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*  HKU Scholars Hub: Age-period-cohort projections of breast cancer incidence in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population
Breast cancer incidence should be assessed separately in different populations, as it differs substantially between Chinese and Caucasian women, and more generally in developing versus developed populations. Estimation of future trends is important for public health planning. On the basis of the recent breast cancer incidence trends, we projected future disease rates in the rapidly transitioning Chinese population of Hong Kong. We used local data on breast cancer incidence and mid-year population figures for the years 1974-2003. We fitted Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors on the age, period and cohort effects, and used projections of these effects to forecast future incidence to 2018. We found that age-standardized breast cancer incidence would continue to rise by ∼1.1% per annum over the next 15 years, from 45.9 cases in 1999-2003 to 54.3 per 100,000 (95% credible interval: 50.9, 58.4) in ...
  http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/86537
*  PLOS ONE: Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers
Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066694.t001
*  A population-based study of the incidence of malignant small bowel tumours: SEER, 1973-1990
Small bowel tumours occurred rarely, with an average annual incidence rate of 9.9 per million people. Carcinoid tumours and adenocarcinomas were the most common histological subtypes, with average annual incidence rates of 3.8 and 3.7 per million people respectively, followed by lymphomas (1.1 per million people) and sarcomas (1.3 per million people). For all histological subtypes, men had higher rates than women. Most tumours occurred in older adults; over 90% of cases occurred in people over the age of 40. During the 18-year study period, the incidence of small bowel tumours has risen slowly. In white men, black men and black women, rises in the incidence of adenocarcinomas, malignant carcinoids and lymphomas contributed to this trend. In white women, the incidence of adenocarcinomas, was stable while malignant carcinoids and lymphomas rose. The incidence of sarcomas was steady for all groups except black ...
  http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cgi-bin/mycite?ExtRef=MEDL/97079737/PMID/8921448
*  Trends in prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival in England and Wales 1971-1998 - Majeed - 2000 - BJU International ...
Objectives To examine trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in England and Wales between 1971 and 1998, using a newly developed and validated national cancer database and the national mortality database.. Methods Age-standardized incidence and death rates were calculated directly and trends in relative survival rates among men with prostate cancer registered during 1971-1990 were examined.. Results The annual number of new cases of prostate cancer registered in England and Wales increased by 179% between 1971 and 1993, from 6174 to 17 210. Directly age-standardized incidence rates increased by 104% between 1971 and 1993, from 29 to 59 per 100 000. The number of deaths from prostate cancer increased by 113% between 1971 and 1998, from 4027 to 8570. Directly age-standardized death rates increased by 49% between 1971 and 1995 and then decreased by 8% between 1995 and 1998, an overall increase of 38% (20 to 27 per 100 000) between 1971 and 1998. The ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1464-410x.2000.00661.x/abstract
*  Plus it
Background: The advent of PSA testing in the late 1980s substantially increased prostate cancer incidence rates. Concerns about overscreening and overdiagnosis subsequently led professional guidelines (circa 2000 and later) to recommend against routine PSA testing. We evaluated trends in prostate cancer incidence, including late-stage diagnoses, from 1995 through 2012. Methods: We used joinpoint regression analyses to evaluate all-, localized/regional-, and distant-stage prostate cancer incidence trends based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. We stratified analyses by age (50-69, 70+). We reported incidence trends as annual percent change (APC). Results: Overall age-adjusted incidence rates for localized/regional stage PCa have been declining since 2001, sharply from 2010 to 2012 (APC -13.1, 95% CI -23.5 to -1.3). Distant-stage incidence rates have declined since 1995, with greater ...
  http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2015/12/16/1055-9965.EPI-15-0723
*  Recent trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality - Lacey - 2002 - Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis - Wiley Online...
Breast cancer accounts for one-third of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in U.S. women. Its 192,000 cases and 40,000 deaths in 2001 make it the most common incident cancer (excluding superficial skin cancers) and second leading cause of cancer death. Over one-half of the 300,000 breast cancer deaths worldwide in 1990 (the latest year with such data) occurred in developed countries, but annual mortality rates ranged from 27/100,000 women in northern Europe to 4/100,000 women in Asia. Incidence data are less complete, although 1988-1992 rates varied threefold: low in Asia, intermediate in South America and Eastern Europe, and high in North America and Western Europe. Migrant studies suggest that lifestyle factors largely explain these international differences. U.S. incidence rates are generally 20%−40% higher in white women than in non-white women, but are higher in young (under age 40) black women than in young white women. Incidence rates rose in ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/em.10062/abstract
*  The National Incidence Study (NIS) - Child Welfare Information Gateway
The National Incidence Study (NIS) is a congressionally mandated, periodic research effort to assess the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States. Information is provided in the following categories:
  https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/statistics/nis/
*  The association between ultraviolet B irradiance, vitamin D status and incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in 51 regions...
