*  Calyx of Held - Wikipedia
The astrocytes express glutamate transporters to remove glutamate from the synapse. This is the only known mechanism for ... In order to load the glutamate into vesicles at the terminal two proteins are used: vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) ... Gating mechanics of the glutamate receptors becomes faster Aside from the glutamate receptor, only a few other ligand-gated ... The glutamate then binds to two known glutamate receptors, AMPA- and NMDA receptors. Commonly used in research due to its large ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calyx_of_Held
*  Astrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: direct effects on motor neuron survival
The EAAT2/GLT1 transporter present on the astrocytes removes glutamate from the synaptic cleft. In addition, astrocytes secrete ... 1). By far, the most important glutamate transporter expressed in astrocytes is EAAT2/GLT-1. This transporter has the highest ... Under normal conditions, astrocytes remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft and release trophic factors. In addition, these ... Knockout of glutamate transporters reveals a major role for astroglial transport in excitotoxicity and clearance of glutamate. ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2750739/
*  Star-shaped cells in the brain aid with learning - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
By removing the glutamate transmitter from the synaptic gap via so-called transporters, astrocytes regulate the availability of ... In contrast, if ephrinA3 was experimentally increased, the number of astrocyte-transporters decreased. As a result glutamate ... astrocytes influence the communication between nerve cells by removing the transmitter molecule glutamate. This so far unknown ... the neighboring astrocyte increases its transporter numbers. The resulting superabundant transporters eliminate so much ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/brain-nerves/3284-star-shaped-cells-in-the-brain-aid-with-learning.html
*  Reuptake - Wikipedia
Astrocytes use excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2, aka GLT-1) to remove glutamate from the synapse. EAAT2 knockout mice ... This effect requires the transporter and TAAR1 to be co-localized (occur together) within the same neuron. Astrocytes seem to ... In TM1, an aspartate distinguishes monoamine NSS transporters from amino acid transporters which contain a glycine at the same ... "Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1". Science. 276 (5319): 1699-702. doi: ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuptake
*  Neurotransmitter - New World Encyclopedia
Many neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft by neurotransmitter transporters in a process called reuptake (or ... Cells termed astrocytes can remove neurotransmitters from the area. Some, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin can ... Glutamate (glutamic acid). Glu. Metabotropic glutamate receptor. NMDA receptor, Kainate receptor, AMPA receptor. ... Glutamate is the most prominent of excitatory transmitters; GABA and glycine are well-known inhibitory neurotransmitters. ...
  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Neurotransmitter
*  Can a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor act as a glutamatergic modulator?
... and this excitatory neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft by astrocyte transporters. This transport depends upon ... The impairment of the Kir4.1 channel activity reduces driving force for the glutamate transporter, resulting in an accumulation ... en] Glutamate modulator [en] Kir4.1 potassium channels [en] Prozac [en] Sertraline [en] Zoloft ... Among their actions is the inhibition of different types of Naþ and Kþ channels, as well as of glutamate uptake activity. The ...
  http://www.lume.ufrgs.br/handle/10183/169147
*  Neuroprotection and Recovery | Stroke
Regulation of glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 expression in astrocytes by estrogen. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;138:1-7 ... glutamate transporters remove this neurotransmitter/excitotoxin from extracellular space thereby helping to terminate ... Knocking out the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 reduces glutamate uptake but does not affect hippocampal glutamate dynamics ... Antisense knockdown of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, but not the neuronal glutamate transporter eaac1, exacerbates ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/1_suppl_1/S33
*  Highlighting Research Awards - August 2017
Voltage-dependent Modulation of Astrocyte Glutamate Transport Induced by Neuronal Activity Astrocytes remove the excitatory ... voltage-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Robust glutamate uptake by EAATs ensures the temporal and spatial ... the transport of glutamate into the astrocyte is both sodium-driven and voltage-dependent. Under normal conditions, astrocytes ... In order to detect distal changes in astrocyte Vm, we have begun to develop an approach to image Vm in astrocyte processes ...
