*  Hair cell - Wikipedia
The perilymph in the scala tympani has a very low concentration of positive ions. The electrochemical gradient makes the ... The deflection of the hair-cell stereocilia opens mechanically gated ion channels that allow any small, positively charged ions ... Calcium ion influx plays an important role for the hair cells to adapt to the amplification of the signal. This allows humans ... positive ions flow through channels to the perilymph. Hair cells chronically leak Ca2+. This leakage causes a tonic release of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_cell
*  Perilymph - Wikipedia
The major cation (positively charged ion) in perilymph is sodium: The values of sodium and potassium concentration in the ... The membranous labyrinth is suspended in the perilymph. The perilymph in the bony labyrinth is continuous with the ... Perilymph is the fluid contained within the bony labyrinth, surrounding and protecting the membranous labyrinth; perilymph ... Perilymph (also named Cotunnius' liquid and liquor cotunnii for Domenico Cotugno) is an extracellular fluid located within the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perilymph
*  Cochlea - Wikipedia
Whereas the perilymph is rich in sodium ions, the endolymph is rich in potassium ions, which produces an ionic, electrical ... The perilymph in the vestibular duct and the endolymph in the cochlear duct act mechanically as a single duct, being kept apart ... The cochlea is filled with a watery liquid, the perilymph, which moves in response to the vibrations coming from the middle ear ... The wave in the perilymph moves away from the footplate and towards the helicotrema. Since those fluid waves move the cochlear ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochlea
*  Three-dimensional current flow in a large-scale model of the cochlea and the mechanism of amplification of sound | Journal of...
... ions in the organ of Corti into the perilymph (Kikuchi et al. 2000). From perilymph, K+ is actively pumped by the K+/Na+ ATPase ... 2000 Potassium ion recycling pathway via gap junction systems in the mammalian cochlea and its interruption in hereditary ... A further feature of the cochlea is a metabolically driven circulation of potassium ions (i.e. K+) around the sensory ... Similarly, the IHC is connected with the perilymph by a resistor RSL representing a hypothetical involvement of the gap- ...
  http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/32/279
*  Volume flow rate of perilymph in the guinea-pig cochlea.
Spread of the tracer trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) along the perilymphatic scalae was monitored with ion-selective ... The rate of longitudinal flow of perilymph has been measured using an ionic tracer technique. ... there was no significant basally-directed flow of perilymph in scala tympani. These findings support the concept that perilymph ... They provide strong evidence that perilymph is not secreted in one region and resorbed at a spatially distant site.. ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Volume-flow-rate-perilymph-in/3198505.html
*  Endolymph - Wikipedia
Between the outer wall of the membranous labyrinth and the wall of the bony labyrinth is the location of perilymph. Perilymph ... It is mainly this electrical potential difference that allows potassium ions to flow into the hair cells during mechanical ... The electric potential of endolymph is ~80-90 mV more positive than perilymph due to a higher concentration of K compared to Na ... Endolymph has a high positive potential (80-120 mV in the cochlea), relative to other nearby fluids such as perilymph, due to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endolymph
*  Neuronal encoding of sound - Wikipedia
Thus, as elsewhere in the body, the transduction is dependent on the concentration and distribution of ions. The perilymph that ... The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... These MET channels are cation-selective transduction channels that allow potassium and calcium ions to enter the hair cell from ... the scala media has a high potassium concentration and an electrical potential of about 80 millivolts compared to the perilymph ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuronal_encoding_of_sound
*  Sound conduction Flashcards by Abi Chan | Brainscape
Perilymph is pushed around, travels to the scala tympani and vibrates the basilar membrane. The round window vibrates outwards ... What is the ion composition of the different scala and what maintains the conc. gradient? ... Scala vestibuli and tympani; contains perilymph, High Na, Low K. Stria vascular maintains the conc. gradient. Gives rise to the ... Connected at the apex through a small channel (helicotrema), perilymph flows through here. ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/sound-conduction-5632146/packs/8269074
*  Auditory system - Wikipedia
... a fluid with a very different ion concentrations and voltage. Vestibular duct perilymph vibrations bend organ of Corti outer ... The chemical difference between the fluids endolymph and perilymph fluids is important for the function of the inner ear due to ... Stretching and compressing, the tip links may open an ion channel and produce the receptor potential in the hair cell. Recently ... The base of the stapes couples vibrations into the cochlea via the oval window, which vibrates the perilymph liquid (present ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_system
*  Neuro Flashcards by Annie Evans | Brainscape
What is the results of transmitter-gated ion channels on the post-synaptic membrane that are sensitive to specific ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/neuro-3663398/packs/5474208
*  Ear irrigation: minimising the risks | Nursing in Practice
Perilymph surrounds the membranous labyrinth, a series of sacs and tubes inside the bony labyrinth and having the same general ... This fluid contains unusually high levels of potassium ions which play a central role in the generation of auditory signals.(7) ... The bony labyrinth is lined with periosteum containing perilymph, a fluid similar in form to that of cerebrospinal fluid. ...
