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*  Ascochyta pisi - Wikipedia
These fungal spores then penetrate the leaf. In the spring, it produces conidia in pycnidia. The release of these spores begins ... Other Ascochyta blight pathogens have thick walled chlamydospores, which can survive for up to a few years in the soil. Crop ... Seed Quality: It is suggested that farmers have their seed tested for germination levels and seed-borne disease levels. Seed ... Stubble Management: Practices include straw-chopping and harrowing to spread out the crop residue on the soil surface. This can ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascochyta_pisi
*  Lobaria pulmonaria - Wikipedia
... pulmonaria spores use some mechanism to inhibit germination-the inhibition is lifted when the spores are grown in a synthetic ... The asexual reproductive structures soredia and isidia are present on the thallus surface. Minute (0.5-1.5 mm in diameter) ... Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn (2001). "Fungal melanins as a sun screen for symbiotic green algae in the lichen Lobaria ... surrounded by thin-walled hyphae-this delimits them from the rest of the thallus which contains a loose structure of thick- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobaria_pulmonaria
*  Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: An anthracnose causing…<...
Life cycle of this pathogen starts by germination of spores on the plant surface to form melanized infection structures called ... Barhoom, S. and Sharon, A. cAMP regulation of "pathogenic" and "saprophytic" fungal spore germination. Fungal Genet Biol., 2004 ... At this point thick infection hypaes are produced in primary infected cells, this stage is called as biotrophic stage of ... Finally the spores are formed on the surface of infected tissue and then they are dispersed by insect, air current and water ...
  http://www.biotech-asia.org/vol12no2/colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-an-anthracnose-causing-pathogen-of-fruits-and-vegetables/
*  Sudden Death Syndrome - Wikipedia
These thick walled overwintering structures can withstand large temperature fluctuations within the soil and even resist ... around the taproot just below the soil surface. Blue fungal masses, found along with the foliar and stem symptoms, are strong ... When conditions are favorable, these spores germinate on seedling roots and infect the plant. From the V1 to R1 stages ( ... virguliforme is a soil borne pathogen that starts by infecting the roots of soybean seedlings after germination. The fungus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudden_Death_Syndrome
*  Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination
The funicular surface contains lignin fibers (Figure 3(b)). The thick cell walls of the fibers may be observed in the ... Other accompanying structures had the appearance of conidiophores and spores (Figures 7(c) and 7(d)). ... It has been proposed that fungal development is a requirement for the seed germination of O. leucotricha and O. streptacantha [ ... Seed Germination. Burial and valve removal significantly increased the seed germination percentages (. , ; , , resp.), with a ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2011/107159/
*  Fungi by Emma Ritcey on Prezi
Germination. This is when structures grow from the spores. For example, when the hyphae grow from spores to produce a ... Common Structures. All fungi are eukaryotic and heterotrophic.. Almost all fungal cells have cell walls made of chitin. This ... Then, a thick wall develops around the zygospore, keeping it from drying out. It remains dormant until conditions allow for ... Most of the time, they cover the roots of plants which increases the surface area available for the absorption of nutrients and ...
  https://prezi.com/5qt3qvlmxotp/fungi/
*  Zygomycota - Wikipedia
Zygomycete spores can be formed through both sexual and asexual means. Before germination the spore is in a dormant state. ... it directs the growth of fungal structures and activates metabolic pathways. For instance, the zygomycota use light as signal ... It spreads over the surface of bread and other food sources, sending hyphae inward to absorb nutrients. In its asexual phase it ... Zygosporangia are typically thick-walled, highly resilient to environmental hardships, and metabolically inert. When conditions ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zygomycota
*  Fungus Facts
Then later, the cell contents divide into four individuals, each developing a thick wall. These are spores and may constitute a ... within a few days forming a dense white or gray mycelium covering the surface of the food. The spores of Mucor are very ... Most fungal species are saprophytes: they feed on remains of dead organisms or their by-products (such as leaf litter on a ... These structures have cross-walls that give them a "cellular" structure and in these the divisions are not true cells. The ...
