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*  A Preprandial Rise in Plasma Ghrelin Levels Suggests a Role in Meal Initiation in Humans | Diabetes
The recently discovered orexigenic peptide ghrelin is produced primarily by the stomach and circulates in blood at levels that increase during prolonged fasting in rats. When administered to rodents at supraphysiological doses, ghrelin activates hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti gene-related protein neurons and increases food intake and body weight. These findings suggest that ghrelin may participate in meal initiation. As a first step to investigate this hypothesis, we sought to determine whether circulating ghrelin levels are elevated before the consumption of individual meals in humans. Ghrelin, insulin, and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples drawn 38 times throughout a 24-h period in 10 healthy subjects provided meals on a fixed schedule. Plasma ghrelin levels increased nearly ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/50/8/1714.short?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes
*  Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin | Gut
In the past few years, much progress has been made in the understanding of how people maintain body weight and how homeostasis is affected.19-22 In 1999, ghrelin was discovered in the stomach as an appetite stimulatory signal from the periphery with structural resemblance to motilin.1,4,5,23 Previous studies have shown that acylated ghrelin produces stimulatory effects on food intake via activation of NPY, AGRP, and orexin in the hypothalamus, and on gastric emptying.4,5,23-25 However, very little is known about the physiological role of desacyl ghrelin. We found that administration of desacyl ghrelin produced inhibitory effects on feeding. Notably, the anorexigenic effect of desacyl ghrelin was inversely proportioned to that of the orexigenic effect of acylated ghrelin. Considerable evidence cumulatively ...
  http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/1/18
*  Helicobacter pylori, ghrelin, and obesity | Gut
Macadam et al have rightly questioned whether our novel observation is merely epiphenomenal or of pathophysiological significance. Their "gut feeling" is that it is the former as the changes are "mild" and ghrelin concentrations after Helicobacter pylori cure are no different from those seen in a non-obese Western population. They also suggest that the "moderate" reduction of ghrelin in H pylori positive subjects (which they attribute to oxyntic gland atrophy) is unlikely to protect these individuals from obesity.. There is no doubt that cure of H pylori increases plasma ghrelin in "healthy subjects". The real questions are: whether plasma ghrelin concentrations are higher in H pylori negative individuals and, if so, whether the higher ghrelin concentrations cause weight gain, and whether any weight gained exacerbates gastro-oesophageal acid ...
  http://gut.bmj.com/content/53/2/315.2
*  GHRELIN, MORE THAN A NATURAL OREXIGENIC FACTOR
One of the main actions of ghrelin, which attracted the interest of researchers mainly due to its possible therapeutic potential, is its orexigenic action. It is recognized that ghrelin transmits hunger signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thus, it enhances appetite, increases food intake and reduces energy consumption, with consequent weight gain(41). The discovery of GOAT, enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation(11) was a step forward in understanding the role played by acyl-modification in the physiology of ghrelin. The GOAT-ghrelin system acts as a nutrient sensor informing the body of the presence of nutrients(42). The central site of ghrelin action is the hypothalamus (mainly the arcuate nucleus, with increased expression of NPY and AgRP orexigenic peptide), where ...
  http://www.medicina-interna.ro/articol.php?articol=991&lang=ro
*  Higher postprandial serum ghrelin among African-American girls before puberty : Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and...
Objective: Recent reports suggest that ghrelin regulation may differ by ethnicity and age. This study was designed to examine circulating ghrelin among overweight female African Americans across different age groups.. Methods: Eleven overweight peripubertal girls, 17 overweight pubertal girls, and a control group of 18 overweight African-American premenopausal women ingested a standard liquid meal after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and for 4 h postchallenge. Participants rated appetite by a visual analog scale.. Results: Peripubertal girls demonstrated higher postprandial ghrelin and lesser ghrelin suppression compared with adults (p,0.05), corresponding with greater desire to eat across the test period (p=0.017). Fasting ghrelin tended to be inversely related to fasting estradiol (r=-0.264, p=0.076).. ...
  https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jpem.2012.25.issue-7-8/jpem-2012-0081/jpem-2012-0081.xml
*  Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats - Szulc - 2013 - Addiction...
There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/adb.12025/full?globalMessage=0
*  Influence of different storage conditions and anticoagulants on the measurement of total and acylated ghrelin in dogs: a...
