Free Radicals And Human Disease, a Review
Free radical ( "Redox:" ) signaling: Conference on Active Oxygen and Medicine, Honolulu, March,(1979). Abstract . ... For example, the anti- or pro-oxidant properties of sulfhydryl compounds depend upon pH (29-31), those of beta carotene upon ... However, a third class of mechanism, solid-state defense, may be at least as important, particularly with respect to human ... Enzymatic defenses against active species include SODases, catalases, and the glutathione reductase/peroxidase system. While ...http://www.doctorproctor.com/crcpap2.htm
Detox Supplement - Complete Detoxification Kit - SHOP.COM
... and helps limit liver damage as a result of disrupted oxygen supply. Milk thistle contains a compound called silymarin, a ... What is glutathione, and why is it important in the detoxification process? Glutathione performs two tasks in the ... Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 8(3-4): 395-403, 2006. * Shen, G., et al. Modulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2- ... Red clover is a member of the legume (bean) family - the same class of plants as chickpeas and soybeans. Red clover was, and is ...https://www.shop.com/Complete+Detoxification+Kit+-742827918-p+.xhtml
Sauvignon blanc wine: Contribution of ageing and oxygen on aromatic and non-aromatic compounds and sensory composition - A...
... lower redox potentials, such as other phenolic molecules, SO2 and thiol-containing compounds, including glutathione and amino ... are sulphur-containing compounds possessing a sulfhydryl group (-SH). Various sulphur-containing compounds occur in wine and ... The hydroxybenzoic acids represent a minor class of white wine polyphenols, of which gallic acid, vanillic acid and syringic ... The role of copper and glutathione addition and oxygen exposure in the evaluation of key aroma compounds of Sauvignon Blanc. ...http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-79042015000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
898. Butylhydroquinone, tert- (TBHQ) (WHO Food Additives Series 40)
TBHQ also undergoes redox cycling with the corresponding quinone, accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species. In ... three glutathione metabolites, 2- tert-butyl-5-glutathione- S- ylhydroquinone, 2- tert-butyl-6-glutathione- S-ylhydroquinone ... Li, Y. & Trush, M.A. (1994) Reactive oxygen-dependent DNA damage resulting from the oxidation of phenolic compounds by a copper ... cytosolic class-3 aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7/0 cell cultures (Sreerame et al., 1995 ...http://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v040je02.htm
Redox-dependent thiol modifications: implications for the release of extracellular vesicles | Springer for Research &...
Electrophilic compounds that are prone to react with thiolates or thiols include reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead ... Exosomes Microvesicles Sulfhydryl groups Redox environment Chronic inflammation N-acetyl-l-cysteine ... Couto N, Wood J, Barber J (2016) The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network. ... Exosomes with major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules are present in human BAL fluid. Eur Respir ...https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00018-018-2806-z
Regulation of System by Pharmacological Manipulation of Cellular Thiols
Glutathione can be utilized by cells to reduce reactive oxygen species; for example, superoxide produced as a byproduct of ... MCB forms a fluorescent compound when it reacts with GSH through a reaction catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase . ... these reactions are directed by a class of enzymes known as glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) [17, 19]. GSH, GSSG, and the ... critical roles of Nrf2 and cystine transporter activity in the maintenance of redox balance," Redox Biology, vol. 2, pp. 786- ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/269371/
S-sulfhydration as a cellular redox regulation | Bioscience Reports
The commonly accepted key messengers of redox signal transduction in the cell include not only reactive oxygen species (ROS) [1 ... sulfur-containing compounds additionally confirm that the latter compounds play an essential role in the thiol-based redox ... glutathione reductase; GSH, glutathione; MST, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase; PLP, pyridoxal phosphate; PTEN, lipid ... In the literature, RSS created under physiological conditions (without oxidative stress) are called 'the first class of RSS' ...http://www.bioscirep.org/content/36/2/e00304
Antioxidant - Wikipedia
... reactive oxygen species also have useful cellular functions, such as redox signaling. Thus, the function of antioxidant systems ... Structure of the antioxidant glutathione.. Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction ... oxygen atmosphere. Antioxidants are an especially important class of preservatives as, unlike bacterial or fungal spoilage, ... Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_radical_scavenger
Application # 2005/0002865. Diagnostic/therapeutic agents - Patents.com
Examples of reactive moieties capable of reaction with sulfhydryl groups include .alpha.-haloacetyl compounds of the type X--CH ... Glutathione Glutathione- Lung, receptors Brain Leukotriene- receptors Biotin biotin transport protein on cell surface Folate ... Annexins are a class of phospholipid-binding proteins, many of which bind particularly avidly to phosphatidyl-serine (reviewed ... Oxygen-containing contrast media also represent potentially useful paramagnetic MR contrast agents.  Furthermore, in the ...http://www.patents.com/us-20050002865.html
Scientific Evidence - Autism Canada
Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autism. FASEB J. 2009 ... Torres AR, et al.The association and linkage of the HLA-A2 class I allele with autism. Hum Immunol. 2006 Apr-May;67(4-5):346-1. ... Sulfhydryl-reactive metals in autism.J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Apr 15;70(8):715-21. ... Chemical compounds that target thiol-disulfide groups on mononuclear phagocytes inhibit immune mediated phagocytosis of red ...https://autismcanada.org/research/scientific-evidence/
Scalable thioarylation of unprotected peptides and biomolecules under Ni/photoredox catalysis - Chemical Science (RSC...