  https://www.nursinginpractice.com/article/ear-irrigation-minimising-risks
*  Organ of Corti - Wikipedia
... potassium ions as well as calcium ions flow into the top of the hair cell. With this influx of positive ions the IHC becomes ... Both structures exist in a low potassium fluid called perilymph. Because those stereocilia are in the midst of a high ... The stereocilia atop the IHCs move with this fluid displacement and in response their cation, or positive ion selective, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_of_Corti
*  The Sensory Systems of the Human Body | Online Medical Library
The scala tympani and scala vestibuli are filled with sodium-rich perilymph, the scala media contains potassium-rich endolymph ... This potential is built by the stria vascularis, which actively transports potassium ions into the endolymph. ... potential which is created through the higher potassium concentration of the endolymph in comparison to the perilymph is ...
  https://www.lecturio.com/magazine/sensory-systems/
*  Stereocilia (inner ear) - Wikipedia
Perilymph is found surrounding the sides and the bases of the hair cells. Perilymph is low in potassium and high in sodium. The ... When tension increases, the flow of ions across the membrane into the hair cell rises as well. Such influx of ions causes a ... An influx of potassium ions depolarizes the cell and causes the release of a neurotransmitter that can initiate nerve impulses ... Tip links are analogous to tiny springs, which, when stretched, open cation selective channels thus allowing ions to flow ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereocilia_(inner_ear)
*  Lack of pendrin HCO3- transport elevates vestibular endolymphatic [Ca2+] by inhibition of acid-sensitive TRPV5 and TRPV6...
... between the voltage barrels in calibrating solution and in perilymph and between the voltage electrode in perilymph and ... Ugawa S, Inagaki A, Yamamura H, Ueda T, Ishida Y, Kajita K, Shimizu H, Shimada S. Acid-sensing ion channel-1b in the ... Perilymph pH, [Ca2+] and UP were corrected for the liquid junction potentials of 1.3 mV (pH electrode) and 4 mV (Ca2+ electrode ... 1). The pH was higher in endolymph of control mice than in the perilymph, consistent with secretion of HCO. 3. −. by pendrin. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2515270/
*  Glossary :: Sound Transduction
Perilymph. The fluid in the scala vestibule and scala tympani within the cochlea, containing low potassium ion and high sodium ... The fluid in the scala media of the cochlea, containing high potassium ion and low sodium ion concentrations.. ...
  https://mda06kf.webnode.com/glossary/
*  JCI - Welcome
Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) ... The two compositionally distinct extracellular cochlear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, are separated by tight junctions that ... These ultrastructural changes may selectively affect the paracellular permeability of ions or small molecules, resulting in a ... which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 ( ...
  https://www.jci.org/tags/35
*  Electrocochleography - Wikipedia
This opens mechanically gated ion channels on the hair cell, allowing influx of potassium (K+) and calcium(Ca2+) ions. The flow ... Movement of the stapes on the oval window generates a pressure wave in the perilymph within the cochlea, causing the basilar ... of ions generates an AC current through the hair cell surface, at the same frequency as the acoustic stimulus. This measurable ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocochleography
*  Endocochlear potential - Wikipedia
Because there is a steep gradient (150 mV, changes in membrane conductance are accompanied by rapid influx and efflux of ions ... and the perilymph (vestibular and tympanic ducts- -70 mV). EP is highest in the basal turn of the Cochlea and decreases in the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocochlear_potential
*  March | 2016 | Poneet's Website
Endolymph and Perilymph. The Eustachian passages. The mucus filled sinuses. Sundry Ostia. I bit the tip of your nose. Two ... Sodium and potassium ions. And chemical transmitters. Somehow holding memories. Somehow alive. All a home for your soul to ...
  http://poneet.com/wordpress/2016/03/
*  Sanjoy Sanyal's slideshows on SlideShare
... ion ion channels ion- channels ionizing ipl irb 6 ischemic it it administrator of mua. special thanks to mike sw ivc james ... perilymph perimetry diagnosis peripheral nerve injury peripheral nerve structure peripheral nerve tumors peripheral neuropathy ... Read and download presentations about ion-channels ... "ion-channels". * L2b Neurophysiology Part… 5 years ago, 677 ...
  https://www.slideshare.net/sanyalsanjoy8/tag/ion-channels
*  Extracellular fluid - Wikipedia
This allows a brief inflow of sodium ions into the cell (driven in by the sodium ion concentration gradient that exists between ... as well as the perilymph and endolymph in the inner ear. The volume of extracellular fluid in a young adult male of 70 kg, is ... in return for potassium ions which enter the cell from the ECF. The maintenance of this difference in the concentration of ions ... The sodium ions in the ECF also play an important role in the movement of water from one body compartment to the other. When ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extracellular_fluid
*  Ear - Wikipedia
This affects the pressure on the cupula, and results in the opening of ion channels. This causes depolarisation, which is ... Both the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani contain an extracellular fluid called perilymph. The scala media contains ... This shift alters the positions of the filaments, which opens ion channels within the cell membranes, creating depolarisation ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear
*  PPT - Tinnitus Patient Management PowerPoint Presentation - ID:73483
Ion channel regulation for excitability of neurons. *Calcium induced changes in intra or extracellular processes (noise) ... meningitis perilymph fistula. autoimmune inner ear disease. vestibular schwannoma sudden hearing loss ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/LionelDale/tinnitus-patient-management
*  Cochlear amplifier - Wikipedia
Because the cell body is not in direct contact with any structure and is surrounded by the fluid-like perilymph, the OHC is ... Upon BM deflection downwards hyperpolarization of the OHC results, and intracellular chloride ions bind allosterically causing ... channels within the stereocilia open allowing the inflow of ions and depolarizing the OHC results. Intracellular chloride ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochlear_amplifier