*  Individual variation in inbreeding depression: the roles of inbreeding history and mutation. | Genetics
We use mutation-selection recursion models to evaluate the relative contributions of mutation and inbreeding history to variation among individuals in inbreeding depression and the ability of experiments to detect associations between individual inbreeding depression and mating system genotypes within populations. Poisson mutation to deleterious additive or recessive alleles generally produces far more variation among individuals in inbreeding depression than variation in history of inbreeding, regardless of selfing rate. Moreover, variation in inbreeding depression can be higher in a completely outcrossing or selfing population than in a mixed-mating population. In an initially random mating population, the spread of a dominant selfing modifier with no pleiotropic effects on male outcross success causes a measurable increase in inbreeding depression variation if its selfing rate is large ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/141/3/1209
*  Inbreeding Avoidance Resource | Learn About, Share and Discuss Inbreeding Avoidance at like2do.com
Inbreeding Avoidance Resource at like2do.com | Learn the facts on Inbreeding Avoidance. Watch videos, join the discussion and find answers on Inbreeding Avoidance.
  http://www.like2do.com/learn?s=Inbreeding_avoidance
*  Inbreeding depression - Wikipedia
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations. For example, the outcrossing nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis remanei has been demonstrated to suffer severely from inbreeding ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inbreeding_depression
*  Inbreeding effects on reproductive outcome in a Sudanese population | ScholarBank@NUS
Saha, N.,Hamad, R.E.,Mohammed, S. (1990). Inbreeding effects on reproductive outcome in a Sudanese population. Human Heredity 40 (4) : 208-212. ScholarBank@NUS Repository ...
  http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/48002
*  Estimates of genetic parameters and effect of inbreeding on milk yield and composition in South African Jersey cows
MAIWASHE, A.; NEPHAWE, K.A. and THERON, H.E.. Estimates of genetic parameters and effect of inbreeding on milk yield and composition in South African Jersey cows. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2008, vol.38, n.2, pp.119-125. ISSN 2221-4062.. The effect of inbreeding on the 305-d yields of milk, fat and protein, and the percentages of fat and protein in the first three lactations was estimated using records on the South African Jersey cows that participated in the National Dairy Animal Improvement Scheme. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated using the entire pedigree records of the Jersey breed and ranged from 0 to 42%. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. The statistical model included the fixed effects of herd-year-season, age of the cow at calving, calving interval, inbreeding as a discrete or continuous variable and random effects of direct additive genetic, permanent environment of the cow and the residual effects. ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0375-15892008000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Dispersal as a means of inbreeding avoidance in a wild bird population | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B:...
Using a large and long-term dataset that allowed the estimation of many dispersal events for wild great tits, we found that birds mating with kin disperse shorter distances than those who outbreed. Moreover, males and females that do not disperse far are substantially more likely to inbreed than individuals dispersing longer distances. Hence, we show that there is a direct relationship between natal dispersal distances and the likelihood of inbreeding, for both males and females. Below, we discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the operation and evolution of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms and dispersal in general.. Hansson et al. (2007) suggested that, in most situations, dispersal should be a sufficient inbreeding avoidance mechanism; however, direct evidence for a link between dispersal and inbreeding is scarce. Greenwood et al. (1978) showed a trend for reduced natal dispersal distances of birds mating with kin ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1635/703
*  Animal Behavior/Inbreeding - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Inbreeding: refers to (preferential) mating between biological relatives. As relatives (i.e., ancestors of the first individuals are shared with those of the second individual), they carry genes which are "identical by descent"; extreme inbreeding: mating between sibs, half-sibs, parent-offspring Outbreeding: (preferential) mating between non-relatives Positive assortative mating: mating among individuals who share particular genes or phenotypes Negative assortative mating: mating among individuals who do not share particular genes or phenotypes Inbreeding Coefficients: Individual inbreeding coefficient (i.e., Pedigree inbreeding): F represents the probability that the offspring is homozygous due to identity by descent (ibd) at a randomly chosen autosomal locus, ranges in value from 0 (no locus ibd) to 1 (all loci ibd). Significant factors for pedigfree inbreeding are Factors which determine the probability ...