This study is an analysis of the relationship between ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, the primary source of circulating vitamin D in humans, and age-standardised incidence rates of type 1 diabetes mel
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-008-1061-5
*  Improving disease incidence estimates in primary care surveillance systems | Population Health Metrics | Full Text
Reducing bias in surveillance systems is a first step for improving public health decisions. Here, we have highlighted that post-stratification using external data improves incidence estimates for acute diseases like ILI, AD, and varicella. These bias reduced estimates may be used to provide improved spatial and national information.. Although the major issue of representativeness for surveillance systems is to compare the monitored population to the general population, comparisons are often limited to that of participating GPs to others [10]. Here, in the French Sentinelles network, participating SGPs were similar to other GPs in a number of ways (age, practice of complementary medicine), but differed in some respects: they were more frequently males, were not equally spread over the territory, and they saw more patients each week. Self-selection of data providers participating in the surveillance system can lead to such differences, either by chance alone or because participation depends ...
  https://pophealthmetrics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12963-014-0019-8
*  Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of...
BACKGROUND: Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.. METHODS: For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:950523
*  The development of the incidence of diabetes mellitus I in children 0 to 14 years of age in Malaga (1982-1993)]. - Semantic...
OBJECTIVE A prospective study was conducted to assess the evolution of the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) in Málaga among children less than 14 years of age between 1982 and 1993. PATIENTS AND METHODS The capture-recapture method was chosen for estimating the probability of ascertainment and two sources were used: The hospital registry and Málaga Diabetes Association members. RESULTS We detected 437 children and the ascertainment achieved was 98.8%. The average annual incidence was 14.3/10(5) and the prevalence at the end of the period was 0.78 patients/10(3). During the last 6 years of the observation period, the incidence rose by 42%. The highest incidence was found among children between 10 and 13 years of age in both sexes. The age of onset and female/male ratio increased during the study period. There was an inverse relationship with monthly temperature. CONCLUSIONS In comparison with other European ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-development-of-the-incidence-of-diabetes-mell-Siguero-Ollero/66ba02d28b89ec93186b72c97fb88b08424fdd61
*  NC SCHS: Statistics and Reports: Health Atlas: Gonorrhea - Additional Information
The moving average rates for the animated map were calculated by summing the number of cases from the current year, the two previous years and the next two years. The same process was used for state and individual county populations. The case sum was divided by the population sum and then multiplied by 100,000 to yield a five-year average incidence rate per 100,000 population. For more information about rates and their calculation please refer to the glossary. The results of these calculations are shown in the accompanying table. These rates are also depicted as part of the dynamic legend in the animated map. All rates for the maximum county column are based on twenty or more cases.. The rate classification scheme shown in the time series maps is based on equal numbers of counties in each of the four rate classes at the initial time period, labeled 1982. The values that demarcate the boundary between any two of the classes are held constant throughout the progression of maps. Over time, one ...
  http://www.schs.state.nc.us/data/hsa/gonorrheanote.htm
*  Plus it
Incidence rates of CHD were substantially higher in this type 1 diabetic population at ∼1% per year compared with general population incidence rates of 0.1-0.5% per year in those aged 25-74 years (22,23). This compares favorably with the World Health Organization Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes with incidence rates of 1.6 and 1.2% per year in men and women, respectively (9), and 2% per year in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study.. Higher CHD incidence rates were found in women compared with men in the EURODIAB PCS. Our study suggests clear differences in risk factors predicting CHD in men compared with women, with WHR (and smoking) more important in men and FTG (or HDL cholesterol) and systolic BP more important in women. The EDC study demonstrated the importance of overt nephropathy, WHR, diabetes duration, hypertension, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol in predicting CHD, but a sex-specific analysis ...
  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/2/530
*  Plus it
To assess the validity of pooling populations of cancer survivors from different studies to study second cancer risk factors, we conducted three analyses. First, to evaluate representativeness of the populations of cancer survivors for each cohort, we compared the observed number of cancer diagnoses with that expected in the general population from which the cohort was drawn using a standardized incidence ratio (SIR; observed/expected; Supplementary Table S2). Expected numbers of cancers in each cohort were calculated by multiplying age-, sex-, race-, and calendar year-specific person-years at risk within the cohort by corresponding population-specific incidence rates. Second, to evaluate differences in cancer incidence rates between studies, we compared first primary cancer incidence across cohorts by calculating cohort-specific incidence rates standardized to the pooled cohort of cancer-free individuals at baseline based ...
  http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/23/8/1598
*  Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa....
