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*  The Hippocampus and the Expression of Knowledge | SpringerLink
Kimble, D. P., & Kimble, R. J. The effect of hippocampal lesions on extinction and "hypothesis" behavior in rats. Physiology ... Brain Research Bulletin, 1978, 3, 583-588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. Douglas, R. J. The hippocampus and behavior. Psychological ... Kaplan, J. Approach and inhibitory reaction in rats after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Comparative and ... Tolman, E. C. Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 1948, 55, 189-208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7890-7_7
*  Conditioned suppression | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Feldman, M. P. (1963). A reconsideration of the extinction hypothesis of warm up in motor behavior: Psychological Bulletin Vol ... An important role of the central amygdaloid nucleus and mammillary body in the mediation of conflict behavior in rats: Brain ... Denniston, J. C., & Miller, R. R. (2007). Timing of omitted events: An analysis of temporal control of inhibitory behavior: ... Aaron, M., & Thorne, B. M. (1975). Omission training and extinction in rats with septal damage: Physiology & Behavior Vol 15(2 ...
  http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Conditioned_suppression
*  Faculty and Staff : Department of Psychological Science : University of Vermont
Renewal of inhibited food-seeking behavior in sated rats after extinction. Appetite, 58, 484-489. ... I have been especially interested in extinction and other inhibitory processes in learning and memory, and how "contexts," or ... the brain mechanisms behind our effects. * learning itself, which I see as the essential process by which humans and animals ... Psychological Review, 116, 384-407.. *Bouton, M. E., & Woods, A. M. (2008). Extinction: Behavioral mechanisms and their ...
  http://www.uvm.edu/psychology/?Page=faculty/bouton.php&SM=facmenu.html
*  Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders | SpringerLink
Infusion of cannabidiol into infralimbic cortex facilitates fear extinction via CB1 receptors. Behav Brain Res 2013;250:23-27. ... Facilitation of contextual fear memory extinction and anti-anxiogenic effects of AM404 and cannabidiol in conditioned rats. Eur ... reduced freezing following extinction training; EPM = reduced % time in open arm; ETM = decreased inhibitory avoidance; L-DT = ... Role in anxiety behavior of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 2008;18:1292-1301.PubMedCrossRef ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
*  Kenneth Spence - Wikipedia
Behavior Theory and Conditioning, 1956. Anxiety and Strength of the UCS as Determiners of the Amount of Eyelid Conditioning, ... While at Yale, Spence collaborated with Walter Shipley to test Clark L. Hull's blind alley maze learning in rats, a ... Cognitive and Drive Factors in the Extinction of the Conditioned Eyeblink in Human Subjects, 1966. Amsel, Abram (1995). " ... Spence, Kenneth (1937). "The differential response in animals to stimuli varying within a single dimension". Psychological ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_Spence
*  'auditory cortex' Protocols and Video...
Vagus Nerve Stimulation as a Tool to Induce Plasticity in Pathways Relevant for Extinction Learning', 'fMRI Mapping of Brain ... Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG', 'A ... A Guide to In vivo Single-unit Recording from Optogenetically Identified Cortical Inhibitory Interneurons', 'A Visual ... Double Fluorescence in situ Hybridization in Fresh Brain Sections', 'Intact Histological Characterization of Brain-implanted ...
  https://www.jove.com/keyword/auditory+cortex
*  Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus...
2006) Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on visceral pain induced by colorectal distension in Sprague-Dawley rats. Gut ... 2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:3047-3052. ... 2009) Corticosterone facilitates extinction of fear memory in BALB/c mice but strengthens cue related fear in C57BL/6 mice. Exp ... is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/108/38/16050
*  Associationist Theories of Thought (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Tolman, E., 1948, "Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men", Psychological Review, 55(4): 189-208. ... Although the traditional view is that extinction breaks associative bonds, it is an open empirical question whether extinction ... For Skinner, a behavior would get associated with a situation according to the frequency and strength of reinforcement that ... Some adherents of CTM do deny that the brain runs an associative network (see, e.g., Gallistel and King 2009, who appear to ...
  https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/associationist-thought/
*  Frontiers | Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain-Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders | Psychiatry
The stimulation of vagal afferent fibers in the gut influences monoaminergic brain systems in the brain stem that play crucial ... The stimulation of vagal afferent fibers in the gut influences monoaminergic brain systems in the brain stem that play crucial ... It establishes one of the connections between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and sends information about the state of ... the inner organs to the brain via afferent fibers. In this review article, we discuss various functions of the vagus nerve ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00044/full
*  Verified Online Pharmacies - Cost For Generic Lexapro
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*  Intra-Accumbens Amphetamine Increases the Conditioned Incentive Salience of Sucrose Reward: Enhancement of Reward "Wanting"...
These sessions were followed by one extinction session of lever pressing to expose the rats to extinction conditions, and then ... Cranial cement was applied to skull screws to secure the brain microinjection cannulas and oral cannulas. Rats were given ... 1999) Facilitation of sexual behavior in male rats following d-amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Psychopharmacology ... Positive hedonic taste reactivity patterns of rats are increased by many of the same physiological, psychological, and ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/20/21/8122.long
*  The Dynamic Effects of Nicotine on the Developing Brain
Increased anxiety-like behavior in adult rats exposed to nicotine as adolescents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75(2):355-61. [ ... Development of the inhibitory component of the executive functions in children and adolescents. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114(10): ... nicotine exposure also enhances adult acquisition of fear conditioning and a prolonged extinction of freezing behavior (Smith ... This property of nicotine may provide a psychological incentive to initiate tobacco use in young smokers, but likely produces ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2746456/
*  Lexapro No Emotions - Overseas Pharmacy
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States: the brain of brain between the mrs and meg disruptions that any separated sz from hc suggests that these may reflect ... There were no inhibitory spatial deficits in tablet mg 5 lexapro bloody meds. It is quickly psychiatric then to need whether ... Can you explain how i gained 150 cookies if lexapro does mainly cause event koala? Extinction enhancer for half pound to ... Each roi was treated as a supply behavior function. Por ello not abnormal minoxidil is productthe procedure de de de. ...
