*  Recovery of phenotypes obtained by adaptive evolution through inverse metabolic engineering
In a previous study system level analysis of adaptively evolved yeast mutants showing improved galactose utilization revealed relevant mutations. The governing mutations were suggested to be in the Ras/PKA signaling pathway and ergosterol metabolism. Here site-directed mutants having one of the mutations, RAS2 Lys 77, RAS2 Tyr112 and ERG5 Pro 370 were constructed and evaluated. The mutants were also combined with over-expression of PGM2, earlier proved as a beneficial target for galactose utilization. The constructed strains were analyzed for their gross phenotype, transcriptome and targeted metabolites; and the results were compared to those obtained from reference strains and the evolved strains. The RAS2 Lys 77 mutation resulted in the highest specific galactose uptake rate among all the strains with an increased maximum specific growth rate on galactose. ...
  http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/publication/162741-recovery-of-phenotypes-obtained-by-adaptive-evolution-through-inverse-metabolic-engineering
*  Plus it
Galactose is incorporated into glycogen by a different metabolic route than glucose and fructose, the other major dietary monosaccharides. Oral galactose (4 g/kg) was given to 24-h-fasted adult rats to 1) compare quantitatively the disposition of galactose with that of glucose and fructose; 2) examine the effects of galactose on hepatic utilization of other metabolic fuels; and 3) examine circulating and liver galactose concentrations to determine whether net hepatic uptake of galactose, like glucose, occurs against a concentration gradient. Galactose absorption, hepatic blood flow, portal venous, arterial, hepatic venous, and liver concentrations of galactose, glucose, ...
  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/259/6/E804
*  Timing and Variability of Galactose Metabolic Gene Activation Depend on the Rate of Environmental Change
Modulation of gene network activity allows cells to respond to changes in environmental conditions. For example, the galactose utilization network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by the presence of galactose but repressed by glucose. If both sugars are present, the yeast will first metabolize glucose, depleting it from the extracellular environment. Upon depletion of glucose, the genes encoding galactose metabolic proteins will activate. Here, we show that the rate at which glucose levels are depleted determines the timing and variability of galactose gene activation. Paradoxically, we find that Gal1p, an enzyme needed for galactose metabolism, accumulates more quickly if glucose is depleted slowly rather than taken away quickly. ...
  https://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/82041
*  Galactose - New World Encyclopedia
Galactose (Gal) is a six-carbon sugar and a monosaccharide that combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose, forms galactose polysaccharides in agar, is a component in various gums, mucilages, and pectins, and is also present in sugar beets. As a hexose sugar, galactose has the same formula as glucose, C6H12O6, but differs in the position of the hydroxyl group on carbon-4 (Bender and Bender 2005). Along with glucose and fructose, galactose is one of the three most important blood sugars in animals. Galactose also is known as brain sugar (Houghton Mifflin 1998).. Galactose is less sweet than glucose and sucrose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. Galactose and ...
  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Galactose
*  Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose
Galactose is not normally found in nature, but is mostly hydrolyzed from the disaccharide lactose, which is found in milk, as part of a disaccharide made by glycosidic linkage to a glucose molecule. The lactose disaccharide from milk is a major energy source for almost all animals, including human. Although not very water-soluble, and less sweet than glucose, it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins, which is found in many tissues. The body can change glucose to galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to produce lactose. Galactose is natural and is a basic component of many things, being found in milk, tomatoes and many fruits and vegetables. There is only one product range in the world that uses galactose as a basic food and drink ingredient, and that is a brand new range of energy drinks. ...
