*  "Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonl" by Stephanie M. Shaw
Previous studies have shown the importance of cricothyroid muscle activation in altering fundamental frequency in the human voice. Other studies have investigated the non-linear properties of vocal fold tissue and the impact of this non-linearity on frequency response. Several physical models of the vocal folds have been made for research purposes. However, all have been isotropic in nature with linear stress-strain properties. The purpose of this study was to create a physical model with non-linear stress-strain properties to investigate the frequency response of the model as cricothyroid muscle activation was simulated (in other words, as the vocal folds were stretched in an anterior-posterior dimension). In this study the physical models of the vocal folds were stretched in 1 mm increments and the fundamental frequency (F0) was recorded at each position. Subglottal pressure was also monitored and phonation threshold pressures were ...
  https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/2433/
*  True vocal cord | Define True vocal cord at Dictionary.com
True vocal cord definition, the lower pair of vocal cords, the edges of which can be made to tense and relax by the passage of air from the lungs, thus producing vocal sound. See more.
  http://www.dictionary.com/browse/true--vocal--cord
*  Linear Population Model: Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques
Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. Linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations was used to determine vocal tractresonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency F0 provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and ...
  http://linearpopulationmodel.blogspot.com/2014/06/vocal-tract-length-and-formant.html
*  Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Drug-induced vocal cord damage '', 1 January 2018
The vocal cords are soft mucosal folds with fibrous muscles and ligaments, whose vibration, produced by the passage of air from the lungs, produces the voice. When the vocal cords are damaged, the symptoms most often observed are: dysphonia (modified sounds), pain, hoarseness, croakiness, lowering of the voice tone. Sometimes these symptoms hinder communication and affect a person's social life.. Voice disorders are most often linked to overuse of the vocal cords or more rarely to lesions of the mucosa including inflammation, infection, polyps and neurological disorders.. Some toxins expose the vocal cords to damage, including tobacco, alcohol, sulphuric acid, dust, or welding smoke.. Drugs induce vocal cord damage by various mechanisms: mucosal deposits, mucosal dryness and reduced vocal cord lubrication, changes in salivary composition, oedema, erythema, necrosis, or mucosal haematomas, paralysis of the ...
  http://english.prescrire.org/en/81/168/53689/0/NewsDetails.aspx
*  Vocal Cord Dysfunction Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other Tests
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), also commonly known as paradoxical vocal fold motion, can be characterized as an abnormal adduction of the vocal cords during the respiratory cycle (especially during the inspiratory phase) that produces airflow obstruction at the level of the larynx. VCD frequently mimics persistent asthma and is often treated...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/137782-workup
*  Vocal Cord Dysfunction | Vocal Cord Malfunction: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis & Treatment
Vocal cord malfunction, commonly known as vocal cord dysfunction is a condition where the vocal cords open and close inappropriately resulting in partial obstruction to the airways.
  http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/vocal-cord-dysfunction.htm
*  Symptoms of Vocal Scarring
Laryngoscopy with synchronized strobe light that provides a slow motion-like view of vocal fold vibration (mucosal wave); stroboscopy is the key tool used to analyze vocal fold vibration. Glossary What are the symptoms of vocal fold scarring?. Hoarseness. Hoarseness is the most common symptom associated with vocal fold scarring. Hoarseness causes the voice to decrease in pitch and to become rough and raspy.. Greater Effort to Produce Voice. Vocal fold scarring causes poor or reduced vocal fold vibration. To vibrate and produce sound the scarred, stiffened vocal folds demand greater effort from the entire voice production mechanism (lungs and muscles of the throat). Patients often complain that they have to work harder to produce voice. Talking softer or louder, or over background noise may be more difficult. (For more information, seeAnatomy & Physiology of Voice Production.). Difficulties ...
  http://voicefoundation.org/health-science/voice-disorders/voice-disorders/vocal-fold-scarring/symptoms-of-vocal-scarring/
*  Bench to Bedside: Research Review in Vocal Fold Extracellular Matrix | SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders | ASHA...
http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1777064 Bench to Bedside: Research Review in Vocal Fold Extracellular Matrix The vocal fold lamina propria is crucial for the production of the vocal fold mucosal wave and quality of voice. Basic science research in this area has increased over the past 10 years secondary to our understanding of this importance. The translational aspects of this research are far reaching as ... 2008-11-01T00:00:00 Article Susan L. Thibeault ...