Patients eligible for inclusion numbered 1480; of these, 11% died during ART treatment, 11% were lost to follow-up, and 6% transferred out. Median follow-up was 2.1 years (range, 1.0-4.5 years). There were a total of 203 incident TB infections (7.3 cases/per 100 person years [p100py]), of which 64% were microbiologically confirmed. At baseline, 448 (30%) persons were considered to have prevalent TB. The number of new TB cases was the highest during the first 4 months of ART at 18.8 cases p100py (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.2-23.3). In multivariate analysis, the incidence rate during the early ART period remained significantly higher than in the late ART period (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6; P=0.03), even adjusting for a history of TB, baseline CD4 cell count, and updated viral load. During long-term ART, TB incidence was highest during person-time accrued within the CD4 cell stratum of ,100 cells/mL (16.7 cases p100py; 95% CI: 12.8-21.6). At ...
  http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=jl-57-02
*  Incidence Rates Over Time | CureSearch
Even as the cure rate continues to improve, the incidence of childhood cancer has been steadily increasing over the last few decades.
  https://curesearch.org/Incidence-Rates-Over-Time
*  Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by County (2006 - 2010) - NCMI
In the U.S., breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. It can occur in both men and women, but it is rare in men. Each year there are about 100 times more new cases of breast cancer in women than in men.. ...
  http://communitymappingforhealthequity.org/map-of-the-day/breast-cancer-incidence-rates-by-county-2006-2010/
*  BED estimates of HIV incidence must be adjusted : AIDS
When ε = 0, our baseline BED incidence was an impossibly high 9.5% and, against reasonable expectation, was a nondecreasing function of age, independent of the assumed value of Ω (Fig. 1b). Conversely, the Hargrove adjustment, with ε = 0.052, gave plausible incidence estimates, decreasing with age as expected [2].. Thus, insisting that ε = 0 implies unrealistically long estimates of the mean window period and an inappropriate age-specific incidence function. The problem can be resolved by considering the results for 918 HIV positive women whose baseline CD4 level (,350 cells/μl) suggested that the majority had already been HIV positive for more than 2 years. One year later, when most had then been positive for more than 3 years, 35 tested recent by BED. This implies at least one of the following scenarios: There are window periods more than 3 years, contrary to Brookmeyer's assumption but consistent with other evidence (Fig. 1a); in some cases ODn had ...
  https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/09240/BED_estimates_of_HIV_incidence_must_be_adjusted.18.aspx
*  Changing Incidence and Survival for Heart Failure in a Well-Defined Older Population, 1970-1974 and 1990-1994 | Circulation
This retrospective study of a well-defined population provides insight into the epidemic increase in HF observed among older persons in the United States and elsewhere between the 1970s and 1990s. Specifically, comparing cohorts in 1970 to 1974 and 1990 to 1994, we found evidence of increased incidence in men and women, with trends toward larger period effects on incidence with increasing age and among men. Overall survival among men with HF improved significantly, and there was marginal evidence of improved survival among women when we controlled for comorbid conditions.. These findings may be readily compared with recent HF trend studies conducted in Framingham, Mass, and Rochester, Minn, both of which also used the widely recognized Framingham clinical criteria. The Framingham study reported declining age-adjusted incidence in women when comparing the broad periods 1950 to 1969 and 1970 to 1999; however, between 1970 and 1999, the period of national ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/113/6/799
*  Trends in childhood cancer incidence in the U.S. (1992-2004) - Linabery - 2007 - Cancer - Wiley Online Library
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence - SEER 13 Regs Limited-Use (1992-2004). Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2007, based on the November 2006 submission. Available at URL ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.23169/references
*  DiVA - Search result
CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 519,978 participants from 10 countries between 1992 and 2000, of whom 385,747 donated blood. By 2006, 899 lung cancer cases were identified and 1770 control participants were individually matched by country, sex, date of birth, and date of blood collection. Serum levels were measured for 6 factors of 1-carbon metabolism and cotinine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer by serum levels of 4 B vitamins (B(2), B(6), folate [B(9)], and B(12)), methionine, and homocysteine. RESULTS: Within the entire EPIC cohort, the age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer (standardized to the world population, aged 35-79 ...
  http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22authority-person%3A5321%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=
*  Internet Archive Search: subject:"mastectomy"
Now these days, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer occur in females which are diagnosed as ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma. It also occurs in males, however it is more prevalent in females and quite rare in males but incidence trends are same for both genders. It is one of the leading causes of mortality in many developing countries and has a high incidence rate in developed nations including England, Japan, US and many other European countries. Since, developed nations... ...
  http://archive.org/search.php?query=subject%3A%22mastectomy%22
*  Nighttime light level co-distributes with breast cancer incidence worldwide | SpringerLink
Breast cancer incidence varies widely among countries of the world for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether country-level light at night (LAN) is associated with incidence. We compared inc
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10552-010-9624-4
*  NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
  https://www.technologynetworks.com/genomics/news/nih-study-offers-insight-into-why-cancer-incidence-increases-with-age-203567
*  Neighborhood as a Risk Factor for CKD
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that have most increased worldwide in the last 20 years. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. A series in the Clinical Kidney Journal (CKJ) identifies CKD hotspots, defined as countries, regions, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD, and, thus, help find risk factors.. ...
  http://www.ndt-educational.org/page-21-120-994-993--neighborhoodasariskfactorforckd.php