*  Rod cell - Wikipedia
... while the rod outer segment (abbreviated to ROS), which is pointed toward the back of the eye, contains the light-absorbing ... On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and ... Rods are much more common than cones, with about 100 million rod cells compared to 7 million cone cells. Like cones, rod cells ... A human rod cell is about 2 microns in diameter and 100 microns long. Rods are not all morphologically the same; in mice, rods ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_cell
*  Rhodopsin - Wikipedia
Thousands of rhodopsin molecules are found in each outer segment disc of the host rod cell. Retinal is produced in the retina ... Rhodopsin of the rods most strongly absorbs green-blue light and, therefore, appears reddish-purple, which is why it is also ... In humans, it is regenerated fully in about 30 minutes; after which rods are more sensitive. Rhodopsin was discovered by Franz ... In the rod outer segment, Meta III decays into separate all-trans-retinal and opsin. A second product of Meta II decay is an ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodopsin
*  Photoreceptor cell - Wikipedia
... is the outer segment, the part of the photoreceptor that absorbs light. Outer segments are actually modified cilia that contain ... The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells, and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies ... unlike rods. Comparison of human rod and cone cells, from Eric Kandel et al. in Principles of Neural Science. Photoreceptors do ... rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoreceptor_cell
*  Rhodopsinn
It is located in the disks in the outer segments of rod cells. When a photon is absorbed by the protein's chromophore, retinal ... This family of proteins provides many drug targets for the treatment of human disease, and our structure is providing a new ... This causes the cells to polarize and starts the nervous signal. We have recently solved the three-dimensional structure of ... eventually causes a reduction in the levels of c-GMP and the associated closing of ion channels in the rod cells. ...
  http://faculty.washington.edu/stenkamp/rhodopsin.html
*  Researchers Use Human Stem Cells to Create Light-Sensitive Retina in a Dish
Johns Hopkins researchers say they have created a three-dimensional complement of human retinal tissue in the laboratory, which ... notably includes functioning photoreceptor cells capable of responding to light, the first step in the process of converting it ... Moreover, the photoreceptors were mature enough to develop outer segments, a structure essential for photoreceptors to function ... Human retinas contain two major photoreceptor cell types called rods and cones. The vast majority of photoreceptors in humans ...
  http://www.newswise.com/articles/researchers-use-human-stem-cells-to-create-light-sensitive-retina-in-a-dish
*  September 2007 - Fight Aging!
"Rod cells make up the majority of photoreceptors in the human eye ... Rod cells contain tiny organelles called the 'outer ... segment,' which contain about 1,000 flattened discs containing rhodopsin - a visual pigment that absorbs light. Each day, our ... Take this for example, published at Cell Stem Cell: "Reprogramming of somatic cells to the pluripotent stem cell state may ... Our cells are constantly being replaced in vast numbers: the human body typically contains about a hundred trillion cells, and ...
  https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2007/09/
*  Visual phototransduction - Wikipedia
Finally, it is oxidized to 11-cis retinal before traveling back to the rod outer segment where it is again conjugated to an ... These cells contain a chromophore (11-cis retinal, the aldehyde of Vitamin A1 and light-absorbing portion) bound to cell ... Humans have a trichromatic visual system consisting of three unique systems, rods, mid and long-wavelength sensitive (red and ... It is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells, cone cells and photosensitive ganglion ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_phototransduction
*  The Mouse Crx 5′-Upstream Transgene Sequence Directs Cell-Specific and Developmentally Regulated Expression in Retinal...
... the outer segment, to catch the light. The outer segments of rods and cones are filled with light-absorbing visual pigments, ... Mutations of human CRX, which also is expressed in photoreceptor cells specifically in the retina, have been demonstrated to be ... rod;A), calbindin (horizontal cell; D), vimentin (Müller glia; G), HPC-1 (amacrine cell;J), chx10 (bipolar cell;M), and lacZ (B ... rod; A), chx10 (bipolar cell;D), calbindin (horizontal cell; G), vimentin (Müller glia; J), HPC-1 (amacrine cell; M), and lacZ ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/5/1640
*  Photoreceptor cell | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers |...
