*  Genetic content of Influenza H3N2 vaccine seeds
Cooperation between the hemagglutinin of avian viruses and the matrix protein of human influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2002 Feb; ... Influenza virus assembly: effect of influenza virus glycoproteins on the membrane association of M1 protein. J Virol. 2000 Sep; ... Reference viruses for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine preparation. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2007 Jan;1(1):5-9. ... among polymerase subunit proteins is a restricting factor in reassortment between equine H7N7 and human H3N2 influenza viruses ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2928332/
*  Scientists Identify Lab-Made Proteins That Neutralize Multiple Strains of Seasonal and Pandemic Flu Viruses | WebWire
... including the H5N1 avian virus, the 1918 pandemic influenza virus and seasonal H1N1... ... Scientists have identified a small family of lab-made proteins that neutralize a broad range of influenza A viruses, ... including the H5N1 avian virus, the 1918 pandemic influenza virus and seasonal H1N1 flu viruses. These human monoclonal ... Structural and functional bases for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and human influenza A viruses. Nature Structural & ...
  https://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=88030
*  H5N1 threat puts human flu back in...( The emergence of the avian influenza vi...)
Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of animals and cause influenza... Studies of influenza A led to the design of Relenza ... and Tamiflu two ...,H5N1,threat,puts,human,flu,back,in,spotlight,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently deva... Until recently many immunologists were relatively ... proteins, which are used to name the viruses, such as H5N1. The virus uses the HA protein to attach itself to a cell it is ...
  http://news.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-3/H5N1-threat-puts-human-flu-back-in-spotlight-4924-1/
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Kenny Roose
... is conserved in human and avian influenza A viruses and is being pursued as a component for a universal influenza A vaccine. To ... Matrix protein 2 (M2) of influenza A virus is a tetrameric type III membrane protein that functions as a proton-selective ... M2e is highly conserved in both human and avian influenza A viruses. The low immunogenicity against natural M2e can be overcome ... induced robust M2e-specific serum IgG and protected BALB/c mice against challenge with human and avian influenza A viruses. ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Kenny_Roose
*  Proteolysis | definition of proteolysis by Medical dictionary
Genomic signatures of human versus avian influenza A viruses. The sudden cessation of this critical supply at the time of birth ... The amino-terminal one-third of the influenza virus PA protein is responsible for the induction of proteolysis.. ... The identified proteins are divided into the several groups as follows: proteins related to protein folding, proteolysis, and ... the splitting of protein molecules by the HYDROLYSIS of their PEPTIDE BONDS.. proteolysis. the splitting of proteins by ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/proteolysis
*  Influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein Summary Report | CureHunter
... an influenza A virus protein that localizes in mitochondria and induces cell death; amino acid sequence in first source ... Influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein: encoded by the +1 reading frame of the PB1 gene; ... influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein contributes to viral pathogenicity and is present in most human and avian influenza isolates. ... Influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein ...
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC442816-Influenza-A-virus-PB1-F2-protein.do
*  Pandemic H1N1/09 virus - Wikipedia
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... "Influenza virus polymerase basic protein 1 interacts with influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 at multiple sites". J ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandemic_H1N1/09_virus
*  Scripps Research Institute Announces Interim Leadership
... program focuses on roles of glycan binding proteins in the immune system and adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans ... Marletta's laboratory focuses on the interface of chemistry and biology with emphasis on the study of protein function and ...
  http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/621848/?sc=rsla
*  How a virus can morph into a killer - Technology & science - Science - LiveScience | NBC News
Scientists study how viruses jump from birds to humans, in order to understand the roots of a pandemic and develop defenses ... sustained human-to-human spread.. Understanding virusesIf a pig infected with human influenza A virus becomes infected by avian ... This would yield a new virus that has one or both surface proteins from the avian virus, but most of the genes from the human ... Avian influenza A viruses can transmit from animals to humans in two ways - either directly from a bird or from avian virus- ...
  http://www.nbcnews.com/id/10181563/ns/technology_and_science-science/
*  Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Transmission between Finches and Poultry - Volume 21, Number 4-April 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease...
... and the virus has caused >450 infections in humans. The mode of subtype H7N9 virus transmission between avian species ... and humans, can be productively infected with the virus. We demonstrate that interspecies transmission of H7N9 virus occurs ... H7N9 virus was recently detected in a wild sparrow in Shanghai, China, and passerine birds, such as finches, which share space ... It is therefore conceivable that passerine birds may serve as vectors for dissemination of H7N9 virus to domestic poultry. ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/14-1703_article
*  Human infection by avian influenza A H5N1 | HKMJ
Key words: Hemagglutinins; Humans; Influenza A virus, avian; Influenza A virus, human ... is unlikely to abate because of the enormous number of backyard farms providing poultry as the main source of food protein in ... This increases the risk of the emergence of a reassortant pandemic influenza virus with improved human-to-human ... The Southeast Asian outbreak of the highly lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infection in humans ...
  http://www.hkmj.org/abstracts/v11n3/189.htm
*  Frontiers | Pathogenesis and Phylogenetic Analyses of Two Avian Influenza H7N1 Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds | Microbiology
H7N1 viruses of the Eurasian branch could infect mammals and may even have the potential to infect humans. Therefore, it is ... To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses ... To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses ... The results of this study demonstrated that two low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N1 viruses of the Eurasian branch could ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01066/full
*  Avian Flu Diary: EID Journal: Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada
The authors also mention 2 novel mutations, R189K and G221R, in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein (R193K and G225R in H3 numbering ... Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada. To the Editor: In December 2013, influenza associated ... while human adapted influenza viruses bind preferentially to alpha 2,6 receptor cells which are found in the human upper ... Avian adapted flu viruses, like the H5N1 virus, bind preferentially to the alpha 2,3 receptor cells found in the ...
  http://afludiary.blogspot.com/2014/08/eid-journal-potential-human-adaptation.html
*  Viruses for a healthy pregnancy ( Sequences of DNA in the human genome...)
Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens curre...,Viruses,for,a,healthy,pregnancy,medicine,medical news ... Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira...Retrovirus infections represent the most intimate host ... Influenza: Insights into cell specificity of human vs. avian viruses. 5. Common human viruses threaten endangered great apes. 6 ... McMaster test detects the most prevalent respiratory viruses. 7. Penn study finds pro-death proteins required to regulate ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Viruses-for-a-healthy-pregnancy-10338-1/
*  Lpmhealthcare » Influenza 2012
Title: Novel host-pathogen interactions between human proteins and NS1 of epidemic avian influenza virus ... Title: Effect of different glycosylation patterns of the haemagglutinin glycoprotein of H7N1 avian influenza viruses on virus ... Title: The human Transmembrane Protease Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) cleaves the haemagglutinins of all Group 2 Influenza viruses in a ... Title: The potential of live bird markets to maintain and spread avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: a survey of markets in ...
  http://lpmhealthcare.com/influenza-2012/
*  Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1
... the extracellular domain of M2 protein human and avian influenza A virus provides new information for bivalent influenza ... Keywords: DNA vaccines, M2 protein, influenza A virus H1N1 subtype, influenza A virus H3N2 subtype, influenza A virus H5N1 ... 5. Zebedee SL, Lamb RA Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in ... World Health Organization Global Influenza Program Surveillance Network Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2725899/?lang=en-ca
*  avian influenza
This avian influenza virus has never been isolated from humans.. Influenza A viruses with the H7 hemagglutinin protein ... Yet another avian influenza virus, H10N8, infects humans. To the collection of avian influenza viruses known to sporadically ... First human infections with avian influenza H7N9 virus. Fourteen people in China have been infected with avian influenza H7N9 ... Avian influenza H7N7 virus outbreak: Lessons for H7N9. An outbreak of high-pathogenicity avian influenza H7N7 virus that took ...
  http://www.virology.ws/tag/avian-influenza/
*  The Risks and Benefits of Mutant Flu Studies - Scientific American
Research describing two mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza that spread between mammals is likely to be published in its ... It is a subtype of the influenza A virus--the most virulent of the influenza viruses to affect humans. These viruses are ... Kawaoka and his team, whose work has been accepted by Nature, created a chimeric virus with the hemagglutinin protein from H5N1 ... The Risks and Benefits of Mutant Flu StudiesResearch describing two mutant strains of H5N1 avian influenza that spread between ...
  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-risks-and-benefits-of-muta/
*  Expression of importin-α isoforms in human nasal mucosa: implication for adaptation of avian influenza A viruses to human host ...
... importin-α proteins may act as another possible barrier during influenza viruses adaptation to the new host species. ... The preference of importin-α3 of avian influenza virus and -α7 isoform of human strains during replication in human cells was ... Influenza A virusImportin-α1 isoformImportin-α3 isoformImportin-α7 isoformHuman nasal mucosaHuman lung cellsHuman respiratory ... Expression of importin-α isoforms in human nasal mucosa: implication for adaptation of avian influenza A viruses to human host ...
  https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-016-0546-y
*  Microbiology Society Journals | Viral reassortment and transmission after co-infection of pigs with classical H1N1 and triple...
... human [polymerase basic 1 (PB1)] and avian (polymerase acidic and PB2) influenza viruses forming a constellation of genes that ... with most of the viruses containing TRIG from the Tx/98 virus. Interestingly, only the intact H3N2 Tx/98 virus was transmitted ... Four different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2) of influenza virus were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... This study hypothesized that maintenance of the TRIG cassette confers a selective advantage to the virus. To test this ...
  http://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.021402-0
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
Novel strains that cause pandemics arise from avian influenza virus by genetic reassortment among influenza viruses and two ... The innate immune system recognizes invaded virus through multiple mechanisms. Viral non-structural NS1 protein is a ... Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both ... Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ...
  http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?133837803022751/hsa05164.args
*  Influenza A virus - Wikipedia
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. HA: ( ... and the neuraminidase protein is similar to that of the current H3N2 viruses. H9N2 Low pathogenic avian influenza A (H9N2) ... that the 1918 pandemic virus is more closely related to the avian influenza A virus than are other human influenza viruses." ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_A_virus
*  Biological and Structural Characterization of a Host-Adapting Amino Acid in Influenza Virus
Sequences in influenza A virus PB2 protein that determine productive infection for an avian influenza virus in mouse and human ... Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air. Proc Natl Acad ... and for efficient replication of a mixed human/avian influenza virus (with the polymerase and nucleoproteins of avian virus ... influenza viruses isolated from humans, are selected during replication of H5N1 viruses in humans [7], and facilitate virus ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2916879/
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and...
Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus ... and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human ... infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha ... Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/4/7327
*  Phylogenetic Analysis of H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus Based on a Novel Mathematical Descriptor
Similar to Figure 3, the PA proteins of 7 virus strains that infected humans are grouped together in a clade in Figure 4, which ... Finally, we construct a 3D graphical representation of protein sequence based on the graph and (. and 5) as follows: where is ... and 21 PB2 protein sequences to construct the phylogenetic tree for H7N9 avian influenza virus. These proteins come from 30 ... R. Gao, B. Cao, Y. Hu et al., "Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus," The New England Journal of ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/519787/