  https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Inbreeding
*  Seasonal stress and inbreeding | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Our 3-year field study (2006-2009) using captive populations of D. melanogaster is the first field study to investigate the relationship between inbreeding depression and seasonal fluctuations in stress level. We found that stress levels were on average fourfold higher in the winter compared with the summer, and that this higher stress level increased the inbreeding depression affecting population productivity from 32 per cent in the summer to 65 per cent in the winter. Moreover, this covariation of stress level and inbreeding depression conformed to the same linear relationship seen in experimental Drosophila laboratory studies of stress and inbreeding (figure 2). The observation that inbreeding depression based on population productivity in the field follows the same relationship as inbreeding depression based on larval survival in the laboratory suggests that even in complex environments stress and ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/06/19/rspb.2012.1018
*  The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty
The kings of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty (1516-1700) frequently married close relatives in such a way that uncle-niece, first cousins and other consanguineous unions were prevalent in that dynasty. In the historical literature, it has been suggested that inbreeding was a major cause responsible for the extinction of the dynasty when the king Charles II, physically and mentally disabled, died in 1700 and no children were born from his two marriages, but this hypothesis has not been examined from a genetic perspective. In this article, this hypothesis is checked by computing the inbreeding coefficient (F) of the Spanish Habsburg kings from an extended pedigree up to 16 generations in depth and involving more than 3,000 individuals. The inbreeding coefficient of the Spanish Habsburg kings increased strongly along generations from 0.025 for king Philip I, the founder of the dynasty, to 0.254 for Charles II and several members of the dynasty had ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0005174
*  MUTATIONAL MELTDOWN IN SELFING ARABIDOPSIS LYRATA - Willi - 2012 - Evolution - Wiley Online Library
Why is self-fertilization in hermaphrodites relatively rare? One hypothesis is that inbreeding load must be low to enable the evolution of selfing (Maynard Smith 1978; Lande and Schemske 1985). Once selfing has evolved, inbreeding load is exposed to purging and should further decline. This is especially true for load caused by recessive mutations with large deleterious effects because of an increase in overall homozygosity levels (Lande and Schemske 1985). These two ideas together predict that selfing populations should have reduced inbreeding load, well below 0.5 (Lande and Schemske 1985). My results for A. lyrata do not support this prediction. Although the inbreeding load was indeed below 0.5 in selfing populations, it was equally low in outcrossing populations.. This finding of low inbreeding load in both selfing and outcrossing populations leads to three important conclusions. First, purging must have been an important ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01818.x/full?globalMessage=0
*  Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males: News tips from the American ... ( Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an...)
... Bizarre insect inbreeding signals an end to males ...A bizarre form of inbreeding could spell the end of males in one insec...Andy Gardner and Laura Ross The Evolution of Hermaphroditism by an I... ...,Bizarre,insect,inbreeding,signals,an,end,to,males:,News,tips,from,the,American,Naturalist,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Bizarre-insect-inbreeding-signals-an-end-to-males-3A-News-tips-from-the-American-Naturalist-20533-1/
*  THE DOWNSIDE OF INBREEDING IN TIBETAN TERRIERS
A common result of inbreeding is 'inbreeding depression,' typified by small litter size or difficulty producing or rearing young. Bitches from families that consistently produce small litters may be suffering inbreeding depression. Animals which can only be bred or raise their puppies if they receive extraordinary human assistance are poor breeding candidates. This is not to say that people shouldn't properly house and care for their animals, but if a dog is indifferent to bitches in standing heat or a bitch needs to be physically restrained to keep her from resorting to fight or flight in an attempt to prevent mating, or won't settle without veterinary intervention, or is apt to kill or damage her puppies through intent or neglect, these are signs of inbreeding depression and that animal shouldn't be bred. Breeders should not go to excessive, near surgical, lengths to control the environment for newborns, nor should they use heroic measures ...
