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*  The "Flu": Blood type differences and the wonderful elderberry
... guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times ... Zanamivir and Neuraminidase Inhibitors.. Zanamivir was the first in a new class of drugs known as selective viral neuraminidase ... type A(H1N1). The "H" and "N" refer to viral proteins called haemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N) (more on this in a ... Amantadine and rimantadine are chemically related drugs that interfere with the replication cycle of influenza type A viruses ( ...
  http://www.dadamo.com/B2blogs/blogs/index.php/2006/03/03/the-flu-blood-type-differences-and-the-w?blog=26
*  Rapivab - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
... rimantadine). However, a virus may carry a neuraminidase inhibitor resistance-associated substitution in neuraminidase and an ... Product Type. HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL. Item Code (Source). NDC:61364-181. ... virus to inhibition by peramivir may be conferred by amino acid substitutions in the viral neuraminidase or hemagglutinin ... neuraminidase inhibitors Tamiflu, oseltamivir, zanamivir, Relenza, peramivir. Influenza amantadine, Tamiflu, oseltamivir, ...
  https://www.drugs.com/pro/rapivab.html
*  Transmission and infection of H5N1 - Wikipedia
Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs that includes zanamivir and oseltamivir, the latter being licensed for ... on top of the already increased pathogenicity of its hemagglutinin type which allows it to grow in organs other than lungs) ... A second class of drugs, which include amantadine and rimantadine, target the M2 protein, but have become ineffective against ... H5N1 type flu virus induces higher levels of cytokines than the more common flu virus types such as H1N1 Other important ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_and_infection_of_H5N1
*  September, 2016 | Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors cholesterol-absorption.com
... pdm09 cases in Pakistan.Phylogenetic Investigation for Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) genes: Phylogenetic trees for ... A) Wild type HipB protein (purple closed circle), HipB(W88A) protein (blue closed sq.) or the HipB72 C-terminal truncation ... These viruses have been also uniformly resistant to amantadine and rimantadine due to the fact of the S31N substitution in the ... indicating sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. Other substitutions V106I and N248D in NA gene had been current in the ...
  http://www.cholesterol-absorption.com/2016/09/
*  August 2018 - Outlook on PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition
Powerful inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 induce nuclear build up of wild-type p53 and nucleolar fragmentation in human ... Because of the constant evolution of main viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), vaccine strains should be ... The initial and oldest course, adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine), focus on the proton route formed with the viral M2 ... type 3) forms. Four mis-sense mutations are generally connected with GM1, R482H in type 1 Italian sufferers, R208C in type 1 ...
  http://www.gasyblog.com/2018/08/
*  influenza facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about influenza
A new group of drugs, acting as neuraminidase inhibitors, is active against both type A and B viruses. These drugs have been ... the neuraminidase [N] and the hemagglutinin [H] segments). These mutations are the reason that both type A and B viruses change ... The antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine are effective against most strains of type A influenza, and zanamivir and ... Three types of influenza viruses have now been discovered: types A, B, and C. Type A virus can infect many different kinds of ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/influenza
*  Influenza virus types A and -B | Newfoundland & Labrador Public Health Laboratory
Influenza infection may be treated with supportive therapy, as well as antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitors, ... oseltamivir (TAMIFLU) and zanamivir (RELENZA), and the adamantanes, rimantadine and amantadine. These drugs are most effective ... hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). ...
  http://publichealthlab.ca/reportingname/influenza-virus-types-a-and-b/
*  Influenza - Renal and Urology News
Influenza type A is subcategorized by the presence of 2 surface antigens, hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen ... Neuraminidase inhibitors: oseltamivir and zanamivir. -Adamantanes: amantadine and rimantadine. â–ºThe 2009 pandemic influenza A ( ... Influenza viruses are orthomyxoviruses of three types (A, B and C), with type C viruses merely causing sporadic mild influenza- ... is largely susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitors and resistant to adamantanes.. Since 2005, all H3N2 strains in the ...
  http://www.renalandurologynews.com/pediatrics/influenza/article/623466/
*  3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid, a Major Constituent of Brazilian Propolis, Increases TRAIL Expression and Extends the Lifetimes of...