  http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1777064
*  A Synopsis of the Management of Vocal Fold Scar | SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders | ASHA Publications
Vocal fold scarring remains one of the greatest therapeutic challenges in laryngology and voice therapy. The loss of superior lamina propria results in a change in the pliability of the vocal folds with changes in glottal configuration, glottal closure, and reduced to absent mucosal wave motion. This results in dysphonia of varying severities including breathiness, roughness, loss of pitch range, and flexibility. The aim of this article is to present a brief review of vocal fold architecture and a discussion of the etiologies of vocal fold scarring. Methods to evaluate vocal fold scarring are presented with examples of findings in laryngoscopic, acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual assessments. Medical, surgical, and behavioral treatment for vocal folds scaring including sample therapy tasks are included.. ...
  http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1768710
*  Vocal Cord Dysfunction - American Family Physician
Your doctor may need to do two tests. One is a pulmonary function test to see how well your lungs are working. For this test, you blow forcefully into a machine that measures the speed and amount of air moving in and out of your lungs. This test is useful in telling the difference between vocal cord dysfunction and asthma.. The second test is flexible laryngoscopy (lar-in-GOS-coh-pee). Your doctor will pass a small, flexible tube through your nose to look at your vocal cords while you breathe. This test will help your doctor know if your vocal cords aren't working right. ...
  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0115/p160.html
*  Understanding Vocal Fold Scarring
Direct Trauma or Injury to the Vocal Folds. Injury to the vocal folds may occur following the use of a breathing tube or from fractures or chemical injuries to the larynx. These injuries will invariably cause vocal fold scar tissue to form if unrecognized and not treated in a timely fashion.. Radiation Therapy for Cancer of the Vocal Folds. Radiation therapy for cancer of the vocal folds typically results in some degree of vocal fold scarring and fibrosis. If there is a very large, extensive cancer, treatment with either radiation or surgery will result in moderate to severe vocal fold scarring.. Factors That Affect Healing Process. Smoking, radiation therapy, diabetes, immune deficiency, and other systemic diseases can delay healing of laryngeal wounds and promote scar formation. These factors do not directly create a scar, rather they create irritation and/or negatively affect wound ...
  http://voicefoundation.org/health-science/voice-disorders/voice-disorders/vocal-fold-scarring/1428-2/
*  Human Anatomy - Lab 32 Step 2
1 of 2) Examine the interior of the larynx, which is also covered by mucous membrane. Identify an upper fold, the vestibular fold or false vocal cord and a lower fold, the vocal fold or true vocal cord (Figure 32.1 , Figure 32.2 , Figure 32.3). The space between the two folds is the ventricle or sinus of the larynx. Place a probe in the ventricle and determine the depth of the cavity. Mucus, produced by glands within the mucosal lining of the ventricles, lubricates the surface of the vocal folds. Bring the two halves of the larynx together and observe that the vocal folds are more closely apposed than the vestibular folds. When the vocal folds are approximated and air is exhaled from the lungs, the true vocal folds vibrate and thus produce sound. Links and References: ...
  http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/L32/020101.htm
*  From Bench to Bedside: Translational Research on Vocal Fold Hydration | SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders | ASHA...
http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1777062 From Bench to Bedside: Translational Research on Vocal Fold Hydration The importance of well-hydrated vocal folds in maintaining optimal voice function is widely acknowledged. In this article, we summarize findings from recent bench and bedside research and highlight how use of these experimental techniques has improved our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that regulate vocal fold hydration. ... 2008-11-01T00:00:00 Article Mahalakshmi Sivasankar ...
  http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1777062
*  Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps & Cysts - Jefferson University Hospitals
Over time, repeated abuse of the vocal cords can result in vocal cord nodules that usually grow on each vocal cord, polyps that can also appear on one or both of your vocal cords, or cysts, benign growths on the vocal cords that can affect the voice.
  http://hospitals.jefferson.edu/diseases-and-conditions/vocal-cord-nodules-polyps/
*  Perioperative Voice Recovery and the Vocal Folds: Perspectives From the Voice Care Team | SIG 3 Perspectives on Voice and Voice...
