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*  Swine Influenza Symptoms, Treatment, Swine Influenza Symptoms Humans, Signs.
swine influenza symptoms, online information on swine influenza symptoms, virus, swine influenza symptoms in humans, children, babies, swine influenza symptoms signs, treatment, virus, for more complicated cases in swine influenza and more.
  http://www.altiusdirectory.com/Health/swine-influenza-symptoms.html
*  Detection of a divergent Parainfluenza 4 virus in an adult patient with influenza like illness using next-generation sequencing...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an ...
  https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:332696
*  Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests -...
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irv.12017/references
*  Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, 2009--10 Season
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5929a2.htm?s_cid=mm5929a2_w
*  PLOS Pathogens: Environmental Predictors of Seasonal Influenza Epidemics across Temperate and Tropical Climates
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of influenza seasonality is important for optimizing ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1003194
*  Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, January 29--February 4, 2006
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: Colorado, ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5506a4.htm
*  Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, October 3--December 11, 2010
During October 3--December 11, 2010, influenza activity remained low in most regions of the United States. Influenza viruses characterized thus far in the influenza season are well matched to the strains included in the 2010--11 influenza vaccine. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity* during this period.. Viral Surveillance During October 3--December 11, approximately 140 World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System collaborating laboratories in the United States tested 42,497 respiratory specimens for influenza viruses; 2,807 (6.6%) were positive (Figure 1). Of these, 1,598 (57%) were influenza A viruses, and 1,209 (43%) were influenza B viruses. A total of 805 (50%) of the 1,598 influenza A viruses were subtyped; 679 (84%) of these were influenza A (H3) viruses, ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5950a4.htm
*  Figure 1 - Influenza Outbreaks during World Youth Day 2008 Mass Gathering - Volume 16, Number 5-May 2010 - Emerging Infectious...
Influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings have been rarely described, and detailed virologic assessment is lacking. An influenza outbreak occurred during World Youth Day in Sydney, Australia, July 2008 (WYD2008). We assessed epidemiologic data and respiratory samples collected from attendees who sought treatment for influenza-like illness at emergency clinics in Sydney during this outbreak. Isolated influenza viruses were compared with seasonal influenza viruses from the 2008 influenza season. From 100 infected attendees, numerous strains were identified: oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses, oseltamivir-sensitive influenza A (H1N1) viruses, influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and strains from both influenza B lineages (B/Florida/4/2006-like and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like). Novel viruses were introduced, and pre-WYD2008 seasonal viruses ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/5/09-1136-f1
*  New Study Shows That Influenza Antiviral Can Reduce the Spread of Flu in Families
Of the 400 contacts in the group that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 11 (3 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 40 of 392 contacts (10 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-an individual protective efficacy of 73 percent. In the group of 135 affected households that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 10 (7 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 27 of the 136 households (20 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-a household protective efficacy of 63 percent. These findings suggest that treatment of the index case, coupled with simultaneous prophylaxis with Tamiflu of household contacts, can significantly reduce the secondary spread of influenza in households ...
  http://www.safetyalerts.com/g/tamaflu.html
*  Evaluation of the point-of-care Becton Dickinson Veritor™ Rapid influenza diagnostic test in Kenya, 2013-2014 | BMC Infectious...
We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RIDT using NS specimens were evaluated against nasal swabs tested by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The performance parameter results were expressed as 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using binomial exact methods, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Two-sample Z tests were used to test for differences in sample proportions. ...
  https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-2131-9
*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Seasonal #Influenza - #Update No. 281, based on data up to 08 January, 2017 (@WHO, summary)
National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 97 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 26 December 2016 to 08 January 2017 (data as of 2017-01-20 09:52:23 UTC).. The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 165297 specimens during that time period. 40259 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 38809 (96.4%) were typed as influenza A and 1450 (3.6%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 422 (2.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 15893 (97.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 116 (49.8%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 117 (50.2%) to the B-Victoria lineage.. ___. Detailed influenza update. ,-Download PDF pdf, 696kb -,. Seasonal update. ,-- Seasonal influenza reviews -,. ,-AMRO , EURO , WPRO -,. ,-- ...