  http://viceprovost.tufts.edu/news/2017/09/15/highlighting-research-awards-august-2017/
*  What Does Glia Do in the Brain? Part 3
Astrocytes remove excess glutamate, the excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and other vertebrates. ... Astrocytes remove excess glutamate. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and other vertebrates ... of the glutamate released, whereas the remaining 20% is taken up by neurons. The glutamate transporters are co-transporters ... It is now known that astrocytes remove the bulk of glutamate from the extracellular space; they accumulate 80% ...
  https://www.fmcpaware.org/what-does-glia-do-in-the-brain-part-3.html
*  Glutamate-glutamine cycle - Wikipedia
Once the vesicle is released, glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft by excitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs). This ... where glutamate would cause neuronal depolarization. Astrocytes readily convert glutamate to glutamine via the glutamine ... The glutamate that is synthesized in the presynaptic terminal is packaged into synaptic vesicles by the glutamate transporter, ... Glutamate residing in the synapse must be rapidly removed in one of three ways: uptake into the postsynaptic compartment, re- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate-glutamine_cycle
*  Glutamate aspartate transporter - Wikipedia
2000). "Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes ... allowing it to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. It has also been localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane as ... "High-affinity glutamate transporters in the rat retina: a major role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST-1 in transmitter ... SLC1A3 is also often called the GLutamate ASpartate Transporter (GLAST) or Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1) . GLAST ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_aspartate_transporter
*  Amine transporters - part 1 - Flashcards in University Biology
How is glutamate removed from the synapse Uptake by transporters 7 of 46 ... from metabolism of glucose, or from glutamine synthesised by astrocytes. 5 of 46 ... How is GABA removed from the synapse Energy from Na is used to drive reuptake through cotransport. It is reutilized in pre- ... How does glutamate accumulate in synaptic vesicles VGluT1-3, driven in by an eectrical gradient created by different ...
  https://getrevising.co.uk/revision-tests/amine_transporters_part_1_1
*  2013 Grantees - Autism Science Foundation
EAAT2 is an astrocytic glutamate transporter that removes up to 95% of extracellular glutamate in the brain, which properly ... Role of Astrocytic Glutamate Transporter GLT1 in Fragile X Syndrome. One of the crucial functions of astrocytes in the healthy ... This is accomplished by removal of excess glutamate through specialized glutamate transporters, such as GLT1, which are ... propose to evaluate human brain tissue samples to assess whether there is a similar alteration in human glutamate transporter ...
  https://autismsciencefoundation.org/what-we-fund/asf-funded-research/2013-grantees/
*  Frontiers | GABA and Glutamate Transporters in Brain | Endocrinology
EAAT4 and EAAT5 seem to be acting more like inhibitory glutamate receptors than as glutamate transporters. GAT2 and BGT1 are ... EAAT4 and EAAT5 seem to be acting more like inhibitory glutamate receptors than as glutamate transporters. GAT2 and BGT1 are ... The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 ... The most important and most abundant transporters for removal of transmitter glutamate in the brain are EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2013.00165/full
*  anti-Solute Carrier Family 1 (High Affinity Aspartate/glutamate Transporter), Member 6 Primary Antibodies
The main role of EAAT4 is to remove low concentrations of glutamate (zeige GRIN1 Antikörper) that escape from the uptake by ... These results demonstrate that EAAT4 is expressed in astrocytes. This astrocytic localization of neuronal EAAT4 may reveal a ... Glutamate Transporter), Member 7 Antikörper * anti-Solute Carrier Family 1 (Glial High Affinity Glutamate Transporter), Member ... excitatory amino acid transporter 4-like , high-affinity neuronal glutamate transporter , sodium-dependent glutamate/aspartate ...