For example, M2 ion channel inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir, oseltamivir, etc ... The influenza virus wild-type strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1), generated from cloned cDNAs using plasmid-based reverse genetics [34], ... H1N1-specific primers were selected based on HA (hemagglutinin) mRNA using Primer Express software (PE Applied Biosystems, ... Neuraminidase Inhibitor Flu Treatment Investigator Group," The Lancet, vol. 355, pp. 1845-1850, 2000. View at Google Scholar ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/946867/
*  US Patent Application for MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES HAVING HOMOSUBTYPE CROSS-NEUTRALIZATION PROPERTIES AGAINST INFLUENZA A VIRUSES...
... which shows a neutralizing activity against a plurality of influenza A virus isolates expressing the H1-subtype hemagglutinin, ... which is capable of binding human and animal isolates of influenza A viruses expressing the H1-subtype hemagglutinin. A ... the M2 protein inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine), and the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir). However, ... type A, type B, and type C. Those responsible for the annual epidemics are the type A and type B viruses. Instead, type C ...
  https://patents.justia.com/patent/20110076265
*  Pediatric Influenza: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
If neuraminidase inhibitors are not available, rimantadine can be used if the virus is known to be susceptible, because it has ... Types A and B cause epidemic disease, and type C causes sporadic disease. Type A is the most common. ... The RNA has a lipid envelope with 2 major antigenic components on its surface, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). These ... If neuraminidase inhibitors are available and if the virus is susceptible, a combination of neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/972269-overview
*  Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
Neuraminidase inhibitors are sialic acid analogues (144). Recent studies have found neuraminidase inhibitors to be 67%-82% ... will prevent complications of influenza type A among persons at high risk is unknown. Among children, rimantadine is approved ... hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Although both influenza A and B viruses undergo continual antigenic change (i.e., ... Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenzavirus infections. N Engl J Med 1997; ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00057028.htm
*  US Patent Application for MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES CAPABLE OF REACTING WITH A PLURALITY OF INFLUENZA VIRUS A SUBTYPES Patent...
... the M2 protein inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine), and the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir). However, ... This type of immunity is often seen after an infection or a vaccination, but is lost when the mutation rate in hemagglutinin ... type B, and type C.. Type A and type B viruses are responsible for the annual epidemics. Instead, type C viruses are ... In other words, the progressive accumulation of point mutations in hemagglutinin (mostly) and neuraminidase (secondarily) makes ...
  https://patents.justia.com/patent/20110014187
*  Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March--April 2009
... and testing to determine susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitor drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir is under way. Because ... The viruses are similar to each other, and the majority of their genes, including the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, are similar to ... Type 508 Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. ... The viruses from the two cases are closely related genetically, resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, and contain a unique ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58d0421a1.htm
*  ASMscience | Influenza Viruses
Cell culture assays do not reliably identify antiviral susceptibility to the NA inhibitors (NAIs) zanamivir and oseltamivir. ... Influenza viruses infect the respiratory epithelium and can be found in respiratory secretions of all types. A number of ... Impact of neuraminidase mutations conferring influenza resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in the N1 and N2 genetic ... Detection of type A and B influenza viruses in clinical materials by immunoelectronmicroscopy. Acta Virol. 29:19-24.. ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap81
*  Resveratrol Fights Influenza Virus | Life Enhancement Products
... amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir).9 However, the use of M2 inhibitors is not ... They are divided into types A, B, and C, with type A having numerous subtypes. Type A viruses are the most dangerous to humans ... In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase - key proteins in swine flu - Japanese knotwood and ... Only neuraminidase inhibitors provide any uncompromised treatment for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Nonetheless, common side ...
  http://www.life-enhancement.com/magazine/article/3254-resveratrol-fights-influenza-virus
*  Structure-based drug design of a new chemical class of small molecules active against influenza A nucleoprotein in vitro and in...
Moscona A. Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 29;353(13):1363-73. Review. PubMed PMID: 16192481. ... Rimantadine, 30 mg/kg. 45%. 2.9. 60%. 3.9. Table 4. Efficacy of F66 against A/Aichi/02/68(H3N2) challenge in-vivo.The values ... Molecular detection and typing of influenza viruses: are we ready for an influenza pandemic? J Clin Virol. 2008 Jun;42(2):194-7 ... The level of hemagglutinin activity in the lysate of the infected cells was determined using standard procedures [32]. ...
  http://currents.plos.org/influenza/article/structure-based-drug-design-of-a-new-1nsjcj02vqpk8-1/
*  Sheng Jiang San, a traditional multi-herb formulation, exerts anti-influenza effects in vitro and in vivo via neuraminidase...