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare different sample treatments and storage conditions in order to determine optimal conditions for total and acylated canine ghrelin measurement using ELISA assays. Under the conditions assessed in this study, total ghrelin concentration was stable when stored at room temperature or under cooled conditions (4°C) for approximately six hours regardless of the type of anticoagulant used. When samples were stored at under −20°C, three freeze/thaw cycles during storage did not alter total ghrelin concentration if serum or plasma treated with EDTA or with EDTA-aprotinin is used. When samples were stored at under −80°C, no significant differences were observed after three freeze/thaw cycles in total ghrelin concentrations in serum or plasma treated with EDTA, EDTA-aprotinin or heparin. While acylated ...
  http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/172/11/289
*  "EATING RATE, FASTING GHRELIN CONCENTRATIONS AND WEIGHT STATUS IN FEMAL" by Stephanie E. Perruzza
Obesity is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality and affects over one-third of the American adult population. Eating rate and ghrelin concentrations are two variables that may play a role in obesity. An ancillary study of female college students examined the differences in eating rate (grams/second) and fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations (pg/mL) between weight status categories (normal weight body mass index (BMI) = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2 and obese BMI 30 kg/m2). Anthropometrics, clinical (blood pressure), and biochemical (glucose and ghrelin) data were assessed. Dietary information was obtained from three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls using the multiple pass method in conjunction with the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. Primary outcomes were assessed using a one-way ...
  http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/theses/99/
*  Plus it
The primary aim of these experiments was to investigate the hypotheses that 1) the increased body adiposity in rats fed an HF diet will exert an inhibitory influence on gastric ghrelin production and systemic ghrelin levels, 2) a higher percentage of dietary fat is a signal to reduce stomach ghrelin production and blood ghrelin levels, and 3) an increased body adiposity will suppress the rise in circulating ghrelin levels in response to acute fasting. In the present studies, T3 was used to avert body fat accumulation in rats fed the HF diet. It is well known that the thyroid hormones thyroxine and T3 are the predominant regulators of basal metabolic rate and that circulating levels of thyroid hormones have a direct correlation with energy expenditure and calorie loss (35). T3 administration may stimulate ...
  http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/295/2/R429
*  Functional neuroimaging demonstrates that ghrelin inhibits the central nervous system response to ingested lipid - University...
Objective: Gut-derived humoural factors activate central nervous system (CNS) mechanisms controlling energy intake and expenditure, and autonomic outflow. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach and stimulates food intake and gastric emptying, but the relevant mechanisms are poorly understood. Nutrient-activated CNS systems can be studied in humans by physiological/ pharmacological MRI (phMRI). This method has been used to examine the CNS responses to exogenous ghrelin. Design: phMRI was used to study the CNS responses in healthy people to a ghrelin bolus (0.3 nmol/kg, intravenous) in the post-prandial state, and an intravenous infusion of ghrelin (1.25 pmol/kg/min) alone and after intragastric lipid (dodecanoate, C12) in people who have fasted. Results: A ghrelin bolus decreased the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal detected by ...
  https://www.phc.ox.ac.uk/publications/529342
*  Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | The Role of Ghrelin in Neuroprotection after Ischemic Brain Injury
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal peptide with a major role in regulating feeding and metabolism, has recently been investigated for its neuroprotective effects. In this review we discuss pre-clinical evidence suggesting ghrelin may be a useful therapeutic in protecting the brain against injury after ischemic stroke. Specifically, we will discuss evidence showing ghrelin administration can improve neuronal cell survival in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia, as well as rescue memory deficits. We will also discuss its proposed mechanisms of action, including anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and suggest ghrelin treatment may be a useful intervention after stroke in the clinic.
  http://mdpi.com/2076-3425/3/1/344
*  Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | The Role of Ghrelin in Neuroprotection after Ischemic Brain Injury
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal peptide with a major role in regulating feeding and metabolism, has recently been investigated for its neuroprotective effects. In this review we discuss pre-clinical evidence suggesting ghrelin may be a useful therapeutic in protecting the brain against injury after ischemic stroke. Specifically, we will discuss evidence showing ghrelin administration can improve neuronal cell survival in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia, as well as rescue memory deficits. We will also discuss its proposed mechanisms of action, including anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and suggest ghrelin treatment may be a useful intervention after stroke in the clinic.
  http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/3/1/344
*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Background: Diabetic polyphagia has been associated with elevated plasma ghrelin levels in experimental type 1 diabetes. This increase in food consumption contributes to chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes thus contributing to the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. We have reported that plant-derived oleanolic acid (OA) and maslinic acid (MA) reduce blood glucose levels, in part, through the inhibition of intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and glucose transporters. However, their effects on food intake and plasma ghrelin concentrations are unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of these triterpenes on food intake and ghrelin expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats ...
  http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=tc16081&lang=en
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Ghrelin Pathway
Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. Due to a variety of beneficial effects on systems' metabolism, pharmacological targeting of the endogenous ghrelin system is widely considered a valuable ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/4/798
*  Most recent papers with the keyword CRH | Read by QxMD
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/40468
*  Study of the Molecular Basis in the Pathophysiology of Food Intake and Growth in Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Background: Obesity, now a global epidemic, is a leading cause of illness and mortality in the developed world. To better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie weight disorders, increasing attention is being paid to central regulatory elements in energy homeostasis, including food intake and energy expenditure. The human hormone ghrelin is secreted as a preprohormone (preproghrelin), from which two hormones with antagonistic effects are derived: ghrelin, which has orexigenic effects and obestatin, which has anorexigenic effects. Ghrelin's actions are mediated by GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin synthesis occurs predominantly in epithelial cells of the fundus of the stomach. . As the ligand for GHSR, ghrelin stimulates secretion ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00830141
*  Peptide ghrelin may be involved in both alcohol dependence and overeating | EurekAlert! Science News
Ghrelin is a peptide found mostly in the stomach but also in the brain. Ghrelin is known to have an effect on food intake by increasing feelings of hunger and the urge to eat. New findings show that the ghrelin system may also be involved in addictive behaviors and brain reward.