  http://siddhartha-tt.com/downsideofinbreeding.htm
*  Exact inbreeding coefficient and effective size of finite populations under partial sib mating. | Genetics
An exact recurrence equation for inbreeding coefficient is derived for a partially sib-mated population of N individuals mated in N/2 pairs. From the equation, a formula for effective size (Ne) taking second order terms of 1/N into consideration is derived. When the family sizes are Poisson or equally distributed, the formula reduces to Ne = [(4 - 3 beta) N/(4 - 2 beta)] + 1 or Ne = [(4 - 3 beta) N/(2 - 2 beta)] - 8/(4 - 3 beta), approximately. For the special case of sib-mating exclusion and Poisson distribution of family size, the formula simplifies to Ne = N + 1, which differs from the previous results derived by many authors by a value of one. Stochastic simulations are run to check our results where disagreements with others are involved. ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/140/1/357
*  Reproductive isolation and inbreeding (Page 1) - Evolution - Ask a Biologist Q&A
The answer is indeed different for different animals so hard to answer this in any quantitative way. However, in basic terms inbreeding (mating among relatives) is more likely to occur as populations become smaller and more fragmented (with reduced dispersal among sub-populations). Often, but not always, inbreeding results in 'inbreeding depression' which is a loss of evolutionary fitness (i.e. higher mortality risk and/or lower reproductive output). This happens because recessive deleterious alleles are more likely to come together in the homozygous state (so that the deleterious effecs are felt) in the offspring of related parents. The amount of inbreedfing depression in a population is therefore dependent on 1) the amount of inbreeding and 2) the load of deleterious mutations in the population. Both of these factors vary a lot among different animal populations.. ...
  http://www.askabiologist.org.uk/answers/viewtopic.php?pid=31993
*  Reproductive isolation and inbreeding (Page 1) - Evolution - Ask a Biologist Q&A
The answer is indeed different for different animals so hard to answer this in any quantitative way. However, in basic terms inbreeding (mating among relatives) is more likely to occur as populations become smaller and more fragmented (with reduced dispersal among sub-populations). Often, but not always, inbreeding results in 'inbreeding depression' which is a loss of evolutionary fitness (i.e. higher mortality risk and/or lower reproductive output). This happens because recessive deleterious alleles are more likely to come together in the homozygous state (so that the deleterious effecs are felt) in the offspring of related parents. The amount of inbreedfing depression in a population is therefore dependent on 1) the amount of inbreeding and 2) the load of deleterious mutations in the population. Both of these factors vary a lot among different animal populations.. ...
  http://www.askabiologist.org.uk/answers/viewtopic.php?pid=32026
*  Gejala Inbreeding dalam Penangkaran Satwa Liar
Captive breeding of some endangered wildlife species is very important, because the extinction of small population is almost inevitable, therefore, the genetic aspects of this breeding program should be made top priority to be observed. The small population size of any species tend to increase the degradation degree of heterozygosity as a consequence of inbreeding. Genetic variation and the degree of heterozygosity of natural wildlife population are higher than those of inbred population (in captive breeding) of the same species. Some inbreeding depression in small closed population as well as in captive animals are described in this paper, e.g. viability depression, fecundity depression, sex ratio depression. To enhance the survival of a species in captive breeding, some strategies are suggested to be carried out, e.g. to avoid starting a population with animals which are already inbred, to prevent starting a population with related animals ...
  http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/10964
*  Is there inbreeding in the animal world? | GreenAnswers
Yes. Scientists have observed inbreeding in animal species in the wild. This has been observed in mammal, insect and bird species. The effects of inbreeding are quite negative for the animals that engage in it (poor health of newborns, low survival rates) so it is not often observed (and thus it has been difficult to demonstrate the negative effects) in the wild, but it has been done. ...
  http://greenanswers.com/question/there-inbreeding-animal-world/
*  Inbreeding brought down Spanish dynasty › News in Science (ABC Science)
The Habsburg dynasty, which ruled Spain during the height of its power and influence, may have been brought down by genetic disorders caused by inbreeding, according to a new study.. The 174-year dynasty was replaced by the French Bourbons in 1700 when King Charles II died at the age of 39 without offspring.. Spanish researchers computed "the inbreeding coefficient" of the Habsburg kings to conclude that "a high incidence consanguineous marriages", or those between two close relatives, may have caused genetic disorders in Charles II.. Charles was physically and mentally disabled and disfigured, the researchers noted in their study, published in the journal PLoS ONE.. According to contemporary writings, he was unable to speak until the age of four, could not walk until the age of eight, and during the last years of his life he barely could stand up and suffered from hallucinations and convulsive episodes, it says.. "It is speculated that the simultaneous occurrence in Charles ...
  http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/04/16/2544396.htm?site=science&topic=latest&listaction=unsubscribe
*  Estimating relatedness and inbreeding using molecular markers and pedigrees: the effect of demographic history - Robinson -...