  https://www.antikoerper-online.de/dicarboxylic-acid-transport-pathway-99/slc1a6-antibody-31234/
*  Plus it
... rabbit anti-astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST) (1:100; generous gift from M. Watanabe, Hokkaido University School ... To confirm a neuronal nature of the migrating cells, the EGF-containing media was removed and replaced with basal media for 48 ... 8, A and B). This suggests that the GFAP-expressing astrocyte population of the subependyma did not dedifferentiate into RC2- ... After FGF-2 infusions, RC2-expressing cells in the subependyma coexpressed the astrocyte marker GFAP (Fig. 6E-G); however, RC2- ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/37/11587
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application | HTML
... increased the expression level of glutamate transporter GLT 1 in the surrounding astrocytes; subsequent lowering of ... The capsule can be removed from the transplanted brain in case adverse effects arise after transplantation; (5) Various cells ... extracellular glutamate level was shown to reduce cell damage to surrounding tissue [25]. Other than that, NSCs might enhance ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/12/23390/htm
*  Richard J. Reimer, MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles
... altered in this cortical malformation model and suggests that the regional ability of astrocytes to remove released glutamate ... The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for packaging glutamate into synaptic vesicles, and are part of a ... Along with the closely related vesicular glutamate transporters, sialin belongs to the SLC17 transporter family. Despite their ... The neurotransmitter glutamate is recycled through an astrocytic-neuronal glutamate-glutamine cycle in which synaptic glutamate ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/richard-reimer
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Chiye Aoki (Translated to Spanish)
... of the glutamate transporter GLT1. This transporter was previously found to be localized exclusively in astrocytes in the ... However, since a substantial portion of spinous NMDAR subunits can reside at sites removed from plasma membranes, whether or ... Glutamate transporters regulate the extracellular concentration of glutamate. GLT-1 is the most abundant glutamate transporter ... Expression of a Variant Form of the Glutamate Transporter GLT1 in Neuronal Cultures and in Neurons and Astrocytes in the Rat ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Chiye_Aoki?language=Spanish
*  Excitotoxicity - Wikipedia
The Na+-glutamate transporters on neurons and astrocytes can reverse their glutamate transport and start secreting glutamate at ... Glutamate transporters require the maintenance of these ion gradients to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. The ... Camacho, A; Massieu, L (2006). "Role of glutamate transporters in the clearance and release of glutamate during ischemia and ... Common excitotoxins include glutamate analogs that mimic the action of glutamate at glutamate receptors, including AMPA and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excitotoxin
*  Clozapine - Wikipedia
... from astrocytes, and reduces the expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters. These are direct effects that are also ... but once ciprofloxacin is removed from therapy, it is recommended to return clozapine to original dose. Clozapine is classified ... Clozapine induces the release of glutamate and D-serine, an agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, ... present in astrocyte cell cultures not containing neurons. Clozapine prevents impaired NMDA receptor expression caused by NMDA ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clozapine
*  Frontiers | Global Approaches to the Role of miRNAs in Drug-Induced Changes in Gene Expression | Genetics
... expression of Mtdh in primary human fetal astrocytes inhibits expression of the glial high-affinity glutamate transporter ( ... The signal sequence is removed co-translationally; proPC2, which is inactive, is activated by an endoproteolytic cleavage that ... Examples include several dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter, a number of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate ... Kalivas, P. W. (2009). The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 561-572. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2012.00109/full
*  Simvastatin Reduces the Association of NMDA Receptors to Lipid Rafts | Stroke
Cholesterol deficiency perturbs actin signaling and glutamate homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Brain Res. 2006; 1104: 27- ... A recent report shows that individuals with a functional polymorphism in the promoter of the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 ... In this regard, results from a previous report, and our own (not shown), demonstrated that a compound that binds and removes ... In culture, cholesterol-depleted astrocytes were more vulnerable to glutamate-induced death,36 but this excitotoxic effect was ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/39/4/1269
*  Glutamate transporter - Wikipedia
After glutamate is released as the result of an action potential, glutamate transporters quickly remove it from the ... Anderson CM, Swanson RA (2000). "Astrocyte glutamate transport: review of properties, regulation, and physiological functions ... Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate - the principal excitatory ... family and vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) family. In the brain, EAATs remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_transporter
*  Astroglial Contribution to Brain Energy Metabolism in Humans Revealed by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy:...
1 b). In this model, neuronal glutamate repletion would be entirely through uptake by neuronal glutamate transporters. ... glutamate and glutamine within astrocytes as opposed to glutamate and glutamine movements between neurons and astrocytes. ... a lesser amount is produced de novo through anaplerosis to remove excess ammonia derived from blood and/or brain metabolism ( ... Estimate of glutamate oxidation. In the glutamate oxidation pathway (V gluox), glutamate released by the neuron is taken up by ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/5/1523.long