  http://www.essortment.com/fungus-facts-47704/
*  Spore Dispersal in Fungi
... these resting structures weather these conditions and remain viable due to the thick walls that are present in such spores. ... Distances That Spores are Dispersed by Wind The distances that fungal spores are dispersed, outdoors, are equally phenomenal. ... 20). The spores stay afloat due to the surface tension of the spore or air pockets in the spores. The major source of food for ... Spores are often less susceptible to adverse environmental conditions than the mycelium or yeast cells and germination of ...
  http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/2009/Lecture05/Lect05.htm
*  Arbuscular mycorrhiza - Wikipedia
Spore germination Spores of the AM fungi are thick-walled multi-nucleate resting structures. The germination of the spore does ... AM fungal hyphae have a high surface-to-volume ratio, making their absorptive ability greater than that of plant roots. AMF ... However, the rate of germination can be increased by host root exudates. AM fungal spores germinate given suitable conditions ... Energy is mainly stored in AM fungi as neutral lipids in storage structures like spores and vesicles. Because of this NLFA ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arbuscular_mycorrhiza
*  Peronosclerospora sorghi - Wikipedia
The oospores can overwinter in the soil and in the debris on the surface of the soil. The oospores have very thick walls, which ... Its resting structures, the structures that allow the pathogen to overwinter, are the oospores. These oospores are produced in ... The spores are carried by the wind, and they become the source of inoculum in subsequent generations. As the pathogen continues ... The soil must be moist to ensure proper germination of the oospores. Soils that have had little tillage will often stay damp ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peronosclerospora_sorghi
*  Black knot
The fungus produces pseudothecia, fruiting structures that are embedded in the black stroma on the surface of the gall (Figure ... However, the fungal disease-causing agent has been present for quite some time. The pathogen's presence disrupts the normal ... The disease is characterized by the presence of thick, black, irregular swellings on the twigs (Figure 1). The presence of ... Recent studies have confirmed and concluded that rainfall and temperature are the key factors in the release of spores and that ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/ascomycetes/Pages/BlackKnot.aspx
*  Receptor-mediated chitin perception in legume roots is functionally separable from Nod factor perception | PNAS
8 C and D). Ljlys6 mutants were also assayed for mycorrhization after inoculation with AM fungal spores. No significant changes ... plant roots induces spore germination and prepenetration hyphal branching in AM fungi and hyphal growth toward the root surface ... The roots were cleared in 10% KOH; then the fungal structures were stained with 5% black ink (Quink black; Parker) diluted in 5 ... to 100-µm thick) were prepared in 4% water agar with a VT1000 S vibrating-blade microtome (Leica). Imaging was done with a ...
  https://www.pnas.org/content/114/38/E8118
*  Albugo - Wikipedia
The thick-walled oospores are the main overwintering structures, but the mycelium can also survive in conditions where all the ... The Albuginaceae reproduce by producing both sexual spores (called oospores) and asexual spores (called sporangia) in a many- ... Symptoms of white rust caused by Albugo typically include yellow lesions on the upper leaf surface and white pustules on the ... White rust plant diseases caused by Albugo fungal-like pathogens should not be confused with White Pine Blister Rust, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albugo
*  Oomycetes
b. How does the type of sporangial germination relate to the mechanism by which spores are dispersed in the environment? ... C. Observation of reproductive structures in prepared cultures and slides.. 1. Examine prepared cultures of Oomycetes under a ... 2. What fungal structure differentiates species of Pythium from species of Phytophthora? What is the location of this structure ... In many of the foliar pathogens (e.g. Peronospora), sporangia germinate directly on the surface of a susceptible plant by the ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/LabExercises/Pages/Oomycetes.aspx
*  Tree - Wikipedia
This may allow fungal spores to gain admittance and attack the tree. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus (Ophiostoma ... These are thick, small and closely wrapped and enclose the growing point in a waterproof sheath. Inside this bud there is a ... The germination of some seeds is improved when they are processed in this way. Nuts may be gathered by animals such as ... Leaves are structures specialised for photosynthesis and are arranged on the tree in such a way as to maximise their exposure ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree
*  Crucibulum - Wikipedia
The spores can germinate when the thick outer wall of the peridiole wears away, or the peridiole may be eaten by a herbivorous ... structures, and spores. Peridioles are attached to the fruiting body by a funiculus, a structure of hyphae that may be ... The outer surface of the peridium has hyphae that agglutinate so as to form a texture with visible filaments, a condition known ... However, this naming choice was later deemed invalid by rules of fungal nomenclature; the first name validly applied to the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crucibulum
*  Puccinia graminis| Life cycle| Macrocyclic Heteroecious rust
These are bicelled, black, thick, smooth walled spores.. They are the only form in which Puccinia graminis is able to ... The pycnia are flask shaped structures. The pycnia look like small orange bumps on the leaf surface. They produce two types of ... The aecidial cup is emergent i.e. half in and half out of the leaf and is made up of monokaryotic fungal cells. It looks like ... The teliospore is the site of karyogamy and meiosis. Before germination the two nuclei fuse and the resultant diploid (2n) ...
