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  https://www.emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=128160&ref=128172
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*  Structural Biochemistry/Binding of the Drug Amantadine to the Proton Channels of the M2 Protein in the Influenza Virus -...
The M2 protein is a 97-residue protein that is made up of 23 amino acids; it is a single-pass membrane protein that has all of the N-terminus's orientated to the outside of the cell. Inside of the cell is a 19 residue transmembrane domain (M2TM) and a 54-residue tail. It is the M2TM, which is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The structure of these residues was solved using a combination of X-ray crystallography and NMR techniques; both techniques support a semi-symmetric tetramer proton channel, the section inside the cell membrane coiling in a leftward orientation. The structural determination of this channel differs between these two methods in regards to the bound inhibitor position. Even though both methods suggest similar hot-spots for possible binding sites inside and on the outside of the channel, X-ray crystallography indicates a amantadine binding site in the central pore of the channel whereas NMR indicates four rimantadine binding ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Binding_of_the_Drug_Amantadine_to_the_Proton_Channels_of_the_M2_Protein_in_the_Influenza_Virus
*  Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Amantadine
The mechanisms for amantadine's antiviral and antiparkinsonian effects are unrelated. The mechanism of amantadine's antiviral activity involves interference with the viral protein, M2, a proton channel.[14][15] After entry of the virus into cells via endocytosis, it is localized in acidic vacuoles; the M2 channel functions in transporting protons with the gradient from the vacuolar space into the interior of the virion. Acidification of the interior results in disassociation of ribonucleoproteins, and the initiation of viral replication. Amantadine and rimantadine function in a mechanistically identical fashion in entering the barrel of the tetrameric M2 channel, and blocking pore function (i.e., proton translocation). Resistance to the drug class is a consequence of mutations to the pore-lining residues of the channel, leading to the inability of the sterically bulky adamantane ring that both amantadine and rimantadine share, in entering in their usual way, into the ...
  http://hitchhikersgui.de/Amantadine
*  How to keep yourself Flu-free During Season Change?
Antiviral medicines can be taken to prevent flu. They are available in different forms like pills, liquid or an inhaled powder. You must have a prescription from your doctor or health care provider to buy them. Antiviral medicines like amantadine and rimantadine protects only from influenza A virus, so they are not recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Antiviral medicines like oseltamivir and zanamivir protect you from both, influenza A and B viruses. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are also more effective compared to amantadine and rimantadine. Oseltamivir is available in pill and liquid form while zanamivir is available in powdered form. You can take chemoprophylaxis with these two antiviral medications. People suffering from asthma or COPD should avoid the use of zanamivir ...
  http://b4tea.blogspot.com/2012/11/how-to-keep-yourself-flu-free-during.html
*  Amantadine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP Rx only
Amantadine hydrochloride is well absorbed orally. Maximum plasma concentrations are directly related to dose for doses up to 200 mg/day. Doses above 200 mg/day may result in a greater than proportional increase in maximum plasma concentrations. It is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Eight metabolites of amantadine have been identified in human urine. One metabolite, an N-acetylated compound, was quantified in human urine and accounted for 5-15% of the administered dose. Plasma acetylamantadine accounted for up to 80% of the concurrent amantadine plasma concentration in 5 of 12 healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a 200 mg dose of amantadine. Acetylamantadine was not detected in the plasma of the remaining seven volunteers. The contribution of this metabolite to efficacy or toxicity is not known. There appears to be a relationship between plasma amantadine concentrations and toxicity. As concentration increases, toxicity seems to ...
  https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?id=82678&type=display
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Symmetrel (Amantadine Hydrochloride) is used to treat a variety of conditions. It is often prescribed to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including shaking, and stiffness. This drug also works as an antiviral, and is used to prevent and treat influenza A.
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*  Amantadine hydrochloride / amantadine hydrochloride NDA 074509 global drug patent coverage, generic alternatives and suppliers
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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*  Amantadine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Amantadine Hydrochloride reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (AHFS DI).