... is the outer segment, the part of the photoreceptor that absorbs light. Outer segments are actually modified cilia[8][9] that ... The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies ... Cells. * Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
  http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Photoreceptor_cell
*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases | HTML
A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform ... Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital ... we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human ... occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2646/htm
*  Cone cell - Wikipedia
... contains the light-absorbing materials. Like rods, the outer segments of cones have invaginations of their cell membranes that ... 1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Cones are less ... Like rods, each cone cell has a synaptic terminal, an inner segment, and an outer segment as well as an interior nucleus and ... The inner segment contains organelles and the cell's nucleus, while the outer segment, which is pointed toward the back of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone_cell
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
All-trans retinol is then transferred out of the outer segment and into neighboring cells by the specialized carrier ... Cultured human retinoblastoma tumorspheres of low passage or cells obtained from freshly harvested human retinoblastoma tumors ... is carried out by the rod and cone photoreceptor cells1-4. Rod photoreceptors are responsible for vision in dim light, cones in ... A photon absorbed by the visual pigment isomerizes the chromophore from 11-cis to all-trans. This photoisomerization brings ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/22216097/interactions-between-plasma-levels-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-insulin-like
*  human eye | Definition, Structure, & Function | Britannica.com
Human eye, specialized sense organ in humans that is capable of receiving visual images, which are relayed to the brain. ... When examined in the electron microscope, the outer segments of the rods and cones are seen to be composed of stacks of disks, ... and this contributes to the efficiency with which light is absorbed by the visual cell. ... The photosensitive cells are, in the human and in most vertebrate retinas, of two kinds, called rods and cones, the rods being ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/human-eye
*  Tetrachromacy - Wikipedia
... the rod cells may contribute to color vision, giving a small region of tetrachromacy in the color space; human rod cells' ... The oil droplets filter incident light before it reaches the visual pigment in outer segments of the photoreceptors. The four ... Some parts of the environment absorb UV light and therefore to UV-sensitive reindeer, appear to be black, strongly contrasting ... called cone cells in vertebrates as opposed to rod cells, which are lower intensity light receptors) with different absorption ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrachromacy
*  Anti-GNB1 antibody (ab3433) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal GNB1 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human, Mouse, Shp, Cow and Dm. Immunogen corresponding to ... The decrease of intracellular cGMP concentration causes the ion channels within the outer segment of the rod or cone to close, ... The subunit composition of transducin differs between different photoreceptor cells. Rod transducin consists of rod transducin ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human GNB1 aa 8-25.. Sequence: RQEAEQLKNQIRDARKAC (Peptide available as ab4972). Run BLAST ...
  http://www.abcam.com/gnb1-antibody-ab3433.html
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
All-trans retinol is then transferred out of the outer segment and into neighboring cells by the specialized carrier ... repeatable and controllable protocol works well in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells ... is carried out by the rod and cone photoreceptor cells1-4. Rod photoreceptors are responsible for vision in dim light, cones in ... A photon absorbed by the visual pigment isomerizes the chromophore from 11-cis to all-trans. This photoisomerization brings ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23894475/uvb-exposure-farm-animals-study-on-food-based-strategy-to-bridge-gap
*  Program Faculty | Neuroscience and Physiology | SUNY Upstate Medical University
The outer segment serves as a default destination for the trafficking of membrane proteins in photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2008 ... Light transduction is carried out in specialized cells (rods and cones) that express a group of proteins designed to ... 3613 Institute For Human Performance (IHP). 505 Irving Ave.. Syracuse, NY 13210. 315 464-8719. ... The visual pigments (opsins) are a large family of proteins that absorb light and initiate the intracellular signal ...