The redox- or photoactive aromatic amino acid tyrosine (Tyr) evoked lower conversion to product, and protonated amines (e.g., ... Rapid H-atom abstraction from the sulfhydryl group generates a thiyl radical, which adds to Ni(0). This is followed by Ni(I) ... Cys-containing glutathione 1 was examined with an array of (hetero)aryl bromides under general conditions. Various unmasked ... Oxygen or nitrogen cross-coupled adducts were not detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass ...https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2018/sc/c7sc04292b
Imidazoline .alpha.-adrenergic receptor antagonist compounds in combination with nitric oxide donors, compositions and...
... with at least one NO or NO.sub.2 moiety and compounds that donate, transfer or release nitric oxide or elevate levels of ... Another embodiment of the invention includes substituted compounds of the formula IV: ##STR7##. wherein A.sub.1 is oxygen or ... Another class of .alpha.-adrenergic blocking agents are alkaloids. These include, for example, "ergotoxine" which is a mixture ... sulfhydryl condensation), carbon and nitrogen. The invention also provides compositions comprising one or more of such ...http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6514934.html
Sulfhydryl Redox State Affects Susceptibility to Ischemia and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Release in Rat Heart | Circulation...
Glutathione modulates ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum: evidence for a redox regulation of the Ca ... Oxygen-derived free radical stress activates nonselective cation current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes: role of sulfhydryl ... 4 The involvement of sulfhydryl oxidation was suggested by the observation that thiol compounds such as N-2- ... 36 40 Ischemia reperfusion appears to be associated with the oxidation of a specific class of thiols, and the functional ...http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/83/9/908
Frontiers | Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia | Physiology
Reduced glutathione is a sulfhydryl containing tripeptide acting intracellularly as a reducing agent. Reactive Oxygen species ( ... Red blood cell-derived microvesicles may also be implicated in immunomodulation, nitric oxide (NO)-redox homeostasis, and in ... Treatment modalities of hemolytic anemia, like splenectomy and pharmaceutical compounds, may modify RBC deformability and ... a class of extracellular vesicles defined by the fact that they originate from the plasma membrane (Greenwalt, 2006). In ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2013.00365/full
Innate immune evasion strategies against Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (Review)
Metabolism of ROS, reduction of oxidized sulfhydryl groups and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. (46,49-54). ... glutathione reductase; Grx, glutaredoxin; GSH, glutathione; GSSG, glutathione disulfide; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; NADPH, ... Conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. (64). Cytochrome c peroxidases. Degradation of hydrogen peroxide ... Phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that cleave phospholipids to produce various biologically active compounds ...https://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/14/6/5243
Novel Glutathione-Dependent Thiopurine Prodrugs: Evidence for Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Tumor Cells and for Decreased Bone...
1). The results showed that both trans-AVTG andcis-AVTP reacted rapidly with the sulfhydryl nucleophiles GSH, cysteine, and N- ... Thus, these compounds might be potential candidates of prodrugs that target tumors with up-regulated levels of GSH. ... 2001) Cellular thiols and reactive oxygen species in drug-induced apoptosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 296:1-6. ... 1). AVTG and AVTP represent a class of structurally novel prodrugs in which a chemotherapeutic agent with a sulfur heteroatom ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/301/1/77
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption | HTML
... effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that ... Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as ... Gastric mucosa is rich in protein sulfhydryl groups, which may be the target of ROS. Oxidized protein sulfhydryl groups lead to ... Redox Signal 2005, 7, 1140-1149. [Google Scholar]. *Ronis, MJJ; Lindros, KO; Ingelman-Sundberg, M. Ioannides, C, Ed.; The CYP2E ...https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/7/12/4281/htm
The Adrenochrome Hypothesis and Psychiatry - A. Hoffer, M.D. Ph.D. and H. Osmond, M.D.