Information regarding the significance of wound healing in laryngology is steadily increasing. Vocal fold tissue may be injured by phonotrauma (excessive impact from the opposing vocal fold), chemical agents (e.g., stomach acid), trauma, or iatrogenic causes (i.e., intubation, vocal fold surgery). Following injury, the affected area becomes inflamed. The body initiates cell proliferation and matrix deposition to begin the process of healing. Matrix remodeling during the healing process determines the degree of scar formation. Vocal fold scar has well-documented structural and functional consequences, and is notoriously difficult to manage (Hirano, 2005). Our roles as vocal professionals in relationship to the stages of wound healing change at key time points: before creating a wound, when making a wound, acute management (0-2 weeks), subacute management (2-8 weeks), and late management (8 weeks and beyond)... ...
  http://sig3perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1812097
*  Vocal-fold cyst - Wikipedia
Vocal fold cysts are benign masses of the membranous vocal folds. These cysts are enclosed, sac-like structures that are typically of a yellow or white colour. They usually form unilaterally on the midpoint of the medial edge of the vocal folds. However, they can form on the cephalic, or upper/superior, surface of the vocal folds as well. There are two types of vocal fold cysts that differ in terms of location: Sub-epithelial vocal fold cysts which are located in the superficial lamina propria of the vocal folds. Ligament vocal fold cysts which are located within the deeper layers of the lamina propria or on the vocal ligament. The symptoms of vocal fold cysts vary but commonly include a hoarse voice and problems with the pitch of the voice. Initial treatment of the cysts involves voice therapy to reduce harmful vocal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocal-fold_cyst
*  DNA Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of a Vocal Fold Polyp and Granuloma | Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research...
Genome-wide transcriptional profiling has important applications in advancing knowledge of vocal fold biology. With the use of DNA microarray technology, analysis of global patterns of gene expression can reveal unexpected networks of coordinated regulation in the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria. Transcriptional gene expression patterns for 2 vocal fold pathologies-vocal fold polyp (VP; N= 1) and vocal fold granuloma (VG; N= 1) were analyzed by means of DNA microarray analysis for 4,632 human genes using another patient's true vocal fold (TVF; N= 1) as a control. Twenty-four and 29 genes for VG and VP, respectively, were established to be either over- or underexpressed compared to that of TVF. Five-way cluster analysis revealed broad patterns that suggest a potential degree of organization underlying gene expression in these tissues. For the 1 VG, genes involved represent inflammation and wound healing; for the 1 ...
  http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1781198
*  'doctors grow new Vocal Cords for humans'…. And, OTHER SPECTACULAR SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES OF YEAR 2015. - Olumurewa Dunmade's...
1.Doctors Grow Human Vocal Cords from Scratch Using cells from human donors, doctors have, for the first time, built a set of vocal cords from scratch. The cells were urged to form a tissue that mimics vocal fold mucosa - vibrating flaps in the larynx that create the sounds of the human voice. This amazing…
  https://murraygists.wordpress.com/2015/12/31/doctors-grow-new-vocal-cords-and-top-spectacular-scientific-discoveries-of-year-2015/
*  Laryngology 101 HD - Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps, part II, HD version | voicedoctor.net
This video discusses surgical management of hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps and the expected outcome after surgery. It is the 2nd video in a two-part series on hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps discussing both diagnosis and management. Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are typically caused by an acute vocal overuse. They consist of a fluid filled sac, most often on the vibrating edge of the vocal cord and almost always have a dilated blood vessel feeding blood to the polyp. Various surgical techniques for removal of polyps are discussed including a programmable DEKA CO2 laser, a standard CO2 laser, scissors (also called cold steel removal). A Zeitels Universal Glottiscope or laryngoscope is used for surgery under general anesthesia. Office laryngeal excision is described and office laser (KTP or PDL) can be used. Postoperative muscle memory is described.. ...