Estimates of inbreeding and relatedness are commonly calculated using molecular markers, although the accuracy of such estimates has been questioned. As a further complication, in many situations, such estimates are required in populations with reduced genetic diversity, which is likely to affect their accuracy. We investigated the correlation between microsatellite- and pedigree-based coefficients of inbreeding and relatedness in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster that had passed through bottlenecks to manipulate their genetic diversity. We also used simulations to predict expected correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates and to investigate the influence of linkage between loci and null alleles. Our empirical data showed lower correlations between marker- and pedigree-based estimates in our control (nonbottleneck) population than were predicted by our simulations or those found in similar studies. Correlations were weaker in bottleneck ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.12529/abstract
*  Genetic purging - Wikipedia
Genetic purging is the reduction of the frequency of a deleterious allele occurred by an increased efficiency of natural selection that is prompted by inbreeding. Purging occurs because many deleterious alleles only express all their harmful effect in homozygosis. During inbreeding, as related individuals mate, they produce offspring that are more likely to be homozygous, so that these deleterious alleles appear more often in homozygous individuals that are less fit and that pass fewer copies of their genes to future generations. This allows natural selection to purge the deleterious alleles. Purging reduces both the overall number of recessive deleterious alleles and the decline of mean fitness caused by inbreeding (the inbreeding depression for fitness). The term "purge" is sometimes used for selection against deleterious alleles in a general way. It would avoid ambiguity to use "purifying selection" in that general context, and to reserve ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_purging
*  Breeding Matters III - Inbreeding vs. Line Breeding - On Pasture
In line-breeding the idea is to always keep the amount that any one animal contributes to the DNA of any descendent at or below 50%. With inbreeding you regularly will find a higher degree of influence. For instance, a sire/daughter mating will result in an offspring which carries 75% of it's DNA from the sire and only 25% from the maternal dam. Interestingly, before the advent of genetic testing for recessive traits the only way to statistically ensure genetic "purity" of a bull/ram/buck etc. was to breed that bull to 35 of his own daughters concurrently. If no genetic defects show up in any of the offspring, the bull is 99.7% likely to be genetic defect free.. In any case, mating two full siblings together does not qualify as inbreeding because the level of influence any one of the grandparents exercises is still only 50% on the individual resultant calf from that full-sib mating.. In conversation with Dr. tatiana Stanton (yes, she spells her given name entirely in lower ...
  https://onpasture.com/2014/10/20/breeding-matters-iii-inbreeding-vs-line-breeding/
*  To prevent inbreeding, flowering plants have evolved multiple genes, resear... ( A research team led by Teh-hui Kao p...)
...A research team led by Teh-hui Kao professor of biochemistry and mole... Humans have mechanisms to prevent inbreeding that are in part cultura...,To,prevent,inbreeding,,flowering,plants,have,evolved,multiple,genes,,research,reveals,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/To-prevent-inbreeding--flowering-plants-have-evolved-multiple-genes--research-reveals-16286-1/
*  Sequential hermaphroditism - Wikipedia
In the context of the plant sexuality of flowering plants (angiosperms), there are two forms of dichogamy: protogyny-female function precedes male function-and protandry-male function precedes female function.. Historically, dichogamy has been regarded as a mechanism for reducing inbreeding (e.g., Darwin, 1862). However, a survey of the angiosperms found that self-incompatible (SI) plants, which are incapable of inbreeding, were as likely to be dichogamous as were self-compatible (SC) plants (Bertin, 1993). This finding led to a reinterpretation of dichogamy as a more general mechanism for reducing the impact of pollen-pistil interference on pollen import and export (reviewed in Lloyd & Webb, 1986; Barrett, 2002). Unlike the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, which focused on female function, this interference-avoidance hypothesis considers both reproductive functions.. In many hermaphroditic species, the close physical proximity of anthers and stigma makes ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protogynous
*  Fitness of heterozygotes of deleterious recessive mutations in the mo" by E L. Green
Body-Weight, Crosses-Genetic, Female, Genes-Recessive, Heterozygote: re, Homozygote, Infertility-Female: fg, Lethal-Dose-50, Longevity, Male, Mice, Mutation, Radiation-Effects, Radiation-Genetics, Reproduction. ...
  http://mouseion.jax.org/stfb1970_1979/152/