  http://upstate.edu/neuroscience-department/education/neuro/faculty.php?empID=knoxb
*  eyes facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about eyes
The electrical potential inside an individual rod changes detectably when one of its millions of rhodopsin molecules absorbs a ... so light has to pass through all the other layers of transparent neurons to reach the outer segments of the receptors, ... the ganglion cells, reliably produce full-blown impulses. The roughly 1.5 million ganglion cells have long axons, which run ... BODY, HUMAN ; 149. FACIAL FEATURES .. achromatopsy, achromatopsia color blindness. Also called acritochromacy .. acyanoblepsia ...
  http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/eyes
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
All-trans retinol is then transferred out of the outer segment and into neighboring cells by the specialized carrier ... We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina ... A photon absorbed by the visual pigment isomerizes the chromophore from 11-cis to all-trans. This photoisomerization brings ... Phototransduction takes place in the outer segment of the photoreceptor cell, a specialized compartment that contains a high ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/26196397/modeling-photo-bleaching-kinetics-to-create-high-resolution-maps-rod
*  Retinal pigment epithelium - Wikipedia
When viewed from the outer surface, these cells are smooth and hexagonal in shape. When seen in section, each cell consists of ... Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes: POS are exposed to constant photo-oxidative stress, and they go ... Melanosomes absorb the scattered light and thus diminish the photo-oxidative stress. The high perfusion of retina brings a high ... Directly beneath this epithelium is the neuroepithelium (i.e., rods and cones) passes jointly with the RPE. Both, combined, are ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinal_pigment_epithelium
*  Night vision - Wikipedia
In dark conditions only the rod cells have enough sensitivity to respond and to trigger vision. Rhodopsin in the human rods is ... and into the stack of ten photorecepting outer segments. The net effect of this anatomical change is to multiply the light ... Retinal undergoes an irreversible change in shape when it absorbs light; this change causes an alteration in the shape of the ... the outer layer of cells in the retina (the outer nuclear layer) in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the millions of rods ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_vision
*  Bird vision - Wikipedia
Many raptors have foveas with far more rods and cones than the human fovea (65,000/mm2 in American kestrel, 38,000 in humans) ... When the pigment absorbs light the retinal changes shape and alters the membrane potential of the cone cell affecting neurons ... The eye is divided internally by the lens into two main segments: the anterior segment and the posterior segment. The anterior ... The cornea, the outer covering of the eye, is relative flat and so of low refractive power. In a diurnal bird like the pigeon, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_vision
*  Having eye on | Article about having eye on by The Free Dictionary
Vision in Humans The... Explanation of having eye on ... Light striking the outer segments is absorbed by these pigments ... which consists of light-receptor cells, rods and cones, that effect color perception. In these cells occurs the transformation ... The Human Eye. Anatomy and Function. The human eye is a spheroid structure that rests in a bony cavity (socket, or orbit) on ... visual-pigment-containing outer segments of the rods and cones. ... The retina is a network of nerve cells, notably the rods and ...
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/having+eye+on
*  Patent US6146366 - Device for the treatment of macular degeneration and other eye disorders - Google Patents
The body of the device may be that of a band, a segment, a partial band, a plate, or, for that matter, any shape suitably ... a body adapted for association with the eye to manipulate the retina of the eye to effectively augment the photoreceptor cells ... The photoreceptor cells (or "vision receivers") 165 are of two types, namely, rods and cones. The rods outnumber the cones and ... 5, illustrated is a side view of the segment embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4. The segment 200 illustrates the ridge 314, the outer ...
  http://www.google.ca/patents/US6146366
*  Comparison of A2E Cyto- and Phototoxicity with all-trans-Retinal in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Kinetics of rod outer segment renewal in the developing mouse retina. J Cell Biol. 1973;58:650-661. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... 3a). The chromophore absorbs mostly in the UVA and in the short-wavelength range of visible light. No significant shift of the ... in cells irradiated for a longer time. Preincubation of human RPE cells with 50 μM atRal in the dark induced significant cell ... 9. Sun H, Nathans J. Stargardt's ABCR is localized to the disc membrane of retinal rod outer segments. Nat Genet. 1997;17:15-16 ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2910196/?lang=en-ca