  https://hygimia69.blogspot.com/2017/01/seasonal-influenza-update-no-281-based.html
*  Increased Antiviral Medication Sales Before the 2005--06 Influenza Season --- New York City
Influenza vaccination remains the cornerstone for the control and treatment of influenza; however, antiviral influenza medications serve as an adjunct to vaccine (1). The increased sale of antiviral influenza medications in NYC during October 2005 did not coincide with any measures of influenza activity and therefore was unlikely to reflect the treatment or prophylaxis of persons against circulating influenza viruses. However, the period of increased sales did coincide with the beginning of media coverage (3) of avian influenza (for which no human vaccine has yet been approved, although clinical trials are ongoing) and the potential for an influenza pandemic. Increased media attention to avian influenza in Asia and the resulting public concern might have produced the unprecedented demand for antiviral ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5510a3.htm
*  Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, October 3, 2010--February 5, 2011
This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity* since the beginning of the 2010--11 influenza season (October 3, 2010) and updates the previous report (1). From October through early December 2010, influenza activity remained low in most regions of the United States. Activity increased beginning in mid-December 2010 and continued to increase during January and early February 2011. Influenza B, 2009 influenza A (H1N1), and influenza A (H3N2) viruses all have been identified thus far this influenza season, and most viruses in circulation are antigenically similar to strains included in the 2010--11 vaccine.. Viral Surveillance. During October 3, 2010--February 5, 2011, approximately 140 World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories in the United States tested 116,255 respiratory specimens for ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6006a4.htm
*  Avian influenza - Wikipedia
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_influenza
*  Comparison of Fluid Rapid Influenza and BinaxNOW Influenza A & B - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of the investigational fluID Rapid Influenza Test and the BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Test in detecting influenza type A and influenza type B, with respect to fresh nasal wash / aspirate specimens collected from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI). Specimens to be evaluated in this study will be enrolled in a concurrent clinical study per protocol FLU-05, entitled 'Prospective Evaluation of the fluID Rapid Influenza Test'. All subjects enrolled in the FLU-05 study will have consented to having their samples used in future investigations involving the fluID Test.. This study will be conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season in North America and Hong Kong, which is anticipated to run from November 2008 to May 2009. Should the influenza season conclude in North America ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00828100
*  Influenza Vaccination: Part I « Healthcare Economist
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its "Prevention and Control of Influenza" guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since ...
  http://healthcare-economist.com/2006/12/12/influenza-vaccination-part-i/
*  Go to Novel, Variant, and Pandemic Influenza.
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in ...
  http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/influenza-flu-in-virginia/novel-variant-and-pandemic-influenza/
*  Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
Other Groups To Consider Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Limited information exists regarding the frequency and severity of influenza illness or the benefits of influenza vaccination among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (56). However, a recent retrospective study of young and middle-aged women enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program found that the attributable risk for cardiopulmonary hospitalizations among women with HIV infection was higher during influenza seasons than in the peri-influenza periods. The risk of hospitalization for HIV-infected women was higher than the risk for women with other well-recognized high-risk conditions for influenza complications, including chronic heart and lung diseases (57). Other reports suggest that influenza symptoms might be prolonged and the risk for complications from influenza increased for some ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00057028.htm
*  The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the 'swine flu' pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010000700014&lng=en&nrm=iso
*  The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the 'swine flu' pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010000700014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  November 30, 2017 - National Adult and Influenza Immunization Summit
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this season's vaccine. There has been ...
  https://www.izsummitpartners.org/latestcall/
*  PPT - Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness PowerPoint Presentation - ID:64306
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldn't find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
  https://www.slideserve.com/Anita/texas-pandemic-influenza-preparedness
*  WHO | The population-based burden of influenza-associated hospitalization in rural western Kenya, 2007-2009
Our prospective surveillance in a district in Kenya is one of the first to report directly-measured rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in African adults and children.4 In developing countries, sentinel hospital surveillance can provide data for describing influenza epidemiology and seasonality, characterizing the circulating strains of influenza virus (to guide vaccinations) and monitoring influenza pandemics. Such surveillance can seldom be used to define the burden of influenza, however, because it often occurs in referral hospitals, where the denominator population is difficult to define and the health-seeking patterns may not be representative of the norm.21,22. The rate of influenza-associated hospitalization that we report in children of Bondo district who were aged < 5 years (i.e. 143.7 cases per 100 000 child-years) is lower than the corresponding values reported in South Africa, Thailand ...
  http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/4/11-094326/en/
*  WHO | Human influenza epidemic spreads to more countries in northern hemisphere - update 3
United States (29 November 2003). Influenza activity continued to increase during week 48. Overall ILI consultation rate was 5.1%, which is above the national baseline of 2.5%. Widespread influenza activity was reported in 13 states and regional activity was reported in 16 states during week 48; 39.1% of the specimens tested were positive for influenza with 1302 influenza A viruses and 7 B viruses identified. Since week 40, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta have antigenically characterized 157 influenza A(H3N2) viruses, of which 45 (29%) are A/Panama/2007/99-like and 112 (71%) are A/Fujian/411/2002-like.. Other reports. Low influenza activity was reported in Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, Italy, Thailand and Ukraine. No influenza activity was reported in Croatia, Iceland, Japan or Poland.. ...
  http://www.who.int/csr/don/2003_12_10a/en/
*  WHO | Development of a vaccine effective against avian influenza H5N1 infection in humans - update 4
The WHO influenza pandemic preparedness plan, issued in 1999, sets out a series of steps to be taken following confirmation of human infection with a new influenza virus subtype not yet spreading from person to person. One of these steps concerns the initiation of research needed for vaccine production.. As a precautionary measure, WHO is moving forward with the procedures needed to rapidly produce a new influenza vaccine capable of protecting humans against the H5N1 strain of avian influenza recently detected in Viet Nam. These procedures have been initiated following mounting concern over 5 laboratory confirmed human cases of H5N1 avian influenza in Hanoi, Viet Nam in recent weeks. All 5 cases were fatal.. The human deaths in Viet Nam coincide with historically unprecedented epidemics, in bird populations, of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Viet Nam, the Republic ...
  http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_01_20/en/