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*  Anisogramma anomala - Wikipedia
The infection typically occurs at the apical bud during periods of high humidity that favor the pathogen. After the initial ... Wind driven water droplets and splashing spread the spores to new potential hosts. Anisogramma anomala's host is the European ... This fungal pathogen produces cankers made up of stromata. The stromata typically develop the second summer after the initial ... Anisogramma anomala is an ascomycete that has a two year disease cycle. Infection is thought to typically occur during the wet ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisogramma_anomala
*  Innate immune evasion strategies against Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (Review)
... this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a ... neoformans is typically acquired by inhaling spores or desiccated yeast from the environment (3). Following an initial ... 0.6 million cryptococcal meningitis cases each year result in mortality within 3 months of infection, even with treatment. In ... in the initial phase of infection (10).. To defend against C. neoformans infection in the initial phase, the host employs ...
  https://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/14/6/5243
*  Cyclaneusma needle cast - Wikipedia
After infection by Cyclaneusma, most pines do not display symptoms until 10 months after the initial infection. Symptoms ... Unfortunately these fungal spores are produced quite infrequently; after the disease infects needles, it will not produce ... These Ascomycota are apothecial in shape and once infection of the host occurs, they locate to the subepidermal tissue of the ... Inoculated needles may not develop symptoms for up to a year from the infection date, proving difficult for the effectiveness ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclaneusma_needle_cast
*  Pine-pine gall rust - Wikipedia
The fungal infection results in gall formation on branches or trunks of infected hosts. Gall formation is typically not ... but is often hard to diagnose due to the inconspicuous initial symptoms and a lack of galls until the second year. A red ... They are surrounded by a membrane called a peridium that bursts, releasing the spores. Stimulation of dikaryotization is not ... infection severity is not uniform year after year. Only minor infections occur in an ordinary year, however infection may be ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine-pine_gall_rust
*  Alternaria solani - Wikipedia
Mature lesions are typically covered by a black, velvety mass of fungal spores that may be visible under proper light ... Initial infection occurs on older leaves, with concentric dark brown spots developing mainly in the leaf center. The disease ... Alternaria solani spores are universally present in fields where host plants have been grown. Free water is required for ... Clear infected debris from field to reduce inoculum for the next year. Water plants in the morning so plants are wet for the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_solani
*  Glomerella graminicola - Wikipedia
Initial necrotic spots or lesions can be seen within 72 hours after infection by conidia. Lower leaves that develop lesions ... This disease is typically seen in leaf blight or stalk rot form. Before the 1970s, Anthracnose was not an issue in North ... It is not until the fungus moves to the teleomorph phase of the lifecycle and begins to produce fruiting bodies that host ... Conidial spores infect young plants through the epidermis or stomata. Anthracnose develops rapidly in cloudy, overcast ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomerella_graminicola
*  Eutypella parasitica - Wikipedia
Infection rates are typically 2%-10% in a particular stand, but it has been recorded to infect over 20%. N. Ogris; D. Jurc; M. ... Due to the slow development of the disease, these fruiting bodies are not produced until 5-8 years after initial infection. ... If they land on the susceptible host they may enter through a wound and establish themselves in the xylem tissue of the host. ... Each year, the fungus kills the callus material formed by the tree and invades more cambium during the growing season. During ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutypella_parasitica
*  Phytophthora megakarya - Wikipedia
An indirect infection results in the formation of encysted spores in the absence of water; mycelium production occurs after ... and penetrate host tissues. A germ tube is formed during germination of the zoospore which typically gives rise to an ... Spraying is recommended four times a year from the last week of May to the end of the growing period. Growing a cocoa variety ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database IY Opoku, AA Appiah, AY Akrofi, GK Owusu (2000). "Phytophthora megakarya: A potential ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytophthora_megakarya
*  Leucostoma kunzei - Wikipedia
All of this damage caused by this fungal pathogen does not typically begin until the host trees are at least 10-15 years old. ... Infection is initiated by the pathogen entering into the recent wounds of a susceptible host tree. These wounds can be created ... The probable duration of this disease cycle is 1 year, due to pycnidial stromata which form within the first year of lesion ... These airborne spores, as well as, insects provide an explanation for the spread of this disease from tree to tree. Once a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucostoma_kunzei
*  Cunninghamella bertholletiae - Wikipedia
Cunninghamella bertholletiae produces spores in globose sporangia atop sporangiophores that are typically tall enough to be ... Typically, initial pathology is from thrombosis and infarction. Common classes of mucormycoses include pulmonary, rhinocerebral ... The vast majority of the time, human infection is through airborne spores, although infections of deep wounds and medical ... Hosts include plants in the genera Daucus, Gossypium and Tetragonia. Cunninghamella bertholletiae can also be an opportunistic ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cunninghamella_bertholletiae
*  Peronospora hyoscyami f.sp. tabacina - Wikipedia
Each year Peronospora Hyoscyami is introduced as blue mold, known as windblown spores from outside the region by infected ... tabacina to topographical cues of the host such as stomatal openings. Upon entry of an infection peg through a stomatal opening ... the initial penetration of the host depends on the formation of appressoria near the stomata. This is largely due to a response ... Tobacco plants with an upright position of small patches of the seed bed are typically early signs of blue mold. These leaves ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peronospora_hyoscyami_f.sp._tabacina
*  PP-232/PG133: 2013 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Guava (Psidiumguajava)
Conidia (asexual spores) are the fungal structures responsible for anthracnose infection. Conidia are produced on dead twigs, ... and foliar diseases of many subtropical and tropical hosts. Typically, Rhizoctonia spp. attack plants at the soil line causing ... Initial infections of the pathogen have been presumed to be via airborne basidiospores released from the gills on the ... fields for onset of disease or during the times of year when environmental conditions are favorable for pathogen infection are ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg133
*  Management of Invasive Aspergillosis
ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare, serious fungal infection commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. The ... The lungs are the most frequent site of IA; consequently, symptoms and clinical manifestations are typically pulmonary. Because ... Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:335-347.. 26. Cornely ... Following the inhalation of A fumigatus conidia (airborne spores), respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages ...
  https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/management-of-invasive-aspergillosis
*  Coccidioidomycosis - Wikipedia
An indirect demonstration of fungal infection can be achieved also by serologic analysis detecting fungal antigen or host IgM ... Nearly 3% to 5% of infected individuals do not recover from the initial acute infection and develop a chronic infection. This ... The spores, known as arthroconidia, are swept into the air by disruption of the soil, such as during construction, farming, or ... The species are found in alkaline sandy soil, typically 10-30 cm below the surface. In harmony with the mycelium life cycle, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccidioidomycosis
*  Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - Wikipedia
The tips of the feeder roots are the initial sites of infection which then moves on to the rhizome. The signs of the disease ... Race 4 attacks Musa (AAA group) 'Dwarf Cavendish' as well as the hosts of races 1 and 2. Infection by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ... The average American eats 26.2 pounds of the Cavendish banana each year and the question is being asked as to whether this oft- ... cubense Pronunciation (help·info) is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusarium_oxysporum_f.sp._cubense
*  Alternaria dauci - Wikipedia
These germination tubes will pierce host cell walls to initiate infection, or if wounds are present the pathogen may enter in ... Initial threshold recommendations vary depending on location, time of year, and moisture level. Different recommendations ... Mycelium and spores are spread through splashing rain, tools for cultivation or contaminated soils. Alternaria diseases, in ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Farrar, James J.; Pryor, Barry M.; Davis, R. M. (August 2004). "Alternaria Diseases of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_dauci
*  Field Guide to Sustainable Production of High-quality Durum Wheat in North Dakota - Publications
Crop rotations can reduce the initial inoculum of fungal leaf spot pathogens. Rotation of durum with any broadleaf crop will ... The greatest risk of Fusarium infection occurs when small grains are planted on last year's small-grain or corn residue. ... Fusarium spores can be carried by wind from other fields and from previous residues that have not yet decomposed to initiate an ... Durum wheat typically is planted later than many of the other early season crops. However, a reduction in yield may be ...
  https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/crops/field-guide-to-sustainable-production-of-high-quality-durum-wheat-in-north-dakota
*  PPT - Fungi & Systemic Mycoses PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bf4ec-MTM1Z
Infection requires a large inoculum and is affected by the resistance of the host *infection often occurs in endemic areas ... mitotic) spores may be produced, depending on the species and conditions * D. typically not motile, although a few (e.g. ... opportunistic fungal infection caused by any of a variety of normally saprophytic fungi with hyaline hyphal elements. For ... Dakota (500,000 cases/year in U.S.), except New England Florida. Most cases in Ohio Valley and Mississippi Valley) ...
  http://www.powershow.com/view/3bf4ec-MTM1Z/Fungi_Systemic_Mycoses_powerpoint_ppt_presentation
*  Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Fungi - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The following describes the infection process of asexual spores. Spore Attachment. When a rust spore lands on a plant surface ... Avoid breathing dust (fungal spores) generated by moldy building materials, crops, and other materials. ... Alternaria alternata has been recorded infecting over 380 host species. It is opportunistic pathogen on numerous hosts causing ... The conidia are typically carried by air currents to new colonization sites. In P. chrysogenum the conidia are blue to blue- ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Adventist_Youth_Honors_Answer_Book/Nature/Fungi
*  Thousand cankers disease - Wikipedia
In susceptible hosts, trees are almost always killed within 2-3 years after external symptoms of leaf yellowing are first ... Adult walnut twig beetles carry spores of the Geosmithia morbida fungus, which grows profusely around the pupal chamber of the ... Initial description of thousand cankers disease in a refereed journal occurred in August 2009. Symposia dedicated to this new ... The fungal mycelium initially colonize tissue immediately surrounding the beetle galleries. However, in less than a month black ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thousand_cankers_disease
*  Frontiers | Molecular Imaging of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Using ImmunoPET/MRI: The Future Looks Bright | Microbiology
... but with limited use in invasive fungal disease diagnostics due to its inability to differentiate between infectious etiologies ... but with limited use in invasive fungal disease diagnostics due to its inability to differentiate between infectious etiologies ... or are not specific for Aspergillus infection, with other angio-invasive moulds or bacterial pathogens producing comparable ... or are not specific for Aspergillus infection, with other angio-invasive moulds or bacterial pathogens producing comparable ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00691/full
*  Agents of Mucormycosis (Microbiology) - The Clinical Advisor
Mucormycosis is primarily acquired in immunocompromised hosts through inhalation of fungal spores from the environment. Soft- ... Innate immune responses in healthy hosts typically clear sporangiospores before infection can be established. ... Initial CT and MRI scans are sometimes unremarkable in patients during the initial stages of rhinocerebral mucormycosis but ... noted a 1-year cumulative incidence rate of 3.8 per 1,000 HSCT and 0.6 per 1,000 solid organ transplants. The overall incidence ...
  https://www.clinicaladvisor.com/infectious-diseases/agents-of-mucormycosis-microbiology/article/609275/
*  Extension Publications | CAHNRS Core | Washington State University
... sexual spores) are released which give rise to the first infections of the year, called primary infection. Spores are ... What conditions initiate infection? Typically, it takes 1/10th of an inch of rain or irrigation and temperatures of 50°F or ... Note: the continued fungal activity post-harvest. Figure courtesy Claudia Probst and Gary Grove, WSU.. The effect of training ... Initial symptoms, often occurring 7 to 10 days after the onset of the first irrigation, are light roughly-circular, powdery ...
  http://treefruit.wsu.edu/crop-protection/disease-management/cherry-powdery-mildew/?print-view=true
*  Cantaloupe and Specialty Melons | UGA Cooperative Extension
Fungal Diseases Diseases caused by fungi are the most damaging to most crops, including cucurbits. Fungal inoculum (spores, ... The major damage occurred in squash and pepper the first year but, because of a relatively wide host range, the disease is now ... Yield losses are directly related to time of infection. The later the infection occurs, the less damage will be observed. ... in the soil and the fungus can also survive in the roots of non-crop host plants. Broad-spectrum fumigants may reduce initial ...
  http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=B1179
*  Frontiers | Aspergillus terreus Meningitis in Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report | Microbiology
We describe a rare but dangerous case of fungal meningitis due to Aspergillus terreus in immunocompetent man who had history of ... We describe a rare but dangerous case of fungal meningitis due to Aspergillus terreus in immunocompetent man who had history of ... Cryptococcus neoformans infection is still the most common CNS fungal infection, whereas Aspergillus and Mucor are relatively ... Three days after initial incubation, a positive culture signal was noted and fungal ball was noted inside the culture bottle. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01353/full