted glucose reserves and diminished substrate ... organic acids, and neurotransmitters, as well as in aspects of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin B-6 deficiency could have many ... In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Christopher+B+Newgard