  https://www.voicedoctor.net/videos/laryngology-101-hd-hemorrhagic-vocal-cord-polyps-part-ii-hd-version
*  Voice Anatomy and Physiology - UC Davis Center for Voice and SwallowingUC Davis Center for Voice and Swallowing
When we speak, the vocal folds approximate and vibrate to produce voice (see image of anatomically normal closed or adducted true vocal folds above). When we breathe the vocal folds open or abduct and allow air to flow from the lungs through the mouth and nose and vice versa. When we eat, we reflexively stop breathing and the vocal folds approximate to protect the airway and keep food and drink out of the lungs.. The vocal folds do not operate like strings on a violin but actually are more comparable to a vibrating woodwind or reed instrument (clarinet) or like vibrating lips "buzzing". When we slow down the buzzing motion of the vocal folds as with videostroboscopy, we can appreciate that they have a unique and wave-like motion. Click here for a slow motion video clip of normal vocal fold vibration.. Specifically, as the vocal folds come together, they meet at the bottom ...
  http://www.ucdvoice.org/anatomy-of-the-human-voice/
*  HD Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps - laryngology 101 HD version | voicedoctor.net
Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are reviewed utilizing a case study going through diagnosis and treatment. Hemorrhagic vocal cord polyps are generally caused by vocal accidents. Sudden vocal overuse breaks a blood vessel. This often occurs on the edge of the vocal cord where the vibrations impact the vocal folds the most. Using the voice with the polyp, blood fills it and swells.. This is a High Definition version. ...
  https://www.voicedoctor.net/videos/hd-hemorrhagic-vocal-cord-polyps-laryngology-101-hd-version
*  Examining the Cross Section of the Vocal Cords - Nodo News
When described casually, most people say ''vocal cords.'' The proper medical reference term is actually, ''vocal folds.' Vocal folds are composed of mucosa tissue and muscle tissue. Also known as, vocal cords mucosa and vocal cord muscles. The vocal cord mucosa is covered by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium. Well, let me say a little-know information.…
  https://aidanews.com/2013/11/14/cross-section-of-vocal-cords/
*  MIT Produces Vocal Cord Repairing Polymers «
It never fails to astonish me. The minds fostered at MIT always seem to come up with truly incredible things. They have given us Ethernet, perfected radar and even invented those nifty little disposable razors that I couldn't possibly live without. This summer they are working on giving people with damaged vocal chords back their lost voices. Are they growing new vocal cords in a lab? Are they getting organ donations? Are they giving volunteers small computers that can vocalize for them? Of course not! Obviously they're using polymers!. This magical polymer is known as PEG30, which is a modified polyethylene glycol. It actually mimics the elastic properties of vocal chords. The technical term for the pliability of the vocal cords is viscoelasticity. PEG30 is flexible, durable and responds effortlessly to the movement of air. Simply put, normal lung power causes PEG30 to form the shapes needed for proper speech to be ...
  http://extruded-plastic-tubing.com/?p=172&cpage=5
*  MIT Produces Vocal Cord Repairing Polymers «
It never fails to astonish me. The minds fostered at MIT always seem to come up with truly incredible things. They have given us Ethernet, perfected radar and even invented those nifty little disposable razors that I couldn't possibly live without. This summer they are working on giving people with damaged vocal chords back their lost voices. Are they growing new vocal cords in a lab? Are they getting organ donations? Are they giving volunteers small computers that can vocalize for them? Of course not! Obviously they're using polymers!. This magical polymer is known as PEG30, which is a modified polyethylene glycol. It actually mimics the elastic properties of vocal chords. The technical term for the pliability of the vocal cords is viscoelasticity. PEG30 is flexible, durable and responds effortlessly to the movement of air. Simply put, normal lung power causes PEG30 to form the shapes needed for proper speech to be ...
  http://extruded-plastic-tubing.com/?p=172&cpage=6
*  Vocapedia - Vocapedia
This video is one of four in a series showing the larynx of an adult female with a left vocal fold paresis (incomplete paralysis). Note that the left vocal fold does move slightly, but is very limited compared to the right. The paresis results in weak glottic closure, which prevents normal vocal fold vibration. This video shows the larynx prior to a thyroplasty, that is, surgical placement of an implant that provides improved glottic closure and therefore better vibration. This series of videos provides a good demonstration of the concept of entrainment, in which the vocal folds become "entrained" in the airstream to vibrate, as long as they are close enough together, and have similar underlying muscle tone. The stroboscopy makes it clear that entrainment is often not achieved, leaving the vocal folds to vibrate separately, often at different frequencies. When the pitch is high enough, and there is enough longitudinal ...
  http://www.vocapedia.info/cgi/page.cgi/5/_vocapedia.html?voca=submit&level=Basic&cmd=search_advanced