There it is more stable due to the presence of re-ducing substances such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, and sulfhydryl groups ... In a double blind experiment, test-ing one compound against placebo is diffi-cult. To add two more compounds would make it ... It requires oxygen and is accelerated by traces of metal such as copper ions. We have dis-cussed the theoretical argument for ... Adrenochrome is a member of a class of chemicals known as aminochromes, each one derived by the oxidation of its precursor ...http://www.orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1999/articles/1999-v14n01-p049.shtml
EC 1.7 and EC 1.8
Reaction: 2 glutathione + O2 = glutathione disulfide + H2O2. Systematic name: glutathione:oxygen oxidoreductase. Comments: A ... S,S'-Biglutathione may also be used to refer to this compound.. Other name(s): glutathione reductase; glutathione reductase ( ... Other name(s): sulfhydryl oxidase. Systematic name: thiol:oxygen oxidoreductase. Comments: R may be =S or =O, or a variety of ... Systematic name: glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Comments: A dimeric flavoprotein (FAD); activity is dependent on a redox- ...https://www.qmul.ac.uk/sbcs/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/07p.html
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. ... Under mild oxidation, reversible oxidation of cysteine sulfhydryl groups serves as redox sensors and signal transducers that ... redox measurements by use of a genetically encoded glutathione sensor upon addition of an oxidizing agent, and (3) initiation ... Furthermore, compounds such as growth factors have a profound effect on dopamine and dopamine-regulating proteins, to a ...https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23300845/dynamic-regulation-phenylalanine-hydroxylase-simulated-redox
Glutathione reductase - Wikipedia
Drugs which use glutathione reductase to regenerate, such as redox cyclers. Two examples of these types of compounds are ... Glutathione reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form glutathione ( ... glutathione reductase helps to protect plant cells from reactive oxygen species. In plants, reduced glutathione participates in ... Glutathione reductase is also inhibited by some flavanoids, a class of pigments produced by plants. GSH is a key cellular ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutathione_reductase
Frontiers | Signaling in a Polluted World: Oxidative Stress as an Overlooked Mechanism Linking Contaminants to Animal...
Given that thiol compounds like glutathione play an important role in the regulation of cell redox status and protection ... Panaretakis, T., Shabalina, I. G., Grandér, D., Shoshan, M. C., and DePierre, J. W. (2001). Reactive oxygen species and ... Sulfhydryl groups like thiols are important molecules that regulate the oxidative balance and any depletion leads to disruption ... we highlight that our argumentations also apply to this important class of contaminants. Future work should pay special ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2016.00095/full
Thiol - Wikipedia
Thiol (/ˈθaɪɔːl/, /ˈθaɪɒl/) is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (-SH) group (where R ... RedoxEdit. Thiols, especially in the presence of base, are readily oxidized by reagents such as iodine to give an organic ... Thiols are also responsible for a class of wine faults caused by an unintended reaction between sulfur and yeast and the " ... Because sulfur is a larger element than oxygen, the C-S bond lengths, typically around 180 picometers in length, is about 40 ...https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiol
Patent US6693122 - Nitrosated and nitrosylated potassium channel activators, compositions and ... - Google Patents
... and at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived ... at least one compound that donates, transfers or releases nitric oxide, elevates endogenous levels of endothelium-derived ... 28:95-127 (1993) describe this class of compounds for treating diseases such as hypertension, asthma, hair growth, ischemia and ... is oxygen then Q is not -NO2; and the compounds of Formula (I) must contain at least one nitrite, nitrate, thionitrite or ...http://www.google.com/patents/US6693122?dq=6978253
Patent US7468458 - Accelerants for the modification of non-natural amino acids and non-natural ... - Google Patents
The oxime-containing compound, the carbonyl-containing compound and the hydroxylamine-containing compound can each be a non- ... Also disclosed is the use of such accelerants to form oxime-containing compounds, the resulting oxime-containing compounds, and ... Disclosed herein are accelerants for the formation of oxime-containing compounds from the reaction of a carbonyl-containing ... Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into the present compounds include isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen ...http://www.google.com/patents/US7468458