The underlying anti-influenza virus mechanism of SJS was studied by a series of biological assays to determine if hemagglutinin ... Meanwhile, SJS targeted on neuraminidase of influenza virus as SJS at 2 mg/ml inhibited 80% of neuraminidase enzymatic activity ... ribonucleoprotein complex or neuraminidase were targets of SJS. Results showed SJS exerted a broad-spectrum of inhibitory ... Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay. A neuraminidase inhibitors screen kit was employed to evaluate the inhibition of SJS on ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-018-2216-7
*  Amino Acids Transitioning of 2009 H1N1pdm in Taiwan from 2009 to 2011
Abed Y, Baz M, Boivin G (2006) Impact of neuraminidase mutations conferring influenza resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in ... Interestingly, the remaining type I.c mutation K300E and type II.c mutation T14I are hardly seen in these NCBI HA sequences. In ... We focused on tracking the amino acid transitioning of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes in the early ... including amantadine and rimantadine) that has been used to treat the disease for more than 30 years [3], [4]. Neuraminidase ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3454337/?lang=en-ca
*  ANTI-GITR ANTIBODIES - Patent application
The administration of serum IgG antibody to the major influenza surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase can prevent ... amines inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, which inhibit viral replication. However, the clinical utility of these drugs is ... Solid tumors may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of ... The administration of serum IgG antibody to the major influenza surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase can prevent ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120189639
*  Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial pneumonia with influenza - pathogenesis and clinical implications | Critical Care | Full Text
... the efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors in established viral/bacterial pneumonia was not tested. Rimantadine, an amantadine ... Jones WT, Menna JH, Wennerstrom DE: Lethal synergism induced in mice by influenza type A virus and type Ia group B streptococci ... aureus has been shown to increase the virulence of influenza A virus in mice by cleaving virus hemagglutinin. However, protease ... mice treated with neuraminidase inhibitors were less susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. However, neuraminidase ...
  https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc8893
*  Flu Secondary Infections (Viral/Bacterial) with the 2018 Influenza
... for the type of haemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). The annual flu (also called seasonal flu or ... Two main classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza viruses are neuraminidase inhibitors or inhibitors of the viral M2 ... protein, such as amantadine and rimantadine. These drugs can reduce the severity of symptoms and mortality and can also be ... Many types of headaches.. *Bone, muscle, and/or joint pain. Foot pain is quite common.. *Chest pain, palpitations and tightness ...
  http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showthread.php?531283-Secondary-Infections-
*  H5N1 genetic structure - Wikipedia
The name H5N1 refers to the subtypes of surface antigens present on the virus: hemagglutinin type 5 and neuraminidase type 1. ... in the presence of neuraminidase inhibitors, the loop changed its conformation to one similar to that in the N2 and N9 proteins ... which is now resistant to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The possibility of H5N1 and H3N2 exchanging ... The virus that most closely matched H5N1 for virulence was one with the hemagglutinin (HA), the neuraminidase (NA) and the PB1 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H5N1_genetic_structure
*  arbidol.org
The second generation of drugs includes neuraminidase inhibitors, which are taken in the form of inhalers or aerosol sprays ( ... Included in the first generation of such drugs are theadamantadine types, amantadine and rimantadine. They block the ion ... Specific structural alteration of the influenza haemagglutinin by amantidine. EMBO J. 1990; 9: 3469-3476.. 12. Guan Y., ... Table 2: Influence of antiviral drugs on viral reproduction of rimantadine-sensitive and. rimantadine-resistant strains of ...
  http://pdfdrug.com/a/arbidol.org1.html
*  Viral Pneumonia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
a HA - Hemagglutinin b NA - Neuraminidase c ASA - Acetylsalicylic acid d TMP-SMZ - Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole ... Rimantadine (Flumadine) Zanamivir (Relenza) Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Mechanism of action. M2 ion channel blockade inhibits HAa ... Influenza type A is usually the most virulent pathogen. The influenza virus has two envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (H) ... Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza. N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 28. 341(18):1336-43 ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300455-overview