  http://istudy.pk/puccinia/
*  Plant | Encyclopedia.com
They can penetrate plant tissue or grow on the plant's surface. Fungal spores, which act like seeds, are spread by wind, water ... Seeds are structures that contain an embryo and food reserves wrapped in a protective seed coat. In the gymnosperms , the seed ... During early germination , the young seedling depends upon nutrients stored within the seed itself for growth. ... All living cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane, a viscous lipid-and-protein matrix which is about 10 nm thick. The plasma ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/botany/botany-general/plant
*  Frontiers | The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia...
... surface ornamentation, spore contents, and wall structures) of asexual spores provided by the International Culture Collection ... Germination of Seeds. Acacia gerrardii seeds were surface-sterilized by immersion for 5 min in concentrated sulfuric acid ... antagonistic to fungal pathogens enhances nodulation by Mesorhizobium sp. cicer in chickpea. Microbiol. Res. 156, 353-358. doi ... L2, A layer consisting of laminae that increase in thickness (~8.0 μm thick) is rigid, exhibiting some swelling and spreading ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01089/full
*  Introduction to Fungi
Unlike plant seeds, fungal spores lack an embryo, but contain food reserves needed for germination. Many fungi produce more ... Conidiogenous cells can be formed singly on hyphae, on the surface of aggregated hyphal structures, or within different types ... Reproduction of AM fungi is by thick-walled spores ranging in size from 40-800 µm in diameter, each of which can contain ... Inside the fungal cell. Most of the organelles present in fungal cells are similar to those of other eukaryotes. Fungal nuclei ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/pathogengroups/pages/introfungi.aspx
*  Life history biology of early land plants: Deciphering the gametophyte phase | PNAS
1). Spores of A. major possess a conspicuous trilete mark on the proximal surface, and this mark may become widely separated as ... Since the initial report of terrestrial land plants, microbes, and fungal spores in the Rhynie chert (1-5), numerous studies ... Early stages in the germination of Horneophyton spores appear similar to those described in Aglaophyton (32). ... All gametophytes consist of unisexual, axial, and upright structures (gametangiophores) that develop from the distal surface of ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/102/16/5892.full
*  Ectomycorrhiza - Wikipedia
These structures vary widely in their morphology, although certain aspects are relatively conserved among species. The fungal ... Some studies even suggest that passage through an animal's gut promotes the germination of these spores, although it is by no ... surrounding the root surface. This sheathing mantle can be up to 40 µm thick, with hyphae extending up to several centimeters ... Regardless, the ability of these certain mammals to spread fungal spores is thus indirectly related to plant community ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ectomycorrhiza
*  Dry rot treatment - Wikipedia
Dry rot is spread by spores which are present in most buildings. The minimum moisture content of timber for spore germination ... The use of a blowlamp to kill dry rot by applying heat to the surface of affected areas was popular at one time. Obviously, ... It is questionable[by whom?] whether it is necessary to take steps to kill the fungus within the wall at all as the fungal ... Thick, conducting strands known as rhizomorphs, are produced to cross inert surfaces and penetrate masonry. A fruiting body ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_rot_treatment
*  Guide to Wheat Diseases and Pests
Development: Spores are produced on crop debris left on or near the soil surface. These spores are transmitted to leaves by the ... An ergot body develops in each infected floret; these fungal structures can survive in the soil from one season to the next, ... telia) Teliospore A thick-walled resting spore produced by rust and smut fungi. Tolerant The ability of a host plant to develop ... Infection is favored by cool temperatures during germination. The disease develops systemically, with visible symptoms ...
  https://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wheatpests