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-09/ace-pgm091608.php
*  Ghrelin Levels in Early IVF Pregnancies - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Ghrelin is a pleiotropic hormone recently involved in the control of growth and metabolism, whose circulating levels fluctuate in relation to food intake and body mass index. Ghrelin has been detected in the decidualized endometrium, as well as in human and rat placenta, with a distinctive temporal pattern of expression along pregnancy.. Comparison(s): A total of 106 patients undergoing IVF procedures were prospectively recruited. On d-16 and 23 after oocyte retrieval, the patients were subjected to blood sampling after overnight fasting, for determination of serum ghrelin, hCG and progesterone levels. In addition, ghrelin levels were assayed in these groups, 2-h after ingestion of a fixed-calorie meal. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00469807
*  Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer
Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer with tumor size ≤ 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, 190 women were identified who died from breast cancer and randomly selected 190 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Tumor tissues were immunostained with antibodies versus the peptides. Ghrelin expression was associated with better breast cancer ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176059
*  Lirias: Effect of peripheral obestatin on food intake and gastric emptying in ghrelin-knockout mice
Background and purpose: The finding that obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's stimulatory effect on food intake and gastric emptying has been questioned. The effect of obestatin has been mostly investigated in fasted rodents, a condition associated with high blood levels of ghrelin which may mask the effect of obestatin. We therefore investigated the effect of obestatin on food intake, gastric emptying and gastric contractility in ghrelin knockout mice ...
  https://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/159066
*  The central Sirtuin 1/p53 pathway is essential for the orexigenic action of ghrelin.
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that increases food intake through the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the molecular mechanisms initiated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, which in turn lead to A
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Central-Pathway-Essential-Orexigenic-Action/21386086.html
*  Plus it
Bioactivity of ghrelin is conferred by octanoylation of its serine 3 residue. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme GOAT. Bioactive ghrelin is only produced in GOAT-expressing tissues. In the mouse, GOAT is expressed exclusively in the gastrointestinal tract (5,6). To increase bioactive ghrelin concentrations, the ghrelin transgene should ideally be expressed in tissues that produce endogenous ghrelin and GOAT. To do this, we chose to drive ghrelin transgene expression using its own promoter. The approach successfully increased both stomach and plasma concentrations of bioactive ghrelin. Our data constitute the first report of the targeted overexpression of bioactive ghrelin in its physiological sites of production: the stomach and ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/4/840
*  Low ghrelin -- reducing appetite at the cost of increas... ( Philadelphia PA September 13 2012 G...)
...Philadelphia PA September 13 2012 Ghrelin is a hormone released by...However many people eat as a way to relieve stress. If low ghrelin le...Previous studies have indicated that ghrelin can be either anxiety-cau...Ghrelin promotes the drive for food intake and maintains blood glucose...,Low,ghrelin,--,reducing,appetite,at,the,cost,of,increased,stress?,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Low-ghrelin----reducing-appetite-at-the-cost-of-increased-stress-3F-26823-1/
*  The Effect of Pharmacological Antilipolysis on the Metabolic Effects of Ghrelin - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Ghrelin is a relatively 'new' hormone that is produced in the stomach and to a lesser extend in the hypothalamus of the brain. The actions of ghrelin are diverse and includes stimulation of the appetite center of the brain and the release of growth hormone. We have for the first time shown that ghrelin also stimulates the metabolism of fatty acids and induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. These effects have we confirmed in growth hormone deficient subjects on a stabile substitution treatment with growth hormone and hydrocortisone. With these subjects we can investigate the effects of ghrelin that are independent of growth hormone. The present study is a continuation of these findings, as we wish to investigate ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01209416?cond=%22combined+pituitary+hormone+deficiency%22+OR+%22Hypopituitarism%22&rank=14
*  Ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in humans | Endocrinology and Metabolism
Comparison of our present study with our previous reports shows hexarelin to be the most potent stimulus of GH release during the total night, followed by GHRH, ghrelin, and GHRP-6 (Table 3). When the first part of the night is inspected separately, ghrelin is slightly less potent than hexarelin but superior to GHRH and GHRP-6. These findings differ from a comparative study in daytime. The same dosage (1 μg/kg) of ghrelin, hexarelin, and GHRH was given intravenously to normal young men in the morning. Ghrelin was more effective in stimulating GH than hexarelin or GHRH (5).. Ghrelin and the synthetic GHSs also modulated cortisol secretion. After the GHS GHRP-6 and hexarelin, cortisol increased during the first part of the night. This change was followed by a decrease of cortisol levels, probably due to feedback inhibition, during the second ...
  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/284/2/E407?ijkey=fedc65c0bce9f5bdadc636b6b1a966627e4175ef&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha