*  Data from: Plant-herbivore interactions: silicon concentration in tussock sedges and population dynamics of root voles - Dryad
1. It has been hypothesized that the induction of silicon (Si)-based plant defence in response to herbivore damage may engender rodent population cycles. Many studies have also considered accumulation of Si as a process controlled by geo-hydrological factors. 2. To test these ideas, we investigated the relationship between concentration of Si in fibrous tussock sedge (Carex appropinquata) and the population density of a major sedge consumer, the root vole (Microtus oeconomus), in field enclosures in natural habitat under a variety of natural water regimes and weather conditions. 3. We found that a high density of voles at the end of summer resulted in the immediate accumulation of Si by rhizomes, followed by accumulation of Si in leaves with a one-year lag time. The level of river flooding in the same year had an additional impact on Si concentration in rhizomes but did not affect silicification of leaves. 4. Overwinter changes in concentration of Si in sedges were influenced by fluctuations in ...
  http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.0pq4t.2
*  Evidence for a Tradeoff Between Retention Time and Chewing Efficiency in Large Mammalian Herbivores
Large body size is thought to produce a digestive advantage through different scaling effects of gut capacity and food intake, with supposedly longer digesta retention times in larger animals. However, empirical tests of this framework have remained equivocal, which we hypothesize is because previous comparative studies have not included digesta particle size. Larger particles require more time for digestion, and if digesta particle size increases with body mass, it could explain the lack of digestive advantage in larger herbivores. We combine data on body mass, food intake, digesta retention and digestibility with data on faecal particle size (as a proxy for digesta particle size) in 21 mammalian herbivore species. Multiple regression shows that fibre digestibility is independent of body mass but dependent on digesta retention and particle size; the resulting equation indicates that retention time and particle size can compensate for each other. Similarly, digestible food intake is independent ...
  https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4318028
*  Rosa Rubicondior: Evolution Arms Race - Moose Spit Detox
Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' ...
  http://rosarubicondior.blogspot.com/2014/07/evolution-arms-race-moose-spit-detox.html
*  Interactive effects of insects, mammals, and soil fertility on grassland plant community structure
Background/Question/Methods Herbivory is expected to have important effects on grassland plant community structure and biomass. However, the effects of herbivores may be mitigated by plant resource availability, which can influence plant compensatory response and plant defense, and may vary among herbivore taxonomic groups. Although a number of experiments have tested the relative importance and interactive effects of herbivory and plant resource availability in limiting plant biomass, little is known about how different herbivore taxonomic groups contribute to these patterns particularly in terrestrial systems. We tested for the additive or interactive effects of insect and non-bovine mammalian herbivores on plant community structure and biomass in a restored grassland in south-central Kansas. The experiment consisted of ninety-six, 3.5x4 m plots. Mammal access was restricted by fencing while insect abundance was reduced by applying a pyrethroid-based insecticide every two ...
  https://soar.wichita.edu/handle/10057/11892
*  Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects - Jactel - 2007 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library
Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses revealed that the composition of tree mixtures may be more important than species richness per se because diversity effects on herbivory were greater when mixed forests comprised taxonomically more distant tree species, and when the proportion of non-host trees was greater than that of host trees. These findings provide new support for the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning across trophic ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01073.x/full
*  No detectable impacts of frequent burning on foliar C and N or insect herbivory in an Australian eucalypt forest | BFCRC Legacy
Question: What is the effect of frequent low intensity prescribed fire on foliar nutrients and insect herbivory in an Australian eucalypt forest? Location: Lorne State Forest (Bulls Ground Frequent Burning Study), mid-north coast, New South Wales, Australia. Methods: Eighteen independent sites were studied representing three experimental fire regimes: fire exclusion (at least 45 years), frequently burnt (every 3 years for 35 years) and fire exclusion followed by the recent introduction of frequent burning (two fires in 6 years). Mature leaves were collected from the canopy of Eucalyptus pilularis trees at each site and analysed for nutrients and damage by invertebrate herbivores. Results: Almost 75% of all leaves showed some signs of leaf damage. The frequency of past fires had no effect on carbon and nitrogen content of canopy leaves. These results were consistent with assessments of herbivore damage where no significant differences were found in the amount of invertebrate ...
  http://bushfirecrc.com/publications/citation/bf-2399
*  Examining plant-parasitoid interactions in tritrophic systems
Despite, and often because of, their tritrophic complexities, plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems are of great interest to researchers in evolutionary biology, behavioral and community ecology and the applied science of biological control. Among other things these systems present an excellent opportunity to explore the role of alternative behavioral strategies in parasitoid reproductive success because there appears to be a very direct link between many aspects of parasitoid reproductive ecology and relative fitness (Godfray 1994). In this review I present an overview of the recent work on one important aspect of the plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems, the interactions between plants and parasitoids, and discuss the importance of plant-produced cues for parasitoid foraging and host location. Plant-Insect Tritrophic Systems Until recently most of the theory and research on plant-insect interactions was focused on plant-herbivore interactions or on the interactions between plants and pollinators. ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0301-80592000000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Herbivore - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to the theory of predator-prey interactions, the relationship between herbivores and plants is cyclic.[1] When prey (plants) are numerous their predators (herbivores) increase in numbers, reducing the plant population, which in turn causes herbivore number to decline.[1] The prey population eventually recovers, starting a new cycle. This suggests that the population of the herbivore fluctuates around the carrying capacity of the food source, in this case the plant.. There will always be pockets of plants not found by herbivores. This is important for specialist herbivores which feed on only one species of plant: it prevents these specialists from wiping out their food source.[2] Eating a second plant type helps herbivores' populations stabilize.[2] Alternating between two or more plant types provides population stability for the herbivore, while the populations of the plants oscillate.[1] When an invasive herbivore or plant enters the system, the balance is thrown off and the diversity ...
  https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbivore
*  Dynamics of Large Herbivore Populations in Changing Environments
Aims to reconcile theoretical models of population dynamics with what is currently known about the population dynamics of large mammalian herbivores
  http://ovid.com/site/catalog/books/9760.jsp
*  RNAi for Protection Against Aphids : IGTRCN
The second table includes only studies involving plant-mediated RNAi. Seven of the nine studies referenced involved the use of Myzus persicae feeding on transgenic tobacco or Arabidopsis and targeting a variety of genes. All of those studies reported some negative impact on the fecundity of insects feeding on these plants.. Finally, the authors address challenges facing the successful implementation and adoption of plant-mediated RNAi for aphid control. A notable challenge is the presence of dsRNAases in the gut of at least the pea aphid. Furthermore, the authors note that interactions between the aphid's RNA interference machinery and the plant viruses they transmit could impact the RNAi response to plant-mediated RNAi and this is one of a number of areas that needs further study.. Producing dsRNA and delivering it to the phloem is a challenge and will benefit from the use of phloem-specific promoters and enhancers, according to the authors. Of course, the potential for off-target effects ...
  https://igtrcn.org/rnai-for-protection-against-aphids/
*  Insects on plants: explaining the paradox of low diversity within specialist herbivore guilds : Sussex Research Online
Classical niche theory explains the coexistence of species through their exploitation of different resources. Assemblages of herbivores coexisting on a particular plant species are thus expected to be dominated by species from host-specific guilds with narrow, coexistence-facilitating niches rather than by species from generalist guilds. Exactly the opposite pattern is observed for folivores feeding on trees in New Guinea. The least specialized mobile chewers were the most species rich, followed by the moderately specialized semiconcealed and exposed chewers. The highly specialized miners and mesophyll suckers were the least species-rich guilds. The Poisson distribution of herbivore species richness among plant species in specialized guilds and the absence of a negative correlation between species richness in different guilds on the same plant species suggest that these guilds are not saturated with species. We show that herbivore assemblages are enriched with generalists because these are more ...
  http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/40566/
*  "Patterns and consequences of ungulate herbivory on aspen in western No" by S. Trent Seager, Cristina Eisenberg et al.
Seager, S. Trent, Eisenberg, C., St. Clair, S.B. 2013. Patterns and consequences of ungulate herbivory on aspen in western North America. Forest Ecology and Management 299:81-90.. ...
  https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/aspen_bib/7291/
*  PPT - Effects of Herbivory on Coastal Sage Scrub Recovery in the PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2644642
Effects of Herbivory on Coastal Sage Scrub Recovery in the La Jolla Valley of Point Mugu State Park. Chelsea Vaughan, Carin Tabag , Sean Brennan CSULB Department of Geography. La Jolla Valley. The Ecotone Who's invading who?. Purple Needle Grass ( Stipa pulchra ). Coyote brush Slideshow 2644642 by maik
  http://www.slideserve.com/maik/effects-of-herbivory-on-coastal-sage-scrub-recovery-in-the
*  Testing the potential for conflicting selection on floral chemical traits by pollinators and herbivores: predictions and case...
Plants have evolved many ways of coping with their insect attackers, including physical or chemical defences that directly reduce herbivore performance and survival, indirect defences that actively attract or facilitate the action of predators and parasitoids, as well as tolerance of herbivory (Duffey & Stout 1996; Dicke & Van Loon 2000; Kessler & Baldwin 2002).. Ehrlich & Raven (1964) first deduced that insect herbivory had selected for chemically defended plants. In turn, high plant secondary metabolite production would favour insect herbivores that are resistant to plant defences. All hypotheses that were derived from this original plant defence theory assume both costs of tissue damage in the presence of herbivores and costs of producing chemical defences in the absence of herbivores. The latter can arise from the allocation of limited resources to defences at the expense of other fitness-related traits (i.e. physiological costs, allocation costs, opportunity costs) ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2009.01639.x/full
*  Minimal Insect Herbivory for the Lower Permian Coprolite Bone Bed Site of North-Central Texas, USA, and Comparison to Other...
Minimal Insect Herbivory for the Lower Permian Coprolite Bone Bed Site of North-Central Texas, USA, and Comparison to Other Late Paleozoic ...
  https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/5973
*  Herbivory Drives the Spread of Salt Marsh Die-Off
Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from |5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092916
*  Holeski LM, Zinkgraf MS, Couture JJ, Whitham TG, Lindroth RL. 2013 - Transgenerational effects of herbivory in a group of long...
4. Secondly, maternal herbivory by cottonwood leaf beetle larvae on foliage adjacent to developing seeds did not significantly alter offspring growth, but did decrease offspring phytochemical content by 10-55% relative to offspring of maternal control (undamaged) trees. As a result, concentrations of offspring phytochemical resistance traits were reduced by 10-18% in seedlings with maternal herbivory, relative to maternal control seedlings, across all three taxa. These patterns suggest an allocational trade-off, whereby maternal damage results in maintenance of offspring seed size and growth traits at the expense of phytochemical defences in the next generation ...
  http://sega.nau.edu/node/80
*  Domestication and defence | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Across studies that measured herbivore resistance, the negative effects of domestication were, as predicted, largest when resistance was assessed as plant herbivory or when it was measured in seeds (figure 2a). The stronger effects on plant herbivory relative to herbivore preference and performance were not surprising considering that both herbivore preference and herbivore performance were affected individually, and plant herbivory levels result from the combined effects of these two components of resistance. In addition, while measurements of herbivore preference and performance were almost always collected in laboratory or greenhouse settings, measurements of plant herbivory were often collected in the field, where plant damage provided an integrated estimate of the preference and performance of multiple herbivores simultaneously. The stronger effects of domestication on resistance in seeds relative to leaves also fit our predictions, ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1712/20160034
*  Interactions between mammalian herbivores and associated plant communities | NCEAS
The grasslands of California represent one of the most dramatic biological invasions in the world: 9.2 million ha (almost 25% of the entire state) are dominated by non-native plants. My work at NCEAS will evaluate whether non-native plants subsidize native consumers, leading to stronger impacts of native consumers on native plants (i.e. apparent competition). Furthermore, I will characterize how differences in consumer behavior among patches change the spatial extent of apparent competition (and thus invasion ...