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*  Amantadine Hydrochloride (Generic Drug) List of Brand/ Trade Names | Medindia
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*  Evaluating the Use of Oseltamivir for the Treatment of Influenza in Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Seasonal influenza is responsible for excess hospitalizations and, despite effective antivirals, causes significant morbidity and mortality (about 24,000 deaths each year in the United States alone). The influenza virus that emerged in 2009 (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) caused fewer deaths (12,000 flu-related deaths in the U.S.) but in contrast to seasonal flu, nearly 90% of the deaths with the 2009 H1N1 occurred among people younger than 65 years of age. Although there are four currently licensed anti-influenza medications (amantadine and rimantadine, oseltamivir, and zanamivir), previous studies have not demonstrated conclusively to what extent these medications affect influenza viral shedding. This study will evaluate whether oseltamivir modifies the viral shedding during the treatment of uncomplicated influenza in an adult population and also assess methods to detect viral replication in the upper respiratory tract.. Subjects who present with an influenza-like illness without any risk ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01314911?term=influenza+and+NIAID&recr=Open&rank=9
*  Evaluating the Use of Oseltamivir for the Treatment of Influenza in Adults - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Seasonal influenza is responsible for excess hospitalizations and, despite effective antivirals, causes significant morbidity and mortality (about 24,000 deaths each year in the United States alone). The influenza virus that emerged in 2009 (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) caused fewer deaths (12,000 flu-related deaths in the U.S.) but in contrast to seasonal flu, nearly 90% of the deaths with the 2009 H1N1 occurred among people younger than 65 years of age. Although there are four currently licensed anti-influenza medications (amantadine and rimantadine, oseltamivir, and zanamivir), previous studies have not demonstrated conclusively to what extent these medications affect influenza viral shedding. This study will evaluate whether oseltamivir modifies the viral shedding during the treatment of uncomplicated influenza in an adult population and also assess methods to detect viral replication in the upper respiratory tract.. Subjects who present with an influenza-like illness without any risk ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01314911?show_locs=Y
*  Table 1 - Antiviral Susceptibility of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Poultry, Vietnam, 2009...
We assessed drug susceptibilities of 125 avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam during 2009-2011. Of 25 clade 1.1 viruses, all possessed a marker of resistance to M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine; 24 were inhibited by neuraminidase inhibitors. One clade 1.1 virus contained the R430W neuraminidase gene and reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, zanamivir, and laninamivir 12-, 73-, and 29-fold, respectively. Three of 30 clade 2.3.4 viruses contained a I223T mutation and showed 7-fold reduced inhibition by oseltamivir. One of 70 clade 2.3.2.1 viruses had the H275Y marker of oseltamivir resistance and exhibited highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and peramivir; antiviral agents DAS181 and favipiravir inhibited H275Y mutant virus replication in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. Replicative fitness of the H275Y mutant virus was comparable to that of wildtype virus. These findings highlight the role of drug ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/12/13-0705-t1
*  Physiotherapy Fitness Beauty: Treatmentof swine flu
If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). Beside antivirals, palliative care, at home or in hospital, focuses on controlling fevers and maintaining fluid balance. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) or Relenza (zanamivir) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses, however, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs. The virus isolates in the 2009 outbreak have been found resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.. In the U.S., on April 27, 2009, the FDA issued Emergency Use Authorizations to make available Relenza and Tamiflu antiviral drugs to treat the swine influenza virus in cases ...
  http://physioforu.blogspot.com/2009/05/treatmentof-swine-flu.html
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Surveillance of the antiviral susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Europe has been established since 2004 through the European Union-funded European Surveillance Network for Vigilance against Viral Resistance (VIRGIL), in collaboration with the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS), the World Health Organization (WHO) and national influenza centres. Results from analysis of early winter (November 2007 - January 2008) A(H1N1) virus isolates has revealed that a significant proportion, approximately 14% of these European strains (see Table), are resistant to oseltamivir (Tamiflu), the most widely used anti-influenza drug, but retain sensitivity to zanamivir (Relenza) and amantadine/rimantadine. .
  http://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/ese.13.05.08026-en
*  Thumbs down for flu drugs - Health & Wellbeing
Researchers investigated anti-flu drugs like amantadine and rimantadine - as well as newer versions such as Tamiflu and Relenza - and found them to be far from 100 per cent effective.
  http://www.abc.net.au/health/minutes/stories/2007/08/15/2000332.htm
*  SARS - is ... Acute respiratory viral infection: prevention, treatment - Health Tips
In the fight against the disease agent of effective antiviral agents welcome "rimantadine", "Amizona", "Arbidol", "Amiksina.". use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be to reduce the temperature of the body and reduce the pain.Such drugs include "Paracetamol", "Ibuprofen" "Panadol".It must be remembered that the temperature is below 38 Sº not break, because at this temperature the body activates its defenses.. Antihistamine drugs are needed to reduce the signs of inflammation: nasal congestion, edema mucous.Recommended intake "loratidine," "Fenistil", "Zirteka."Unlike first generation drugs do not cause drowsiness.. nose drops are needed to reduce swelling, eliminate nasal congestion.It is worth remembering that the long-term use of such a drop is impossible, as this could trigger the development of chronic rhinitis.Drops use not more than 7 days, 2-3 times a day.For long-term treatment it is possible to use preparations based on essential oils.. Funds from a sore throat.It is ...
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New Verso retains its distinctive "dual zone" styling, with a full length character line which, in profile view, divides the bonnet and cabin from the chassis and loadspace. The principal changes are at the front where the Toyota's new design language has been adopted to project a family look that gives the car a strong visual link to the new Auris and Auris Touring Sports. The aim has been to reduce the perception of the vehicle's height while emphasising its width and length ...
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