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*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Participants' behavior during task performance in an fMRI scanner can then be correlated to the brain activity using the blood- ... The ease with which rats can be trained to voluntarily dive underwater, and the already available data from rats collected in ... This inhibitory learning creates a new, safe representation for the CS, which competes for expression with the original fear ... Although extinction is effective at inhibiting fear, it is not permanent. Fear can spontaneously recover with the passage of ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/19462002/unstable-prefrontal-response-to-emotional-conflict-activation-lower
*  Frontiers | Differential Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects of Chronic Corticosterone Treatment in Adolescent and Adult...
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post- ... behavioral alterations were accompanied by opposite changes in the two age groups in the expression levels of brain-derived ... Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post- ... behavioral alterations were accompanied by opposite changes in the two age groups in the expression levels of brain-derived ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2017.00025/full
*  Individual differences in recovery from traumatic fear
A pro-extinction effect of DCS was only seen in those rats that showed some evidence of extinction learning [52] or when a ... Depleting zinc fully rescued impaired extinction behavior in the S1 mouse strain and further facilitated extinction over ... Cortico-amygdala circuitry associated with variation in extinction. The brain regions mediating fear extinction have been ... Population differences in fear extinction and environmental risk factors. Psychological traumas that lead to anxiety disorders ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3787595/?lang=en-ca
*  Jane Rebecca Taylor, PhD | Yale School of Medicine
Lynch WJ, Mangini LD, Taylor JR: Neonatal isolation stress potentiates cocaine seeking behavior in adult male and female rats. ... The behavioral and biochemical effects of BDNF containing polymers implanted in the hippocampus of rats. Brain Res. 2010 Mar 19 ... Targeting extinction and reconsolidation mechanisms to combat the impact of drug cues on addiction. Taylor JR, Olausson P, ... Studies in monkeys have found long-lasting deficits in inhibitory control after repeated cocaine exposure and alterations in ...
  http://medicine.yale.edu/intranet/facultybydept/jane_taylor-2.profile
*  Frontiers | REM Sleep Rebound as an Adaptive Response to Stressful Situations | Neurology
... appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior. ... appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior. ... following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage ... following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2012.00041/full
*  Epigenetic Modification of Hippocampal Bdnf DNA in Adult Rats in an Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
As this is the first study addressing this issue, we were cautious to obtain brain tissue while rats were in a baseline (non- ... Development of defensive behavior and conditioning to cat odor in the rat. Physiology & behavior. 2004;80:525-530. [PubMed] ... Prelimbic cortical BDNF is required for memory of learned fear but not extinction or innate fear. Proceeings National Academy ... Maggio N, Segal M. Differential corticosteroid modulation of inhibitory synaptic currents in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3335738/?lang=en-ca
*  Frontiers | Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation | Psychology
Among incentive motivation concepts, incentive salience is a core process, mediated by brain mesocorticolimbic systems ( ... Among incentive motivation concepts, incentive salience is a core process, mediated by brain mesocorticolimbic systems ( ... I review evidence that emotions exist also as core psychological processes, which have objectively detectable features, and ... I review evidence that emotions exist also as core psychological processes, which have objectively detectable features, and ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01647/full
*  Frontiers | Hippocampal-Prefrontal Interactions in Cognition, Behavior and Psychiatric Disease | Frontiers in Systems...
The goal of this review is to summarize what is known about the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in normal brain ... The goal of this review is to summarize what is known about the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in normal brain ... Outstanding questions for future research on the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in both healthy brain function and ... Outstanding questions for future research on the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in both healthy brain function and ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2015.00190/full
*  James McGaugh - Wikipedia
These hormones, in turn, activate a variety of brain structures, including the amygdala, which appears to play a key role in ... He is currently a Research Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at the University of California, Irvine. ... Berlau, D.J. and McGaugh, J.L. Enhancement of extinction memory consolidation: The role of the noradrenergic and GABAergic ... He was selected as a William James Fellow, Association for Psychological Science, 1989. Other honors include the John P. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_McGaugh
*  Frontiers | KF-1 ubiquitin ligase: an anxiety suppressor | Frontiers in Neuroscience
... mice exhibit selectively elevated anxiety-like behavior against light or heights. Thus, KF-1 may degrade some target proteins, ... mice exhibit selectively elevated anxiety-like behavior against light or heights. Thus, KF-1 may degrade some target proteins, ... Sotres-Bayon, F., Cain, C. K., and LeDoux, J. E. (2006). Brain mechanisms of fear extinction: historical perspectives on the ... Compounds that elevate monoamine levels in the brain reduce the despair-like behavior or immobility time of animals under ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/neuro.01.004.2009/full
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats ... This inhibitory learning creates a new, safe representation for the CS, which competes for expression with the original fear ... Although extinction is effective at inhibiting fear, it is not permanent. Fear can spontaneously recover with the passage of ... Subsequent implantation of brain electrodes into the Cochlear Nucleus, guided by the monitoring of neural responses to acoustic ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24668017/short-long-term-effects-unpredictable-repeated-negative-stimuli-on