  https://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/projects/8980
*  MPI CE: Research Questions
The genus Nicotiana is ideally suited to study polyploidy because of its robust phylogenetic framework and the genus contains a large number of polyploid species (approx 40% are allopolyploids). Nicotiana attenuata is a diploid species which is thought to be involved in the formation of several of these allopolyploids, particularly in the formation of N. bigelovii and N. clevelandii (allotetraploid descendants of the ancestors of N. attenuata and N. trigonophylla). Our research focuses on understanding how the anti-herbivore defense system, as well as pollination, germination and growth systems modified after neo-polyploidization and polyploidy speciation, using synthetic and natural polyploids ...
  http://www.ice.mpg.de/ext/index.php?id=509&L=1
*  Induced Plant Resistance To Herbivory (ISBN) 1402081812 Lowest Price - Home & Cash on Delivery
Buy Induced Plant Resistance To Herbivory (ISBN) 1402081812 at best cost range online in India. Get lowest price deal, free home delivery & cash on delivery.
  http://www.shopbychoice.com/induced-plant-resistance-to-herbivory-isbn-1402081812/p/TVRRM016az0
*  Climate change and its effects on terrestrial insects and herbivory patterns
But, by how much are insects affected by elevated CO2 conditions? In general, the results of the meta-analysis of Stiling & Cornelissen (2007) demonstrated strong responses of herbivores to elevated CO2 conditions, such as 1) a decline in insect abundance of almost 22.0% in elevated as compared to ambient CO2 conditions, 2) an increase of almost 17.0% in consumption rates, 3) an increase of almost 4.0% in development time, 4) a decrease of 9.0% in relative growth rate and of 5) 5.0% in pupal weight. When results for the effects of CO2 were partitioned into feeding guilds (e.g., chewers, miners, gallers), stronger and significant effects of elevated CO2 were observed for chewers compared to other feeding guilds. However, the vast majority of studies so far conducted to address effects of elevated CO2 on herbivores have been biased to free-feeding herbivores (chewers represented 60% of the comparisons reviewed by Stiling & Cornelissen 2007) and many more studies are necessary to obtain a clearer ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-566X2011000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Herbivory enables marine communities to resist warming | Science Advances
Fig. 2 Effect of limpet herbivory and warming on change in community composition over time.. (A) nMDS plot of successional trajectories over 16 months. Each point on the nMDS plot represents the average community composition of that treatment at that time. The distance between data points in the ordination represents the change in composition between time points. The black square represents the start of the experiment (empty plates on 3 May 2011). See table S5 for correlations of taxa abundances with nMDS axes. (B) Second-stage analysis showing the variation in successional trajectory within and among treatments. Warming modified the effect of limpets on community trajectory (PERMANOVA: warming × limpet F1,28 = 2.34, P = 0.023). Each point represents the trajectory for each plate, specifically, the correlation structure between time points for a single plate that are independent of the identity of taxa. Differences between points show whether the trajectory over time was similar or variable ...
  http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/10/e1701349/tab-figures-data
*  Scientific Papers and Reports
This paper features research findings from powerful genetic techniques and the REEF survey data that reveal two new species of hamlet in the Caribbean. As REEF Caribbean surveyors know, hamlets are a group of colorful small sea basses that can sometimes cause ID confusion because of their myriad of colors and patterns. The varied color patterns in these small predators are thought to be a result of mimicry of other colorful herbivore species. There has been ongoing debate in the scientific world about which are actual species and which are simply just color variants or morphotypes. The research featured in the paper revealed significant genetic differences among what seemed to simply be variations of the well-known Barred Hamlet. The two new species are the Florida Barred Hamlet, Hypoplectrus floridae, and the Contoy Hamlet, H. ecosur. The typical Barred Hamlet (H. puella) that is found throughout the Caribbean will be updated to be called the Caribbean Barred Hamlet. Florida Barred Hamlet have ...
  http://www.reef.org/print/db/publications?page=3
*  Recent publications on insect herbivory
Hunter, M. D., Kozlov, M. V., Itämies, J., Pulliainen, E., Bäck, J., Kyrö, E.-M. & Niemelä, P. (2014) Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths. Global Change Biology, 20, 1723-1737 (doi: 10.1111/gcb.12529). ...
  https://www.utu.fi/en/units/sci/units/biology/research/projects/insect_herbivory/Pages/Publications.aspx