  http://orthomolecular.org/nutrients/mono.html
*  CCCC 1989, Volume 54, Issue 3, Abstracts pp. 819-833 | Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications
Biosynthesis of constituents of pectic polysaccharides containing D-galactose was investigated in poplar tissue culture in vitro. The particulate enzymic preparation isolated from the tissue culture of poplar catalyzed the transfer of D-[U-14C]-galactose unit form UDP-D-[U-14C]-galactose into various endogenous acceptors to form galactolipides, water-soluble metabolites and membrane-bound galactoproteins. The initial rate of formation of water-soluble metabolites depends on the substrate concentration and is time and amount of the enzymic protein directly proportional. Optimal formation of these metabolites proceeds at pH 7·6 and 40 °C in the presence of 0.1 mM ATP and 10 mM MgCl2. Long-term incubations afforded a mixture of three radioactive water-soluble metabolites: a neutral oligomer of Mr ~ 620 consisting at least of two β-D-[U-14C]-galactose units linked by (1 → 6) ...
  http://cccc.uochb.cas.cz/54/3/0819/
*  2-Amino-2-Deoxy-d-[1-13c]galactose hydrochloride - Alfa Chemistry
2-Amino-2-Deoxy-d-[1-13c]galactose hydrochloride/ACM478518546 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
  http://www.alfa-chemistry.com/cas_478518-54-6.htm
*  Discovery of causal relationships in a gene-regulation pathway from a mixture of experimental and observational DNA microarray...
This paper reports the methods and results of a computer-based search for causal relationships in the gene-regulation pathway of galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The search uses recently published data from cDNA microarray experiments. A Bayesian method was applied to learn causal networks from a mixture of observational and experimental gene-expression data. The observational data were gene-expression levels obtained from unmanipulated "wild-type" cells. The experimental data were produced by deleting ("knocking out") genes and observing the expression levels of other genes. Causal relations predicted from the analysis on 36 galactose gene pairs are reported and compared with the known galactose pathway. Additional exploratory analyses are also reported.. ...
  http://www.dbmi.pitt.edu/node/2062
*  WHO | Public health round-up
This month WHO finalizes revised recommendations on the intake of what are known as "free sugars", following peer-review by an external expert group and a public consultation last month.. The guideline will provide countries with recommendations on limiting the consumption of free sugars to reduce diet-related noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity and dental caries (tooth decay). Free sugars include monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose) and disaccharides (such as sucrose - commonly known as table sugar - and lactose) that are added to foodstuffs by manufacturers, cooks and consumers. Free sugars also include the types of sugar that are naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit concentrates, but do not include the sugars found in non-refined foodstuffs, such as brown rice or fruit. Once finalized, the document will be cleared by WHO's Guidelines Review Committee before its official release later this year. WHO's current recommendation, from 2002, is that free ...
  http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/92/4/14-010414/en/
*  "Development of a galactose biosensor with galactose oxidase-immobilize" by Hencher H.C. Lee, Esther S.C. Wong et al.
Lee, Hencher H.C., Esther S.C. Wong, Albert Y.W. Chan, and Martin M.F. Choi. "Development of a galactose biosensor with galactose oxidase-immobilized epidermis of Solanum lycopersicum: Potential point-of-care testing for citrin deficiency in high-prevalence areas." Clinica Chimica Acta 412.4-3 (2011): 391-392. ...
  https://repository.hkbu.edu.hk/hkbu_staff_publication/773/
*  Why Is Galactose Classified as a Simple Sugar? | Synonym
Galactose can have a variety of different cyclic structures depending on the situation. Find out why galactose is classified as a simple sugar with help from an experienced biology and chemistry ...
  http://classroom.synonym.com/galactose-classified-simple-sugar-22301.html
*  साँचा:Fructose and galactose metabolism enzymes - विकिपीडिया
यह सामग्री क्रियेटिव कॉमन्स ऍट्रीब्यूशन/शेयर-अलाइक लाइसेंस के तहत उपलब्ध है; अन्य शर्ते लागू हो सकती हैं। विस्तार से जानकारी हेतु देखें उपयोग की शर्तें ...
  https://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%81%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BE:Fructose_and_galactose_metabolism_enzymes
*  What is the Difference Between Glucose and Galactose? | LIVESTRONG.COM
Glucose and galactose are sugars made of a single sugar unit, also referred to as monosaccharides. They are found naturally in the food supply, or they...
  http://www.livestrong.com/article/309077-what-is-the-difference-between-glucose-and-galactose/
*  Galactose by BioPure (Organic Essential Sugar Proprietary Supplement) - ProHealth.com
Galactose, by BioPure, is a type of sugar, similar to fructose and glucose that has been identified as one of 8 essential sugars needed in the diet for proper cell development and functioning of the human body.
  https://www.prohealth.com/shop/product.cfm/product__code/N2029
*  OPA1‐dependent cristae modulation is essential for cellular adaptation to metabolic demand | The EMBO Journal
Cristae structural changes have been documented decades ago (Hackenbrock, 1966, 1968a,b), but our understanding of how these changes occur and their functional consequence is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which cristae are physiologically regulated. Changes in energy substrate availability are sensed by mitochondrial SLC25A transporters, which in turn regulate OPA1 oligomerization. OPA1 oligomerization is then required to modulate cristae width and regulate assembly of the ATP synthase, in a mitochondrial fusion‐independent manner. The physiological importance of this mechanism is highlighted by the demonstration that a fusion‐incompetent form of OPA1(Q297V) rescued OCR, ATP synthase assembly and cell growth of OPA1 KO MEFs in galactose media, which forces mitochondrial respiration for ATP production.. Although it is known that OPA1 oligomers disassemble during cell death leading to release of proapoptotic factors (Frezza et al, 2006) and that ...
  http://emboj.embopress.org/content/33/22/2676
*  Gentaur Molecular :EYlabs \ Aminophenyl a Galactose Gel, 5mL \ CG-032-5
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , EYlabs \ Aminophenyl a_Galactose Gel, 5mL \ CG-032-5 for more molecular products just contact us
  http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1068110&supplier=search&name=Aminophenyl%20a_Galactose%20Gel,%205mL
*  Galactose and Lactose Assay Kit (ab83378) References
References for Abcam's Galactose and Lactose Assay Kit (ab83378). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
  http://www.abcam.com/galactose-and-lactose-assay-kit-ab83378-references.html
*  Molecules - Humpath.com - Human pathology
Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactose solubility in water is 68.30 grams per 100 grams of water at 20-25° C ...
  http://www.humpath.com/spip.php?mot7&debut_articles=80
*  anti-Galectin 1 antibody [9J26] | GeneTex
Galectin 1 antibody [9J26] (lectin, galactose binding, soluble 1) for IHC, WB. Anti-Galectin 1 mAb (GTX53170) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
  http://www.genetex.com/Galectin-1-antibody-9J26-GTX53170.html
*  anti-Galectin 9 antibody [RG9-1] | GeneTex
Galectin 9 antibody [RG9-1] (lectin, galactose binding, soluble 9). Anti-Galectin 9 mAb (GTX14457) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
  http://www.genetex.com/Galectin-9-antibody-RG9-1-GTX14457.html
*  Sequence Detail
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:7:28833854:28841708:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000022686 transcript:OTTMUST00000054398 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Lgals4 description:lectin, galactose binding, soluble 4 ...
  http://www.informatics.jax.org/sequence/OTTMUSP00000025965
*  The truth about sugar
Eating or drinking too much free sugar can contribute to increased body weight and may lead to high cholesterol and triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes.
  https://www.heartfoundation.org.nz/wellbeing/healthy-eating/nutrition-facts/the-truth-about-sugar
*  2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(2-O-sulfo-beta-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose,2na - Alfa Chemistry
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(2-O-sulfo-beta-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose,2na/AFI149368047 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
  http://www.alfa-chemistry.com/cas_149368-04-7.htm
*  PQR | 3-o-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl)-d-galactose
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 3-o-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl)-d-galactose (C14H25NO11) from the PQR.
  http://pqr.pitt.edu/mol/MGEICUVBTAEZNP-IVEGRXJSSA-N
*  1-Amino-1-deoxy-?-D-galactose | Phion
Product Number , 35564538. CAS Number , 74867-91-7. EC , Molecular Formula , C6H13NO5. Molecular Weight , 179.17. Storage Temp , +4°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29329900900. Signal Word , ...
  http://phionchemicals.com/product/1-amino-1-deoxy-d-galactose